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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




ENDOWED BY THE 
DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 
SOCIETIES 

BUILDING USE ONit 



SU51 
.S6 

R85,v. 3 
1871/72 




This book must not be 
taken from the Library 
building. 



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THE 



I/. " 



RURAL CAROLINIAN; 



AN 



ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE, 



.giicttlture, pavti culture atib tlje %xis. 



D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 



Progress with Prudence, Practice with Sciey/c^ 



^OL. III- 




pHARLESTON, jS. C. '. 

Walker, Evans & Cogswell and p, ^yatt y\iKEN, 

J^OS. 3 ^ROAD AND IO9 ^AST ^AT ^TREETS. 
1872. 



INDEX TO VOLUME III. 



PAGE. 

Abbevillo Farming 175 

Adulterated Butter 15G 

Adulteration of Food 156 

Advent of Spring, the 389 

Agriculture in Japan ;.102 

" Egypt 118 

" Chester County 288 

" Subjects of Investigation 

in 451,515, 580 

«' Department of 505,570 

" Russian 605 

« " vs. Manufacturing 629 

Agricultural Societies 1, 41 

" " Hint to 49 

" Department 72, 505, 570 

«' Eeport for 1870 212 

" Association, National 321 

'* Journals 464 

" Convention, Washington. ...337 

" Congress 544 

'• Papers 633 

Aiken, Col. D. Wyatt 175 

Amaranthus Salciafolius 358 

American Pomological Society 75 

'' Manners 494 

Ammonia for Snake Bites 325 

An Orchard Ramble 249 

Analysis by Plant Growth 100 

Annual Pic-Nic 495 

Anomis Xylina 88 

Ants on Peach Trees 501, 532 

Apple, Winter Horse 34 

" Ben Davis 135 

" Matimuskeet 639 

Apple Dumplings, Baked 389 

Applied Chemistry, Introduction 358 

Arnica, Uses of 222 

Artificial Guano 14 

Milk 548 

Ashes, Whereto Use 74 

" from Pine Wood 324 

" for Sweet Potatoes 189 



PAGE. 

Ashes Leached and Unleached 350 

" and Lime in Gardening 302 

" and Salt for Horses 441 

" and Iron for Flowers. 255 

Asparagus Seeds for Cofl'ee 101 

An Experiment 59 

Atlantic Phosphate Company 40 

Authority in Southern Horticulture 155 

Bambusa Gracilis 213 

Banana, the and its Cultivation 407 

" Great Abyssinian 214 

Bane and Antidote, the 603 

Banking Potatoes 608 

Barn, Model 510 

Battles, Effects of on Vegetation 44 

Bean, Waxen Podded 526, 585 

" Lima 46, 324 

" White ; 173 

Bean Weevil 99 

Beautify Your Homes 607 

Bed Bugs, Big 532 

Bee-Keeping, Importance of 375 

" in the South 538 

Bee-Culture for Women 539 

Bee Moth, The 22 

Beer and Cheese, Liebig on ."380 

Beet, Egyptian 637 

Beets, Recipe for Cooking — 444 

Bene Oil 659 

Bermuda Grass Pasture 187 

Beslow's Compound 271 

Beware of Liens 286 

Big Trees of the World 165 

Birds Avengers, the 534 

" Marriage among 535 

" Caged 24 

Black Moss, to cure 48, 502 

Bone Spavin 86 

Bones, Preparing for Manure 356 

Book Farm ing 293 

Boyer, N. P. & Co 42 



IV 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Branching Corn 270 

Brandy Peaches 614 

Brazilian Sweet Potato, the 440 

" Grass 500 

Breaking the Soil, Deep 460 

Brick Villa, a 523 

Bridget and Fing Wing 329 

Broadcasting and Drilling 69 

Broken China, to Mend 157 

Brown wallia 473 

Buckwheat 51, 519 

Budleya Lindleyana 214 

Bud Worms in Corn 57, 645 

Bulbs, How to Plant 142 

" Planting 659 

Bulk of a Ton 190 

Burns, Cure for 222, 223 

Buttermilk for Indigestion 502 

Cabbage, to Cook 331 

Cabbage Worms 99 

Cabbage Fly, Remedy for 550 

Cabbage Butterfly, Imported 594 

Cabbages, can we Eaise 322 

«' from Cuttings 327, 642 

California Orchard, a 357 

Candle, Salt on 493 

Can the South become a Manufacturing 

Country? 209 

Canning Peaches 104 

" Fruits 468 

Capron, Gen., in Japan Clover 295 

Carbolic Acid, for Disinfection 272 

" for Lice 592 

Carbolized Ointment 493 

Carnation, the 409 

Carpet Dust Poison 502 

Castle Content 555, 613, 668 

Castor Bean, the 122 

Catarrh, Remedy for 223 

Caterpillars, Stinging 531 

" Cotton.. .87, 88, 99, 204, 263, 308 

Cat-Tail, for Burns 222 

Cattle, Diseases of 322 

" Devon 419 

Cauliflower, Big 435 

Cereals, Sown together 356 

Chains t)s. Stanchions 259 

Charcoal, for Flowers 256 

" " Animals 593 

" " Uses of 492 



Check-Rein, Cruelty of 527 

Chemistry of the Sea 325 

Chemical Queries Answered 219 

Cheese as Food 654 

Chicken Cholera 275,277, 371,888 

Chickens, an Alabama Lady on 528 

China Berries as Manure 51 

Chinese, the 157 

Chloride of Lime, how made 548 

Chufa, the ,.104, 105 

Cigar Making 549 

Civilization and the Grasses 101 

Clay Lands, Farming on 8 

Climate, influence of on Vegetation 207 

Clover and Barley Patches 155 

" Sheep and 155, 514- 

" on Rice Lands 214 

" for Humus 605 

Clover Blossoms as a Medicine 55 

Colic in Horses, Remedies for 488 

Coloring Seeds 272, 346, 440 

Colored Light, Experiments with 44, 48 

Colorado Notes 21 

Commercial Manures as a Top Dressing..398 

" Fertilizers 543 

" " Composting 184 

Concussion, Hardee's Theory 43 

Consumption, Cause of 437 

Co-operation, Results of 518 

Copperas and Saltpetre for Pear Trees 157 

Corn, Caragua 43 

" Wyandott 663 

" Drilled, to save 663 

" Preserving from Weevils 663 

" and Cotton.... 577 

Corn-Harvesting Machine 44 

Corn Bread, Recipe for 55 

Corns, Cure for 166 

Corundrum in South Carolina 437 

Cotton, Sea Island 232,341 

" Okra.. 48 

" Tahiti 633 

" Nothing like 13 

" Distance apart for 243 

" Inquiries about 490 

" Trees 99 

" Crop, the 98,153 

Cotton Culture, Future of 73 

" " Plain Rules for 631 

Cotton Caterpillars 87, 88, 204, 263, 308. 

" Remedy for 99 



INDEX, 



PARE. 

Cotton Planting in South Carolina 5<'>7 

Cotton Planters, a lesson for 125 

Cotton Prospects 503 

Cotton Mills in the South 429 

Cotton Seed, Composition of. 75 

" " as Manure 277 

" " Select 278 

'« " Rolling 384 

«' " "What it may come to 539 

Cotton Seed Crusher 101 

" Oil 148 

Cough in Horses 145 

Cow, how Little will Keep 258 

Cracked Wheat, to Cook 222 

Credit System, Effects of 627 

Crop and Weather Report 496, 552, 610 

Crops, the of 1871 268 

Croquettes, Potato 331 

Crossing Plants 356 

Cucumber, a New 492 

Cucumber Bug, to Destroy 208 

Cucumbers and Melons 324 

Cucumbers in Barrels 547 

Cultivator, Purnelle's 100 

" Minter's 378, 430 

Curing Tobacco Yellow 401 

Custard, Tomato 389 

Cut Worms and Rabbits 328 

" to Prevent 474 

" Remedies for 158,209,606 

Cuttings, how to Strike 43 

Dairy Husbandry, Willard's 381 

Daisy Eyebright's Book 101 

Danger and Duty, Our , 617 

Department of Agriculture, the... 72, 505, 570 

Desiccated Vegetables 100 

Diarrhoe, Remedy for 166 

Diet, Hints on 330 

Disease in Sheep 440 

Diseases of Cattle 322 

Disguise of Women 220 

Disinfectants, Flowers as 436 

Disinfection, City 381 

Distance for Cotton 243 

Ditching Machine, Rhett's 44 

" " Neville's 320 

Do not Neglect the Turnip Patch 517 

Doctor John's Wooing 666 

Domestic Animals, Breeding of. 17, 84 

Doura Corn 322, 402 



PAGE. 

Dreary Homes 465 

Dress, Ethics of 330 

Dried Figs 155 

Drills rs. Hills for Corn 403 

Drop- Worm, the 475 

Droughts more Frequent than Formerly..561 

Duck, Rouen 146 

Ducks, Musk and Common 488 

Early Training of Animals 488 

Earth-Closet Manure 574 

Education, Value of 63 

Economical Farming 240 

Eggs, Recipe for Preserving 222 

English Ivy 137 

English Immigrants 154 

Entomology, Value of 533 

" Southern 593 

Esparto Grass 100 

Eucalyptus Leaves, for Wounds 526 

Evaporation from Leaves 564 

Excellent Composts 190 

Experience with Seeds 160 

Experiments with Fertilizers 129 

Fair, Southern, in New York 269 

Fall Garden Crops 605 

Farm, the and the Man \ 188 

Farm Adornment 186 

Farm Implements, Care of 349 

Farm Products of the United States 630 

Farm Houses 467 

Farm Life 512, 622 

Farm and Garden Calendar for October. ...56 
«' " " November..ll2 

" " " December...l68 

'« " " January 224 

'« " " February... 280 

" " " March 336 

" " " April 392 

" " " May .^ 448 

" " " June.' 504 

" " " July 560 

" " «' August 616 

" " " September..672 

Farmers must Organize 70 

" Southern 404 

" Long Life of. 435 

Farmers' Exchange, the 378 

" Clubs and P. of H 345 

" Wives Club, a 465 



VI 



INDEX, 



PAQE. 

Farmers' Boys ...465, 633 

" Family 657 

Farming in Middle South Carolina 225 

" Economical 240 

" Southern 350, 454 

" German and American 292 

" Life 622 

Fertility, to Restore 628 

Fertilizers, Commercial 543 

" Experiments with in 1871 129 

Fig Culture in California 491 

Fig-tree Lice 98 

Figs, Curing in Asia Minor 46 

" Dried T 155 

«' Smyrna 413 

Fire Extinguisher, Portable 492 

Fish Culture in Alabama 144 

" Col. Yonge's System of. 151 

Fish Manure 295, 626 

Flannel, to Wash 167 

Florida as a Field for Immigration ,365 

Florida Oranges 378 

Flower Garden Hints 299 

" Seeds 247 

" " List of 248 

" " How to Plant 322 

Flowers for Summer 33 

" as Disinfectants 436 

" to Keep Fresh 502 

Food and Brains 330 

Forage, How to Have 608 

Forecasting the Weather 544 

Forests, Influence of on Rain 561 

" .Destruction of 563 

" EflPects of on Climate 624 

Fountain, Portable 2-53 

Fowl, Gueldres 85 

" Derby Game 19 

" Seabright Bantam 419 

" Polish 528 

" Improved Barnyard 218, 313 

Fowls, Feeding and Fattening 86 

Fruit, Recipe for Keeping 167 

Fruit Growing 634 

Fruit Trees, Plant 39 

" Preparation of Soil for 80 

" from Seed 137 

Fruit Stains, to Remove 55 

Fuchsia, to Train 526 

Game Fowl, Derby 19 

Gapes, Camphor for 87 



PAGE. 

Garden House, Rustic 524 

Garden Plough, Smith's 156 

Garden Seeds 133 

" " How to Plant 191 

" Vegetables, Harvesting, &c 297 

Geese as Farm Laborers 583 

Geraniums, to Propagate 641 

Georgia, (Poem) 655 

Gifts, the Best .330 

Gin Gearing 147 

Glance at May Number 499 

Goal-Keepers, a Hint to 546 

Goats against Sheep 326 

" Asiatic 385 

Going after the Cows (Poem) 612 

Good Farmer, a and his Farm 403 

Good Night Flower 100, 279 

Gospel of Labor, the (Poem) 386 

Goober, the 328, 551 

Grades and Crosses 374 

Grafting the Grape 256 

Grain Drill, Excelsior 106 

Grain Produce of the World 190 

Grape, Peter Wylie 77 

" Scuppernong 78 

" Maxatawney 324 

" Concord 466 

" Peedee 584 

" Senasqua 587 

" Walter 6ob 

" Grafting, the 256 

Grape Cuttings, Long 201 

Grape Rot, to Prevent 638 

Grape Vine, to Rejuvenate 257, 303 

" " Slug 46 

" " Aphis 46 

Grapes, Dr. Wylie's Hybrids 41, 80, 106 

" in Georgia 82 

" Expense of an Acre of 141 

" Tremelat's Process 474 

" to Preserve 493 

Grass, Esparto , 100 

" Australian 380 

" Brazilian 500 

" Orchard 620 

Grass Plots, Lawns and .31 

" " and Flower Beds 355 

" Seed, to Sow 620 

Grasses, the and Civilization 101 

" in the South 619 

Green Peas, Hardiness of 385 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Green Peas and Rabbits 406 

Guano, Artificial..' ^'^ 

u Carno 214 

Guava, the 244 

" Varieties of 246 

Guenon's Method 487 

Gunpowder in Agriculture 43 

Gutta Percha, Substitute for 272 

Hand Rice Huller 21-5 

Hanson Lettuce. 



.301 



Hartsville Farmers' Club Experiments. ..283 

Harvest Apples, (Story,) 162 

Have you a Good Garden? 97 

Headache, Nervous cure for 166 

Health and Beauty 109 

Heat of the Sun 157 

Hedging, Hillside 61, Il9 

" Remarks on ^^^ 

Hickory, a Stick of • 643 

Hillside Ditching 384 

Hints from a Stock Breeder 51 

Hints for Summer 489 

Hoe, Sharpen the 16 

Hogs, the best Breed 83 

" How any Farmer may Raise 310 

Home Decorations for Winter 135 

Home Education 46-5 

Hominy, fried '^^1 

Hopeful New Enterprise, a 658 

Horizontal Culture, 572 

Horizontalization 227 

Horse Owner's Cyclopaedia 215 

Horse Collars, Patent 417 

Horse Radish, 141 

Horticulture for Women 2-52 

Hot-beds, Cheap 161, 472 

Household Notes ^^1 

How Little Land will Keep a Cow 2.58 

How it May be Done 377 

How Philip Bruce was Mystified 387, 442 

How to make Plants Grow 526 

How I Came to be a Patron 115 



Insect Remedies 305, 362, 420 

Insects, How to Send 365 

Instinct of Roots 474 

Irish Potatoes for the South 213 

Iron for Plants 44 

' " for Peach Trees 257 

Irrigation, Benefits of 290 

Japanese Laborers 32"- 

Joint Grass, to Kill 550 

Jujube '^ 

" Propagation of 412 

Jute Plant and Fiber, the 11, 124, 180 



Improved American 108 

Improvements 327 

Improving Plants by Crossing 356 

Indian River Country, Florida 596 

Industrial Museum 544 

Influence of Forests on Rainfall 561 

Ink Stains, to Remove 55 

Insect Remedy, Cloez's 157 



Labels for Fruit Trees 43 

Labor, (Poem) 108 

»« Contracts 113 

«' Purchased 229 

'« for Wages ...278 

Ladies in the Garden 436 

Lady Farmers 296 

Land or Labor ' 

Large Farm Maxims 287 

Lawns and Grass Plots 31 

Layering 519 

" Cucumbers, etc 546 

Leaf Arrangement 36 

Lesson for Cotton Planters, a 125 

Letter of Invitation, (Poem) HO 

Lettuce, Hanson 301 

" Early 411 

Liatris Odoratissima • 600 

Lice on Cattle 422 

" Peach Trees 501 

Licorice Root 430 

Liens, Beware of 286 

Lily, the Great Australian 436 

" Golden Japan 546 

" and Totem, the 215, 334 

Lima Beans in California 46 

<' without Poles 324 

Lime as a Fertilizer 9 

" for Poison 437 

" Water for Fowls 376 

Liquid Glue 157 

Long Forage 393 

" Moss, Curing 502 

Looking Forward 211 

Loss of Weight in Cooking 437 

Lotus, the in Michigan 102 

Low Country Planters, to 

Lugren Squash, the 



602 
549 



via 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Making Hard Pan 238 

Making Pork and Manure 190 

Malva Tree, Value of 599 

Mammoth Cave, Insect Life in 92 

Mango Kunning, the 155 

Manufacture your Own Cotton 540 

Manure, Value of 16 

" Application of 294, 582 

Fish Scraps as 295, 626 

" Hen, &c 296 

Soot as 296 

" Burnt Soil as 343 

" Commercial as a Top Dressing... 398 

«' Rough 505 

Marrying One's Cousin 101 

May, (Poem) .' 329 

McGhee's Hybrid Cotton 212 

Mcintosh, Capt. Ed., Death of 545 

Measles in Pork 278 

Measuring Grain in a Bin 160 

Meat, Desiccated 45 

" Process for Preserving 272 

Meerschaum 324 

Merino Sheep 20 

Merino Wool 551 

Mildew on Grape Vines 522 

Milk, to Keep 223 

" Artificial 548 

Milk Tree, New 156 

Mineral Well Water 107 

Mocking Birds 23 

Mole, Usefulness of. 23 

Moths, Kemedy for 273 

Mulching 83 

" Sweet Potatoes 547 

Mumps, Cure for 166 

Musbrooms, How to Distinguish 473 

Mutton the Best Meat 271 

" Merino Sheep for 486 

" How to Dress 487 

My Neighbor, (Poem) 502 

Nectarine 19^ 

Needle Machine, a 494 

New Grain Mill 271 

New Insects 267 

New Principle, a 648 

Nitrogen, Whore it Goes 296 

" in Plants 492 

North Kiver, Florida 537 

North Santce Planter, Reply to 67 



Notes and Comments 274 

" on August Number 660 

Nunan's Strawberry 491 

Nut Grass, How to Destroy 546 

Oats, Quantity of Seed 5 

" Ked 3, 603 

" Do they exhaust Land 214 

" after Rice 662 

Oat Crop, the 3 

Odors of Flowers, to Collect 166 

Offensive Breath, Remedy for 437 

Oil Cake 107 

On This Side, (Poem) 161 

One Egg Cake 222 

Onion Culture 439 

" " in the South 347 

Onions, Cultivation of 107, 439 

" from Seed 605 

Opium Poppy, the and its Culture 241 

" in Tennessee 102 

Orange, a Hardy Dwarf 353 

Orange Culture in Florida 198 

Orange Scale Insect 103 

Oranges, Florida 378 

" and their Congeners 354 

" in California 525 

" all the Time 605 

Orchard Grass for the South 294 

Ostrich, the as Farm Stock 484 

Our Beautiful South 598 

Our Home Resources 425 

Our Insect Friends 201, 149, 264, 304 

Our Mary, (Poem) 52 

Our Price or the Buyer's 509 

Outlook for 1872 396 

Oyster Sausage 331 

Oysters, Scalloped 222 

Paint, Recipe for 214 

Paint Mine near Augusta 493 

Palmetto Leaves, How to Prepare 147 

Palmetto Paper Making 549 

Palms in Florida 410 

Paper Plants, Southern 426 

Paper Utensils 669 

Patrons of Husbandry, 41, 217, 236, 845, 

449, 498, 604, 659 

Pea, Japan 35 

Pea Vines, Turning Under 106 

" to Save 662 



INDEX. 



Peas Better than Clover IGO 

" Garden, the Best 491 

Peanuts, Flat Planting of 518 

and Poanut Oil 428 

Peach, Beatrice 46 

" Noblesse 254, 328 

" Troth's Early Red 302 

" Purple Leaved 1)42 

Peach Tree, a Wonderful 491 

Peaches, Maturity of 642 

Pear, Flemish Beauty 138 

" Hebe 213 

" "Wilmington , 193 

" Abbot 472 

Pear Blight 328, 405 

Pear Tree, Model 195 

Perseverance, Lesson in 595 

Persimmon, the 54 

Peter "Wylie, Grape 77 

Phosphates, New Method of Treating 44 

" Ashley Elver 260 

" in Europe „„•..;.. .887 

" Reduced 477 

Phosphorous and Life 44 

Pickles, Cucumber 502 

" Beet 502 

Pinks, Chinese 520 

•' Japanese 520 

Piney Woods, Lands 177 

" '• Value of 281 

Pine Wood Ashes 324 

Plant Food 625 

Plants, Loves of 42 

Plantation Johny Cake 222 

Planting Trees, Hints on 197 

Plaster and its Uses 128 

" How it Benefits Crops ....463 

Pleasant Visit, a 18 

Plumbago Capensis 213 

Plums, Improved Native 37 

Points of a Horse 415 

Poison, Cure for 437 

Poisons, Sweet Oil for .' 54 

Poisoned Cattle 551, 661, 662 

Popular Science, Monthly 548 

Portable Fountain 252 

Potash for Sandy Soils 324 

" for Potatoes 409 

Potato, Sweet 404 

" " the Brazilian 440 

2 



Potato, Croquettes 331 

Potatoes, Sweet, from Seed ,380 

" Irish Cultivation of 411 

Poultry, Bran for 46 

" In the South 370 

" Sick 419 

Power of Soil to Retain Moisture 65 

Preparing Tea for Market 541 

Preserving Smoked Meats 158 

Prices of Stock 378 

Product of an Acre 632 

Propagating Plants by Leaves 661 

PruningGrape Vines 139 

" Fruit Trees 521 

" Western Fruit Grower on .586 

Pudding, Sweet Apple 167 

" Blackberry 167 

'• Custard 167 

" Bread 222,331 

" Cornmeal 389 

Puddings and Sauces 110 

Pulverization of Soil 400 

Pyramids, the 437 

Radishes, Forcing 214 

Raisins, California 437 

" How to Make 609 

Ramie 187 

" in France 547 

" in California 463 

Rare Seeds 212 

" Tree, a 266 

Raspberries, Purple Cane 255 

Reclaiming Hill-sides 178 

Reconstruction 601 

Reduced Phosphates, on 477 

Red-Hot Poker 471 

Red Oats 606 

Red Clover as a Medicine 55 

Review of the Year 203 

Rheumatism, Cure for 166 

Rice, Water Maggots in .50 

«' with Fruit, (Recipe) 222 

" Analysis of 279 

" and Sugar Cane 434 

" Culture 230 

" " on Pine Lands 234 

" Chafl" as Mulch 99 

I Ricinus Borboniensis 196 

I Rifle, New Breach Loading 40 

Rocking Gate, the 156 



INDEX, 



Rocky Mountains, Trip to 25, 28, 93 

Rolling Cotton Seed 384 

Roots, Facts About .525 

Rope, New, to Limber 223 

Rose Bush, to Rejuvenate 526 

" Cuttings 605 

Rotation of Crops 226 

" Rationale of. 16 

" in Gardens 142 

Rouen Duck, the 146 

Rough Manures, on the Use of 508 

Roup, Cure for 487 

Rye, to Plough Under 12 

Salad Dressing 222 

Salt for Animals 420 

" and Ashes for Horses 87 

Salt Marsh Mud 48 

Salvia, Splendid 43 

Sap-Sucker, the to Kill 384 

" " Defended 422 

Sassafras Oil 101, 431 

Scolloped Oysters 222 

Scuppernong, that Wonderful 440 

Sea, Chemistry of 325 

Sea- weed as Manure 74, 100, 459 

Sea Island Cotton Planting 232, 341 

Seasonable Suggestions 433 

Seed and Plant Exchange 441, 664 

Seeds, Experience with 160 

" Vegetable 275 

Seventeen Year Locusts 544 

Shad in the Hudson 152 

Shall We Cut Our Own Throats ? 321 

Sheep 412 

" Merino 20 

" " for mutton 486 

" " vs. Cotton 257 

" " and South Down Cross 420 

" South Down 418 

" Cheviot 500 

" Diseases of 440 

•' Prices of. 380 

" A Few on the Farm 374 

Sheep Husbandry in Texas 373 

" " profits of. 588 

Sheep Pasturage in the South 142 

. Sick Calves 609 

Signal Service, U. S 213 

" " Value of. 547 



j Silk Worm Eggs 100' 

Small Farm Maxims 189 

Small Manufactures 446 

Smyrna Figs .,...433 

I Snake Bites, Remedy for 158 

! Soap Berry 266' 

Soils, Analyses of 646 

Sore Mouth, Cure for -502 

Sore Throat, Cure for 223 

Soup, Vegetable 331 

South, Our Beautiful .598- 

South, the as a Manufacturing Country, 

314, 317 

South Carolina, Ag. Advantages of 169 

Southern Farming, Future of 350- 

" " New Departure in, 

4.54, 579 

Southern Farmers 404 

" Minerals 360 

Cottage 406 

" Paper Plants 426 

" Entomology -593 

Span-Level 441 

Spanish Cockle Burr 218 

Species and Varieties ; 39- 

Sponge Trade, the Florida 432 

Spring Power, New 669 

Squash, the Lugren .549 

Stains, to Remove 331 

Stakes, to Preserve -525 

Stanchions, Cruelty of 21 

" Chains vs 259 

" for Cattle. A 372 

State Fair, the 98, 153 

Statice Spicata 299 

Stay on the Farm 461 

Steam Bakery, a 319 

Steam Plough, the in California 493 

Steam Ploughs, New 272 

Stinging Caterpillars 96 

Stirring the Soil 492 

Stock, Prices of 378 

" Farms in the South 379 

Strawberry, Nunan"s Prolific 491, 546 

" President Wilder 492 

" Downer's Prolific 251 

" President Wilder 643 

" Seth Boyden 658- 

" the in Hills 38 

Strawberry Culture 48 



INDEX. 



Strawberries, Which Are Best? 490 

Subsoiling, Does it Pay ? ^0'"> 

Sugar Culture in Lousiana 67 

'' " Profits of 67 

Sugar Cane. Cultivation of 181 

Suggestion, a ^*J 

Suggestions, Sundry.... 127 

" on Premiums 123,276 

«« Seasonable 433 

Sulphur in Louisiana 156 

" for Tree Lice 609, 645 

Sulphurous Vapers and Vegetation 648 

Suninc. Culture and Preparation of 457 

" Value of -542 

Summer, Hints for 489 

Sunbeam, the 614 

Sunflower, Value of 271 

Sun Rose, the 547 

Sunshine as a Medicine 109 

Sweeping Carpets 167 

Sweet Apples as Food 548 

Sweet Oil for Poisons 54 

Sweet Potato Vine Cuttings 634 

Sweet Potatoes from Reed 380 

Taking Cold, to Prevent 502 

Tap-root, Shortening 83 

Tea, How to Prepare for Market 541 

" Plants from Seeds 380 

Thy Welcome. (Poem) 220 

Tenacity of Life in Plants 208 

Texas Productions 383 

The Gospel of Labor,-(Poem) 386 

The Hills, (Poem) 221 

The South as a Manufacturing Country... 209 

The Brave Old Plough, (Poem) 665 

Tiger Flower 303 

Tobacco, to Cure Yellow 401 

for the Soldier ...380 

Tomato, the Trophy 43 

" Red Currant 81 

" Dixie 604 

" Hathaway's 379 

Tomato Catsup 55 

Tomato Honey 158 

Tomato Custard 389 

Tomatoes, Experience with 48 

" as a Medicine 54 

" from Cuttings #. 549 

Toombs, Gen. Robert on Farming 15 



Top Dressing 500 

Tree Planting 140 

Trees, Disappearance of Certain Species. .3(52 

" and Tree Worship 670 

Turnip, Sweet German 54( 

Turnips 385, 517 

" the Patron's 27(i 

" Barley and Clover 661 

Turkeys and Turkey Breeding 590 

Type, Elastic 403 

XJnderdraining, an Experiment in 59 

Uses of Slag 214 

Vegetable AflBnities 493 

Vegetables, New Preserving Process 271 

" Garden 297 

" with Meats 331 

Vegetation, Effects of Battles on 44 

Vetch, Tuberous-Rooted 157 

Villa, a Brick 523 

" Italian ; 588 

Violets, Sweet 524 

Vinca Alba 436 

Vineyards, Hints on 194 

Virginia, Season and Crops in 



66 



Walnut Stumps 549 

Warts on a Horse ,.441 

" " Cure for 552 

Wash for Plants 46 

Wasp, Large -3 

Watering Plants 547, 640 

Weather and Crop Reports 

1.59, 212, 496, 552, 610, 664 

Weather, Forecasting 544 

Weather-wise Animals 656 

What Was It? 50 

What to Plant 133 

Wheat, Rust Proof 69 

" Rust in 100 

" an Experiment with 662 

Why Our Crops are Not Better 239 

Wine, Air Treatmentof 49 

<« in California 272 

Wire Worms, Remedy for 209 

Wistaria, the as a Tree 83 

Woman on the Farm 669 

Women in Farmer's Clubs 404 



INDEX. 



Women as Horticulturists.. 410 

" and Dress 53 

Wonderful Peach Tree, a 491 

Wool and Cotton 126 

Wool Product of the World 592 

Wool Growing 27 



Wooly Aphis, the on Figs. 



Work-Shops for Farmer's Boys 465 

Wylie, Dr. A. P.^ Hybrid Grapes 41, 80 

Young Farmers of the North, to 536 

Young Man You're Wanted 670 

Youpon 501 



98 Ystle and Maguey * 121 



THE 



RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] OCTOBER, 1871. [No. I. 



Agricultural Societies. 



What is an agricultural society ? The name implies it is an association 
organized for the promotion of agriculture. Doubtless this purpose is sub- 
served by these societies in many States of the Union ; but generally, 
throughout the South, agricultural societies seem to be organized to hold 
annual fairs, where fine stock may be exhibited, large crowds collected, and 
the young and the gay enjoy themselves. At this present time, if our agri- 
cultural and mechanical societies, with their fairs, effected nothing more than 
a social reunion annually of the citizens of the State, I would advocate them, 
because this much is often productive of great good ; but they should aim at 
something more lasting, more substantial, and more permanent in its effects 
upon the country. The fair should simply be a culminating point where the 
material advantages of the society are to be displayed. The object of the 
society should be so to encourage and apply the industrial energies of the 
people as to develop most thoroughly all the material resources of the State. 
This being done, the annual fairs are necessary to show the result of the 
year's labors. There one should learn the resources of his entire Slate ; 
observe the agricultural progress of his fellows; and, actuated by a laudable 
ambition, should be encouraged to raise finer stock, harvest heavier crops, 
grow more diversified products, and use the best improved implements of 
husbandry. For these reasons, and with this view, every one should attend 
his annual State fair, even though he went nowhere else from home in a 
twelvemonth. 

But agricultural societies should do more than hold an annual fair lo 
properly effect their purpose. They should assemble their members in con- 
vention at least annually to prevent abatement of interest in the cause of 
agriculture. At these conventions those questions with which planters are 
most familiar should be discussed in such style as would engage the attention, 
and perhaps the participation of the humblest delegate. A successful cotton 
planter may be ignorant of grain culture; the most skilful stock-raiser may 
be unacquainted with the grasses ; invaluable water power may not bo 
No. 1, Vol. 3 1 



2 Agricultural Societies. 

utilized from want of oral instruction; much valuable practical and experi- 
mental knowledge may be withheld from the public because possessed by 
those who are unwilling to write for agricultural papers, but would be 
willing to address a convention of their fellows. 

I am aware we have in every community croakers who take pleasure in 
decrying all united efforts of this kind. Fortunately such men are of little 
weight. They are those who would shout "politics" if they saw a pro- 
fessional man in an agricultural convention. Or those who will critically 
watch the progress and result of a neighbor's experiment, and if the experi- 
ment succeeds, will sagely remark, "Oh, it costs more than it is worth !" but 
if it fails they assert with a wisdom greater than prophetic ken : "I told you 
so." Such creatures are social incubi that the world has supported since the 
flood, and I may abuse them roundly, for they will never know it unless 
they, perchance, see it in some borrowed agricultural paper, and then they 
will be the last to observe how exactly the cap fits their own thick skulls. 

Another most important and valuable adjunct to an agricultural and 
mechanical society would be a competent agent or commissioner, whose time 
should be devoted to travel, not along the thoroughfares, but among the 
byeways and hedges of his State, that he might collect, for the use of the 
society, every possible practical idea that could be incorporated in a semi- 
annual report, to be submitted to the annual convention, probably in the 
spring, and to the society during fair week. By this means the most accu- 
rate geographical, geological, agricultural, mechanical and statistical informa- 
tion could be procured. The proportion of forest, open and waste land ; the 
value of lands ; the area cultivated annually in the various products of the 
State ; the comparative area of those crops through a series of years ; the 
condition of- the growing crops; the results of the year's labors; the quantity 
and quality of labor ; the value of the market crops and their cost and pro- 
duction ; the hygienic condition of the State; its educational advantages; 
the inducements to immigration ; the status of society; the relative cost of 
production and subsistence in the various sections of the State; the invest- 
ments in manufactures; their profits and success; the habits of the people, 
socially, financially and industrially ; the general resources of the State, and 
how they are being developed ; and whether or not agriculture is practically 
a progressive science ; these, and many others which circumstances would 
suggest, are subjects upon which such a commissioner would be required to 
report. Who can estimate the value to the State of a thorough and complete 
knowledge of these and other kindred subjects correctly compiled and au- 
thentically reported by a competent and truthful commissioner? 

1 know of no steps taken in this direction by any Southern State except 
the State of Georgia, through her State Agricultural Society, and its good 
effects are already visible in the stimulus there given to agriculture and me- 
chanics nowhere else to be seen in the South. Their system is somewhat 
after this style : Every County in the State has one or more agricultural 
and mechanical societies or clubs, and each of these is considered subsidiary 



The Oat Crop. 3 

to the parent State society. They have two conventions annually, to which 
are appointed or elected annually one or more delegates from each of the 
many subordinate clubs or societies. A county may possibly have a dozen 
or more delegates, but it is entitled to but six votes in the Convention. The 
Executive Committee submits to each convention a programme of business, 
embracing every possible subject with which a planter or mechanic is famil- 
iar. These subjects are discussed in a familiar, conversational style, which 
enables every delegate to acquire invaluable information for the benefit of his 
club or society. 

Georgia, too, has a commissioner, whose duty seems to bo more to impart 
than collect, information ; but even in this he is a two-fold instructor to the 
people, for while edifying them on the one hand, he is, on the other, collect- 
ing material for his report to the convention. 

An additional stimulus to the cause in Georgia is the liberality of the 
various railroads. Every delegate is transported to and from these conven- 
tions free. Individually this may be a small matter, but collectively it is a 
magnificent donation to the cause of agriculture, and one which ensures a full 
convention, for delegates seldom ignore "free passes," even though the 
passage money be but a moiety of the expense incurred at the other end of 
the journey. Fortunately, however, in Georgia, there are no expenses in- 
curred during the sitting of the convention, for the generous hospitality of 
her people is always equal to the task of accommodating the convention. 
For this reason a return ticket should be denied that delegate who absents 
himself before the convention adjourns. 

D. WYATT AIKEN. 



The Oat Crop.* 



It was the practice of most of our best cotton planters before the war to 
make the oat crop a mere secondary consideration, bestowing all their time and 
attention upon corn and cotton. After the war when cotton went up to a high 
price, most of them planted their entire crops of cotton, and, consequently, 
they had to pay enormous prices for corn. 

I dare say, under the old system of labor, this plan paid very well, as labor 
was cheap and effective ; but now when good reliable labor is so scarce, we 
must plant some grain crop that will not require much labor to produce or 
harvest it. 

Of the bread crops the small grains are the cheapest, and of these the oat 
suits us best, being the least subject to disease, the best suited to the climate, 
and the most convenient for stock feeding, requiring no preparation except 
cutting up, and not even that if you have enough to waste. 



* Essay of Devonald D. Evans, read before the Pomological and Farmers' Club, of Society 
Hill, S. C, August 5, 1871, and ordered to be forwarded to The Kural Carolinian for 
publication. 



4 . The Oat Crop. 

The name oat is of obscure origin. It is supposed to be derived from the 
Celtic etan, to eat. There are a great many varieties cultivated in this coun- 
try — varieties produced by the effects of climate, soil and cultivation. These 
may be divided into black, white and grey oats. Farther North they also 
divide them into fall and winter varieties, though that distinction is not 
necessary here. A great many varieties, such as New Brunswick, Prince 
Edwards Island, Norway, Ramsdale, etc., have been extensively advertised 
of late years, but, with very feW exceptions, they have proved humbugs, 
consisting of a great deal of stalk and leaf and little grain, worth no more 
than an equal Aveight of good crab-grass hay, which is decidedly an improve- 
ment in the wrong direction. 

The best varieties for our climate are the common black oat and the white 
North Carolina oat, both having a small stalk and a large head, sometimes 
one-third of the whole plant. With regard to seed, as the oat belongs to a 
colder climate, some persons prefer to buy their seed every year. My expe- 
rience has been that a careful and judicious selection of seed from good oats 
tends to produce more grain and less straw ; this is especially the case with 
the black oat. The great difficulty in the way of selecting your own seed, 
is the danger of selecting from oats affected with rust. 

A great deal has been said with reference to the value of the red oat, a 
variety introduced into the State by Mr. Aiken, from Georgia, and said to be 
rust proof. I will quote a portion of a letter from him : 

"I have seeded the red oats far and wide during the past few years, and only 
hope they may pay others as well as they did me. This grain is heavier by 
five pounds than the standard weight of oats. It is prolific. The straw is 
small, tender, and very nutritious — does not grow tall. If sown in Septem- 
ber it makes an invaluable winter pasture for sheep and calves, and cannot 
be injured by the weather. Any land that will make ten bushels corn will 
yield twenty bushels red oats ; the twenty bushels of oats will feed a mule 
just as long as ten bushels corn, and keep him fatter and in better health. 
Let each planter count for himself the cost of growing the two." 

The preparation of the soil for oats should be thorough, if we expect to 
make a good crop. If oats follow cotton, they should be put in with a bull- 
tongue and harrowed ; if after corn, with a turning plough, followed by the 
harrow. A great many contend that harrowing is of no benefit, upon the 
ground that it only levels the surface and does not break up the clods beneath. 
This is true to some extent, but if the oats are not planted deep the teeth of 
the harrow will go deep enough to break up clods covering the seed, and 
thus give the young plant a better chance to grow. The grain is sowed 
either by hand or machines, broadcast or in the drill. Sowing broadcast by 
band is the almost universal custom in our section, and a careful hand accus- 
tomed to it can give as good a stand as a machine. The Gaboon broadcast 
hand sower is used by some members of our Club; but, like all machines, it 
requires a careful operative, as a careless person will do as badly with it as 
he would with his hand. There is, also, a sower made to fit in the body 
of a wagon, and worked by a baud attached to the hind wheel. This, I 



The Oat Crop. 5 

think, is too complicated for our labor and hill}'- country, though it might do 
good work on the Western prairies. Sowing in the drill is also performed 
by hand, a very slow and tedious opei-ation, and by grain drills, of which 
Bickford & Hayman's Excelsior is the best. In some parts of the West they 
drill in the oats both ways, sowing one-half of the grain lengthwise the field 
and the other across. To this drill is attached a guano distributor and grass- 
seed sowing attachment, making a verj^ complete machine. I think it doubt- 
ful whether it would pay to use it on our lands, where we would have to 
turn out for stumps, etc. 

The quantity of seed sown to the acre depends entirely on the season of 
the year and the quality of the land, and I think that no rule can be given 
which would apply to all cases, but must be decided by the judgment and 
experience of each one. The time of sowing extends from September to 
middle of March. From the middle of September to the middle of October 
is the best time to plant, as the earlier the better. If planted earl}' and well 
manured, they should be pastured off in winter by sheep or calves to prevent 
being killed down by cold, but care must be taken not to allow stock to run 
on the land while it is wet, as this would injure it more than the cold. Decem- 
ber and January are the worst months to plant in, as we generally have the 
severest weather then, and the oats are apt to be frozen out and killed while 
in the sprout. After they appear above the surface there is little, if any, 
danger of killing. They are much more liable to be killed on light sandy 
soils than on stiff clay, as was the case this last winter when most, if not all, 
of the oats on light lands were killed. The best time to plant such lands is 
from the 1st February to middle of March ; whether fall or spring oats make 
the best crops, depends a good deal on the seasons, but, as a general thing, 
fall oats are more certain. After the oats are planted they require no work 
till harvest, except in some instances to cut down a few weeds which would 
be apt to injure the cradle, such as the dock and Canada thistle. Though 
the oat is the hardiest of the small grains, yet it has its peculiar diseases. 
In the earlier stages of its growth it is subject to the attack of several ene- 
mies, of which the principal is the wire-worm, which is the larvae of a very 
small beetle, and by the larvse of several other insects comprehended under 
the general name of grub. It is, also, subject to disease, one of which is the 
smut. This disease is said to be remedied by working the seed in lime water, 
letting it remain in soak the night previous to sowing. An application of 
plaster might prove beneficial. The worst disease the oat is subject to is one 
which has appeared of late years, namely, the rust, a subject which has 
already been discussed by our Club. Having our oats planted, having suc- 
ceeded in getting a good stand and escaping disease and disaster, we come 
to the harvest, commencing generally in June, when the grain is in the milk 
or dough state. It is probable that in the first stages of agriculture the 
small crop of grain was plucked up by the roots from the earth, without the 
aid of any instrument other than that most comprehensive one, the human 
hand, but the inconveniences attending this mode must have soon been 



6 The Oat Crop. 

superseded by the reaping-hook or sickle, which we find mentioned in the 
most ancient histories. It is believed that instruments of a more compli- 
cated form than the sickle were resorted to by the nations of antiquity, but 
of these we have no certain historical information. After the reaping-hook 
came the scythe, even now extensively used in England and Scotland for the 
barley and oat crops, with the addition of a very light rail or cradle, attached 
either to the handle or to the heel of the blade. It will not be necessary to 
give any descrijjtion of the cradle, which is the almost universal instrument 
used in the South for reaping grain. The Grant's Grain Cradle is the best I 
believe. After the cradle comes the reaping machine, of which there are 
various patents, such as Excelsior, Sprague, Wood's, Buckeye and others, 
each one of which is claimed to do better work than any of the others. The 
Excelsior was recommended, I believe, by E. Whitman & Sou, to one or two 
members of our Club, as the best in the market. Nearly all of the machines 
combine a mower with the reaper, so that interior crops can be cut down and 
treated as hay. The usual manner of harvesting is with the cradle, but 
machines have been introduced of late with success, though I doubt whether 
with our labor they will pay in every case. In determining this we must 
take into consideration the cost of the implements, the amount of work per- 
formed by each in a given time, the cost of the labor and quality of the grain 
to be cut. 

Let us take a ten-acre field of oats, which would produce fifty bushels per 
acre. A machine with two horses and five good hands will cut it down in a 
day, at an expense of sixty cents an acre, allowing seventy-five cents a day 
for the hands and a little over two dollars for the team. To cut the same 
with the cradle would cost ten dollars, as we would have to pay one dollar 
per acre to cut, tie and shock, besides the machine, owing to its peculiar con- 
struction, would not thresh out the grain as the cradle does. On the other 
hand, oats that would only make four or five bushels, could be cut more 
cheaply with the cradle, as we can get such oats cut for fifty cents, while the 
cost of cutting with a machine would not be diminished. Also, in land where 
there are a great many stumps the cradle is preferable, owing to the time 
lost in turning out of the way with the machine. These notes are taken on 
the supposition that the oat crop is cut entirely by outside labor. Of course 
where we have time to cut the oats with the regular farm hands, the machine 
is preferable, as we have the same mules that work the crop, but this is not 
often the case, as most persons have only a few regular hands, and depend a 
great deal on outside labor. In the North and West, where labor is much 
higher than with us, the machine is cheaper, as in the haiwest season they 
pay as high as two and three dollars a day for common field laborers. With 
whatever implements we harvest the oats, it is of the greatest importance 
that they should be well made and of the best quality, and we should also 
have extra tools, as the breaking of one would occasion, perhaps, a great loss. 
We should, also, have as large a force as possible, so as to finish the harvest 
as soon as possible, as a wot season might come on which would add greatly 
to the trt'^hle and expense. 



Land or Labor. 7 

Experience has demonstrated that one crop after another of the same kind 
greatly reduces the fertility of soils. This conclusion might also be drawn 
from reason as well as experience, because it is reasonable to suppose that 
crops of the same kind require, and will appropriate to themselves the same 
sort of food out of the same soils. One class of crops are cultivated for their 
seed, such as corn, wheat, and others for the roots and leaves. Those culti- 
vated for thoir seed extract from the soil a much greater quantity of nour- 
ishment than the others, and thus it is that the oat is considered an exhaust- 
ing crop. But why this is I cannot understand, as in wheat countries they 
make wheat after wheat profitably, and so do we make cotton after cotton 
and rye after rye. This is a subject which I do not understand, and I would 
be glad to hear what light the Club can give on the question. 



Land or Labor. 



Under the above heading we have read an article, in The Rural Caro- 
linian for August, written by Dr. E. M. Pendleton, of Sparta, Ga. The leading 
question of this article is : " How much can we make to a mule ?" and it 
demonstrates, that if all the land were to be subsoiled on a ninety acre farm, 
it would require twelve mules. 

This might be correct if all the subsoiling was required to be done in the 
space of time mentioned in the article, viz: from January to planting time; 
but such is not the case if the crops are diversified, which ought to be the 
case. Of one hundred acres, twenty-five acres seeded with oats October 15th, 
would require ploughing and subsoiling from September 20th up to planting 
time, allowing one acre per day ; twenty-five acres seeded with wheat Novem- 
ber 15th, would require ploughing and subsoiling from October 20th up to seed- 
ing time ; twenty -five acres for corn and twenty-five acres for cotton to be 
prepared from January 1st to planting time, allowing the time from Novem- 
ber 15th to January 1st for ginning. 

All this ploughing and subsoiling can be done with four good mules; one 
hundred acres can be thoroughly cultivated with four mules. In our 
opinion there can be no reasonable doubt that it pays better to thoroughly 
cultivate a smaller area than to work over twice or three times the amount 
of land to obtain the same result. It is a saving of travel, implements and 
hands. It is easier to obtain two or three good hands than six or eight. 
The operations are easier controlled, the labor being concentrated. 

There is no doubt, that an area of land which, by four inch ploughing and 
an application of two hundred pounds of fertilizer, will produce one-half 
bale of cotton ; will, with subsoil ploughing and application of the same 
amount of fertilizer, produce at least three-quarters of a bale, not to speak of 
the permanent improvement of the soil, and the consequent larger crops in 
the future 

Dr. Pendleton says further : "By the aid of fertilizers it is clear that we 



8 Farming on Clay Lands, 

can keep up a four iuch surface to a high state of cultivation without wearing 
it out as heretofore " Now, even if we admit such to be the case, the expense 
of commercial fertilizers would by far overreach the expense of subsoiling. 
But allowing we might succeed in keeping these four inches of soil in a high 
state of cultivation, we, by doing so, would do very little towards protecting 
the crop against excessive drought or wet. 

It is a fact too well established to be contradicted that, " deepening of the 
soil enables the crop to withstand any excess of seasons better than where 
shallow cultui*e has been practised." As to the ^^ modus operandi" of buying 
cheap land, opening it, wearing it out by our old mode of cultivation, aban- 
doning it, and going through the same routine for a second and third time, 
through a life time, it is certainly more tedious and decidedly a less pleasant 
way of living, than to make the home you have productive and attractive by 
improvements of which you will reap the full benefit and enjoyment. Aban- 
don the nomadic life which too many of our farmers lead in consequence of 
the wearing out system ; create love for, and attachment to home, and im- 
provements, as well in cultivation of the soil as in surrounding comforts are 
sure to take place. L. A. HANSEN. 

Okalona^ Miss., August, 1871. 

Farming on Clay Lands. 



Our clayey soils are mainly among the strongest and best we have, but 
they are not generally liked, being difficult to manage, (as they are managed,) 
and yielding results far below those of really inferior soils of a more friable 
nature. Such soils, however, when properly treated will be appreciated. 

Clay soils often need underdx'aining to bring them into a proper condition 
to be acted upon by other ameliorating influences, but in many cases this is 
not required. Where it is needed, and means will not permit us to under- 
drain, we must do what we can, by means of open drains and subsoiling — 
the latter where iL is found beneficial. But there is another means of im- 
proving clayey soils that any one who has them — certainly throughout the 
larger portion of the Southern country — can apply and get well paid for his 
labor entirely aside from the improvement of his land. The magic word is — 
Clover I 

Clover is a wonderful plant, and not yet half appreciated in the South. If 
you can get it well seeded on your tough clays the battle is half won. The 
roots pierce and fill the soil, acting like wedges; loosening, opening and 
dividing the hard masses, and giving free admission to air and the fertilizing 
gases. You will see their work when you come to break up a field that 
has borne a heavy clover crop. Turn under the aftermath, and you set at 
woi'k still another fertilizing and ameliorating influence in the added vegeta- 
ble element. 

Many years ago, John Johnson, a noted successful farmer, having a large 
field of heavy clay land that had been underdrained, and was then in clover, 



Lime as a Fertilizer — How it Ads on the Soil. 9 

to plough for summer fallow, supposed it would require two teams on each 
plough to break up such land in the summer, and he went to the field pre- 
pared to plough in this way. But in commencing ho put a span of horses on 
a common plough to lay out the lands, and they went across a wide field and 
back without the least diflScully, thus showing that the land was in a con- 
dition to be readily ploughed with one team ; so the large ploughs were laid 
aside, each team put on a common plough, and a good clover sod was well 
turned under without difficulty in this way. 

One great fault in farming clay soils is working them when too wet. Almost 
any clay farm will bear witness to this fact. This is excused on the plea of 
necessity, but too often heedlessness, ignorance, or want of proper system in 
conducting the operations of the farm, furnish the true reason. 

Try clover and rotation of crops on your clay lands, and don't break them 
up when the water will stand in your previous day's fun-ows ! 



Lime as a Fertilizer— How it Acts on the Soil. 



Questions are frequently asked us in regard to the use of lime as a manure 
— on what soils it is beneficial, how to apply it and how much per acre ? 
These questions are easily answered in general terms, but those general terras 
are not what the inquirers desire. The}' wish to know exactly what to do in 
their own individual cases, and not knowing the nature of their soil and 
other conditions affecting the question, we can not always tell them. What 
they really need is such a knowledge of the nature of lime, its mode of action, 
and the chemical characters of various soils as will enable them to answer 
their own questions. As a first lesson in this study of lime and soils, we copy 
the following from that excellent paper the Boston Journal of Chemistry, pre- 
mising that the editor of it is both a chemist and a farmer: 

Manures may be classed under three principal heads : first, those which 
supply some essential element to the plant ; second, those which act as mere 
stimulants ; and lastly, those which do not act directly on the plant, but act on 
substances already in the soil, rendering them more suitable for plant life. 
Lime belongs to this last class almost entirely, as there are very few soils 
that do not contain sufficient lime for any direct demands that plants are 
likely to make on them. 

In order that a plant may feed on the inorganic matter in the soil, or, 
indeed, on any matter, it must be brought into a soluble state. Plants feed 
only on liquids and gases; they have no power of assimilating solid food. 

The inorganic portions of plants are built up chiefly of potash, soda, lime, 
magnesia, combined with siliciu, sulphuric, phosphoric, and h3^drochloric acids, 
as well as with many nrgnuic acids. The carbonates, so generally found in 
the ashes of plants, ro:illy exist in the plants themselves, being mostly formed 
from salts of organic acids during the process of burning. A small portion 
of the above-mentioned gases already exist in the soil in a soluble state, but 
are much more abundant in the insoluble condition. 

If, however, we add caustic lime, to a soil, it renders these insoluble sub- 
stances soluble, and prepares them for the use of the plant. 



10 Lime as a Fertilizer — Hoio it Acts on the Soil. 

All soils formed from the decomposition of granite, contain an abundance 
of potassa and silica, the most important elements for the growth of the 
wheat plants. But these two elements are combined with each other, and 
with alumina, in the form of feldspar, which is almost perfectly insoluble. 
Caustic lime breaks up this combination; and, accordingly, when the farmer 
finds that his wheat straw is getting too feeble to support its own weight, he 
applies lime to the soil, with the immediate effect of stiffening up the straw. 
Fifty or sixty years ago, the farms in New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
had almost run down and were not considered worth fencing. These were called 
"old fields ;" and such may still be found in abundance through Maryland 
and Virginia. They had been cropped through consecutive years with the 
same pjants, until they would no longer yield enough to pay for the trouble. 
In some parts of Pennsylvania lime is abundant, and upon applying it to the 
worn-out soils the effect was remarkable. Farms that thirty or forty years 
ago could alnost have been had for the asking, are now known as being 
among the best in the State. 

But it is not on the inorganic portion of the soil alone that lime acts. It 
bears, perhaps, an even more important relation to the organic portion of the 
soil In Norway and Sweden, every farmer has to pay a portion of his tax 
to the government in saltpetre. In order to prepare this, he heaps together 
old mortar or lime, manure, ashes and earth, and keeps the heap moist. The 
lime and the nitrogenous matter of the manure react on each other, and form 
nitrate and carbonate of lime. Nitrate of lime is decomposed by the carbo- 
nate of potassa from the wood ashes, and saltpetre is thus formed. Precisely 
the same kind of reaction is going on continually in the soil when we apply 
lime to it ; and thus the nitrogen of the decaying vegetable matter is brought 
into fit condition for the use of plants. For all these uses the more caustic 
the lime is, the better for the land. A heap of lime that has been long ex- 
posed to air and rain is much less valuable than that which is freshly slacked, 
as it has absorbed carbonic acid from the air. Carbonate of lime is of but 
little value as a manure, although, when it is finely divided, as when it is in 
the state of chalk, it may serve to neutralize the vegetable acids that exist in 
some wet lands. It is undoubtedly better to apply lime directly to the soil 
than to make a compost of it, with peat, or such substances, for we do not 
gain enough by mixing to pay for the expense of the manipulation. We 
have been frequently asked how much lime should be applied to the acre. 
This is a very difficult question to answer, unless we know all about the soil 
to which it is to be applied. What would be an excessive quantity for some 
lands is too little for others. In some sections, or upon some lands, one hun- 
dred bushels to the acre may be applied with beneficial results ; in others, fifty 
or sixty bushels are an abundance, while some lands will not bear more than 
twerjty or thirty. 

Lime should never be applied directly in association with manure, as it 
tends to drive off the ammonia, and thus lower its value. If we wish to apply 
it to corn or wheat land, it is best, perhaps, to top-di'ess the sod the year 
before we intend to plough. The manure may be then applied, and ploughed 
under in the spring, without much danger of loss, as the lime has been doing 
its work during the winter. 

Lime (and the same is true of other chemical manures) acts more rapidly 

and energetically in our hot climate than at the North, and as a consequence 

sooner exhausts itself; we would, therefore, apply it here in smaller quantities 

and more frequently than is generally done in colder latitudes. 



A Cotton Country Should Grow Jute. 11 

A Cotton Country Should Grow Jute. 

So long as we grow cotton, we shall require bale cloth, and we shall grow 
cotton 80 long as cotton will pay any people to grow it. For bale cloth we 
want juto. Shall we import that from India at a cost of from three to five 
millions of dollars annually, when it can be grown hero as easily as corn or 
sorghum, and prepared for market with far less trouble and expense than 
cotton? There is no question here of expensive machinery and complicated 
processes, as with ramie. Anybody can prepare it for market on his own 
farm. That it flourishes here as luxuriantly as in India has been demonstra- 
ted. It probably will not succeed on our dry, sandy uplands ; but on our river 
and creek bottoms and other moist and tolerably rich soils, it will make 
immense crops. We said something about it in our last number. We will now 
quote what a correspondent of the Department of Agriculture says on the 
subject: 

I read with much interest the letters from Louisiana and Texas, in your 
report for September, which apprises us that the seed which you sent there 
in May last, has produced plants which rose to the height of ten or fifteen 
feet, (the height in India,) and ripened seed, although planted as late as 
June last. 

It is obvious that the jute has been successfully introduced into the country, 
and flourishes in the moist bottom lands of the Southern States. I entertain 
no doubt that it will grow wherever the cane grows, on the moist soils of the 
Souih, and I believe that the India plant is best suited to our requirements. 

I trust you will urge your correspondents to preserve and circulate the 
seed which they have raised, and to plant it when they plant the cotton. If 
the Department had done nothing else, it seems, it has earned all the Gover- 
ment has appropriated for it by introducing and acclimating this valuable 
plant. 

I deem it almost as great an acquisition to the country as cotton itself. It 
yields one of the cheapest fibres nature produces. It is raised in India, and 
I presume can be raised here for less than one-half the cost of hemp, and for 
one-fourth the cost of cotton. It has been produced in India for one cent 
per pound of fibre. It is woven not only into gunny cloth and gunny bags, 
but enters largely into carpets and many kinds of tissues. In India jute has 
been constantly gaining upon cotton. 

England has imported from India of this article more than 120,000,000 
pounds in a single year; and we last year imported more than 19,000,000, 
which cost more than §3,000,000, and sold at the South for $5,000,000. It is 
used there chiefly to envelop cotton. If we had diverted that amount of 
labor from cotton to jute, we might have raised a much larger quantity at 
home, and at the same time have increased the value of our cotton crop. 

The jute seems to me to be a plant admirably adapted to the wants of the 
South. The South requires it for bale cloths, also to divert labor from cotton , 
and to employ the operatives during inclement seasons in the manufacture of 
cloth. 

I presume that the mechanism used in Kentucky for spinning and weaving 
hemp will be appropriate for jute. In India the widow still sits on the ash- 
heap and weaves her sackcloth. 

I hope the Government will allow your Department ample funds to pur- 
chase some of the simple machinery required for this manufacture, and that 



1 2 Will Rye or Wheat Ploughed Under Smother Grass in Cotton ? 

you will induce some Southern planters to continue the cultivation of it until 
its great value is generally appreciated. 

We have experimented with two varieties of the jute — the red and the 
green. The seed of the former came from France, that of the latter from 
India. The French variety grows stout and branching, does not reach so 
great a height as the other, and comes to maturity earlier. It will probably 
succeed farther North than the East Indian variety. The latter reached with 
us the height of fifteen feet, with fewer side shoots than the French. So far 
as we can judge this is the better variety for our climate. 

The process of separating the fibre, as conducted in India, is thus described : 

The plants are first placed for a week in standing water ; then the native 
operator, standing up to his middle in water, takes as manj'- of the sticks in 
his hand as he can grasp, and removing a small portion of the bark from the 
end next the roots, and grasping them together, he with a little management 
strips off the whole from end to end, without breaking either stem or fibre. 
He then, swinging the bark around his head, dashes it repeatedly against the 
surface of the water, drawing it towards him, to wash off the impurities. 
The filaments are then hung up to dry in the sun, often in lengths of twelve 
feet, and when dried the jute is ready for the market. 

The Department of Agriculture will, no doubt, furnish seed in small quan- 
tities to persons desirous of commencing jute culture in the South, and the 
first year all the plants should be reserved for producing seed, to be carefully 
saved for the next season's planting. 

^Vill Rye or ^Vheat Ploughed Under Smother Grass in 

Cotton? 



Every wet spring I notice constant complaints from the planters of its 
being almost impossible to keep down the grass in their cotton fields, and 
prevent its choking the young plant and smothering its growth. We often 
have the same complaint to make here at the North in regard to our corn, 
and especially to the smaller crops of beets, carrots and parsnips. 

One of the most effectual methods I have found to prevent the early 
growth of grass and weeds in the spring, is to prepare the ground well early 
in autumn for these crops, and then sow it with rye or wheat. In the follow- 
ing spring, at the proper time for planting, open furrows through the rye or 
wheat field at suitable distances for the various crops, and then plant in these 
furrows. When the crops are well up, and strong enough to sustain them- 
selves against grass and weeds, plough in the rye or wheat. This prevents 
the growth of grass and weeds for so long a time that there is no trouble 
afterwards in keeping them down, however rainy it may be. This rye or 
wheat thus ploughed in gradually decomposes, and affords food for the grow- 
ing crop ; and should the season subsequently prove dry, acts as an excel- 
lent mulch. We plough this in so deep as not to disturb it or tear up the 
straw in working the cultivator over it during the season. 

Now this may not answer at all for the South ; the grain may invariably 
get too rank a growth to plough in there after the cotton has come up. 



There's Nothing Like Cotton. 13 

althouf^h fed down during the winter or sowed late in December. But if 
rye and wheat will not answer how would oats, barley, peas, beans, or some 
other green crop do ? Anything to keep the grass and weeds down a suffi- 
cient time is all that is necessary. 

The roots of these grains soon become so thick a mass in the soil as to 
prevent its washing. I have some rye on fields sloping at least fifteen 
degrees, which did not wash at all, even in the heaviest rains, after the roots 
were well sot in the ground. This was done near the Jersey seashore, where 
the soil was almost entirely a pure white sand of one to several feet deep, 
overlying a yellow sand nearly as pure and porous as the white sand. 

Would not a green crop of rye or wheat ploughed in have a tendency to 
lessen rust in cotton during a very wet season ? Suffering clover to grow in 
moderately rich land, where grapes are planted and ploughed in when it 
blossoms, has, in many instances here at the North, I am told, prevented the 
rot. Is it not possible, then, for it or any other green crop, to benefit the 
cotton in various ways? I know nothing of the cultivation of cotton practi- 
cally, and should be glad to hear the opinion of the eminent scientific South- 
ern men on this subject, who know all about it, theoretically as well as 
practically. A. B. ALLEN. 

New York, August U, 1871. 



There's Nothing Like Cotton. 

The Ouachita Telegraph defends the " all cotton " planters in the following 
wise and well put maxims. We hope, if we have any readers of that class, 
that they will appreciate our kindness in re-printing them : 

Planters generally understand their business. As there may be a few, 
however, who do not, we offer them a little gratuitous advice. 

It is a well settled maxim that corn grown in the West is better than that 
grown here. It comes further and goes further, grain for grain. 

As a crop for twelve or thirteen months, corn will not answer at all. 
Planted in March, you can't work it safely after June, and you are bound to 
get it out of the field in October or November at the farthest ; otherwise it 
will rot. As a manure for next year's crop, peas or cotton is much better. 

Corn is objectionable, because it does not need any bagging or ties ; you 
can't send your wagons to market Mtj or sixty miles, if you raise corn, and 
bring back pork, bacon, lard, etc. 

Corn is a good provender for stock, but not so good as cotton seed, and 
they are just the thing to make quickly pork of pigs. 

In the spring, when the weather is not warm, and the earth loose and drj', 
as in summer, corn must necessarily be worked. It will not wait and go 
through a "June sweat " like cotton. 

Horses and cows grow much fatter on cotton blooms than green corn, and 
a roasted cottoa boll is superior, as an article of diet, to a roasting ear. Little 
children will cry before they are out of their little beds for roasted cotton 
bolls. Try it. 

In the summer, fall and winter you will have very little to do, if you plant 
corn. You will be compelled to keep your hands employed, to improve your 
fences, set out orchards, raise stock, build out-houses and lots, and do other 



14 Artificial Guano. 

■wholly unnecessary things so as to kill time until the next planting season 
opens. Or, if you prefer it, you may reduce your laboring force and curtail 
your pay roll. This, however, is never desirable to a country where there 
are no taxes to pay — like ours, " for instance." 

It is a result of growing corn that the country always has a surplus stock 
of poultry, of meat, and some money to lend at interest or to invest in pub- 
lic works. It is much better to buy provisions in the West for cash, to 
operate at home on a credit, with one eye on bankruptcy, and to appeal to 
foreign capitalists to build your railroads, etc. 

It is a grand thing to have a commission merchant and support him lib- 
erally — and let your old minister and his horse starve I 

" AVhat's the price of cotton ?" How could you ever ask that question, 
filling your mouth with the words, if you should make a fool of yourself by 
raising a good crop of corn ? People would laugh at you. And how could 
you ever draw a draft and have the thrilling pleasure of having your draft 
" protested ?" 

" My father's house," said a little boy to another, " is finer than your 
father's, cause it's got a cupola on it." "]S"o it ain't finer," retorted the other, 
"cause my father's house got a mortgage on it!" If you raise plenty of 
corn you will never get to the eminence of a mortgage on your house, and 
you will die without a big succession for the lawyers and courts to fight 
over. 

Artificial Guano. 

A correspondent sends us the recipe for making Dr. Valentine's Artificial 
Guano, with a statement of the cost of making four tons. He says that he 
is satisfied that " it will give better results than the same money's worth of 
any other fertilizer, not excepting Peruvian Guano." He adds: 

I have made no estimate of the cost of the mud as it cost me nothing 
extra in getting it, but with that addition it would not have cost over twenty 
dollars per ton. I used the very best materials. The ashes was made from 
upland oak. The mud was hauled and put under shelter for three months 
before using. The nitrate of soda contained fifty-four per cent, of nitric 
acid, (the commercial contains only twenty-five per cent., and can be had at 
three-and-a-half cents per lb.) I bought of Messrs. McKesson & Bobbins, 
New York. 

I found that the first day 1 could make but one ton, on account of the diffi- 
culty in dissolving the ingredients 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 in cold water. The 
second day I used hot water, and made two tons. I would advise the manure 
put in boxes or barrels after being made. I found the acid ruined my bags. 
I would recommend to use 300 lbs. per acre when used alone. 

RECIPE FOR MAKING DR. VALENTINE'S ARTIFICIAL GUANO. 

For One Ton. 

1. Dry Peat 20 bushels. 

2. Wood Ashes 3 

3. Fine Bone Dust 3 " 

4. Plaster 3 

5. Nitrate of Soda 40 lbs. 

6. Sal Ammoniac t 22 " 

7. Carb. Ammonia 11 " 

8. Sulph. Soda 20 

9. " Magnesia 10 " 

10. Muriate of Soda, (Common Salt) 10 " 



Agricultural Miscellany. 1 6 

Mix 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 in water enough to dissolve the ingredients. When 
dissolved, add the liquid to the mixture 1, 2 and 3, When thoroughly mixed 
add the plaster, which will absorb the liquid and bring the whole to a dry 
state. 

THE COST OP MAKING FOUR TONS. 

No. 1. Dry Peat, (or good Swamp Mud,) 80 bushels 8 

2. Wood Ashes, 12 bushels 3.00 

3. Ground Bone, 12 bushels, 669 lbs 20.07 

4. Four barrels Gypsum, 12 bushels 8 00 

6. Bags Nitrate of Soda, 160 lbs., 7*c 12.00 

6. Box 38 cents, Sal Ammoniac, 88 lbs., 13c 1182 

Carb. Ammonia, 44 lbs., 22c.... 10.06 

Sulphate Soda, 80 lbs., 2|c 2.38 

Sulphate Magnesia, 40 lbs., 4|c 2.28 

Muriate of Soda, (Common Salt,) 40 lbs 50 

Freight, Cartage and Insurance 8.06 



7. 


» 38 


8. 


" 38 


9. 


" 38 


10. 


<t 



878.17 



Agricultural Miscellany. 

GENERAL ROBERT TOOMBS ON FARMING. 

The editor of the Rural Southerner has interviewed General Toombs on 
the subject of Southern farming, and the following is the substance of the 
conversation as duly reported : 

" Suppose, General Toombs, that the South should plant, in cotton only, 
one-half the area that she does, and devoted the remainder of her lands to 
grains and grasses, what would be the result?" we asked. 

" Why, in five years, she would be the richest country on the face of the globe," 
was his earnest reply. 

Editor — " Do you consider this section of the South adapted to growing 
grasses ?" 

Gen. Toombs — " 1 do. I have never seen any region, either in Europe or 
America, where clover and grasses succeed more beautifully than they do in 
Middle Georgia." 

Editor — " Have you grown any grasses ?" 

Gen. Toombs — " I have succeeded well with clover, orchard grass and 
lucerne on uplands, and with herds grass on damp lands. I consider lucerne 
the finest forage grass that grows. It is thrifty and hardy, and makes more' 
forage for six months in the year than any other crop. It should be sown 
more universally than it is." 

Editor — " But can the South aiford to grow only half the cotton that she 
does? We have to purchase such a vast amount of manufactures of other 
countries and other sections of our own country." 

Gen. Toombs — "If the South raised only half the cotton she does, she 
would realize as much money for it as she does for her present crops, and 
would have her provisions and stock at home besides. She would then be 
able to manufacture much more largely at home." 

Editor — " You think, then, that every farmer should raise at home articles 
of consumption ?" 

Gen. Toombs — "Yes, and every man can do it, and when he does, he will 
be the most independent of all men." 

Such was the tenor of Gen. Toombs' expressions, and who will deny their 
practicability. This is one " departure " from old customs that he endorses. 



16 . Agricultural Miscellany. 

RATIONALE OF ROTATION. 

It is supposed that the roots of plants imbibe soluble matter of every kind 
from the soil, and thus necessarily absorb a number of substances which are 
not adapted to the purposes of nutrition, and must, subsequently, be expelled 
by the roots, and returned to the soil as excrements. Now, as excrements 
cannot be assimilated by the plant which ejected them, the moi-e of these 
matters which the soil contains, the more unfertile must it be for the plants 
of the same species. These excrementitious matters may, however, still be 
capable of assimilation by another kind of plants, which would thus remove 
them from the soil, and render it again fertile for the first. And if the plants 
last grown also expel substances from their roots, which can be appropriated 
as food by the former, they will improve the soil in two ways. Now, a great 
number of facts appear at first sight to give a high degree of probability to 
this view. Every gardener knows that a fruit tree will not grow well on 
the same spot where another of the same species has stood; at least not until 
after the lapse of several years. Before new vine stocks are planted in a 
vineyard, from which the old have been rooted out, other plants are culti- 
vated on the soil for several years. 

SHARPEN THE HOE. 

"As dull as a hoe," a correspondent of the Country Gentleman says, is 
an old favorite comparison, and it seems cruel to rob it of its aforetime 
poetry. But a free use of file or grindstone is as rough on the comparison 
as the keen hoe is on the weeds. We have seen hoes that were worn-out, 
never having been sharpened, because a sharp hoe soon wears out; although 
the extra labor in a day needed to destroy the weeds and move the soil with 
a dull implement, would equal the cost of a new hoe. Certainly it is poor 
economy to save the wear of the hoe, of necessity only half killing the weeds, 
and making heavy toil of otherwise light work. 

A file, even an old file, cleaned with some diluted acid, will answer every 
purpose, or a grindstone if one has no file. Never mind if stones do dull, or 
gravel ; a sharp hoe carefully used will accomplish more than the noisy 
grubbing of a dull one. We take pleasure in seeing the hoe daily narrow up 
and the corners gradually round off", for honorable age and constant service 
benefits the hoe, making the blade thinner and smaller. Sharpen the hoe 
then — first, to save hard labor; second, to do neater, cleaner work; third, 
to keep it brighter; finallj', to have the pleasure of seeing it grow old in the 
service. 

VALUE OF MANURE FROM DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOOD. 

From experiments made by J. B. Lawes, Eothamstead, England, it is found 
that one ton of each of the following articles will produce manure of the 
value of — 

For clover hay §9 64 

For meadow hay.. 6 43 

For wheat straw 2 68 

For oat straw 2 90 

For wheat bran 14 50 

For corn 6 65 

For oats 7 70 



The Breeding of Domestic Animals. 17 



The Breeding of Domestic Animals. 



Cattle brooding has been conducted with quite as little regard to the wants 
of the country as the breeding of horses. 

Our first recollection of improved breeds, runs back to the long-horned 
huge animals yclept "English cattle;" then came the Durham, a large better 
formed animal ; then the "Improved Durham," an immense milker and heavy 
feeder. Fabulous prices were paid for these animals by those who were able 
to indulge the luxury, but their popularity soon ran down, for the refuse 
stock of the North and West were palmed off upon us, and in a few years, 
between catarrhal fever, (distemper,) short feeding and careless treatment, 
the Improved Durham disappeared. 

Then we had the Herefords, for awhile, which soon ran out, and then the 
Devons — beautiful animals, better adapted than any of the former to our 
uses, which have held their ground as favorites for a long time. A few 
Ayrshires have been introduced and have given very general satisfaction as 
milkers, and now and then you may hear of an Alderney or Jersey. There 
was quite a furor for a time about the Brahmin and the cross upon the Dur- 
ham and other breeds bid fair to make a superior animal. There is no breed 
to be compared to the Brahmins for hardiness and thriftiness, or for work 
cattle; and it is said that they ai-e not so liable to catarrhal effections, Tdis- 
terapers.) We have had under our eye two grade Brahmins, which for two 
years (winter and summer,) have worked by the side of mules in all the 
plantation work and stood up finely. We have a cross of Brahmin and Ayr- 
shire, decidedly the best milch cow in the pen, and by far the most hardy 
and thrifty animal. They are naturally wild, but if properly handled when 
breaking in, are as quiet as any other breed. We are inclined to the opinion 
that the Brahmin will pi'ove a good cross upon our native cattle, from the 
fact that he is a pure bred distinct animal, and will impress his characteristics. 
Of all the pure breeds, we think the Ayrshire is the best adapted to our uses 
but it must be borne in mind that kind treatment and plenty of nutritious- 
food will be necessary to keep any improved animal up to a standard of ex- 
cellence. They must not be turned out to shift for themselves, on broom- 
sedge and foxtail. 

The great trouble has been a want of system. We have bred as fancy 
dictated — generally following the fashion, and the consequence is, we have a 
mongrel race which cannot be relied on to breed true. AH mixed breeds 
sport and cannot be relied on. If you want an animal for the dairy, for the 
yoke, or for the market you should have an eye to that. Some animals 
evince a proclivity to take on fat, others to produce milk, while some give 
much richer milk than others. 

No.l, Vol. 3. 2 



18 A Pleasant Visit. 

We have seen among the scrub cattle of the country as good milkers 
^^ ceteris paribus," as amongst the select breeds. 

For the dairy, we should, in breeding, always rely more on the male than 
the female. Never breed from old or unsound animals, select the healthiest 
and thriftiest, and those that make their mark upon their offspring. When 
you get a good stock stick to it and fix its character. If you must cross, 
select your bull from a pure blooded animal of decided characteristics. Don't 
breed from a mongrel. * * * 



A Pleasant Visit. 



In every vocation of life there are representative men ; men whose every 
day walk and conversation prove their adaptability to the professions they 
pursue. Such a man is Colonel Richard Peters, of Atlanta, Ga. His forte is 
the farm, and upon it he should reside. Last August I had the pleasure of 
sojourning a day and night with him at his plantation, near Calhoun, in 
Northern Georgia, and consider the incidents of the visit worthy of publica- 
tion. The interest he manifests in fine stock of all kinds, his knowledge of 
the grasses, his skill in bee culture, and his success in fruit growing, are 
wonderful, and become doubly interesting to the visitor who is so fortunate 
as to meet on the plantation the estimable lady who supervises, with equal 
grace and dignity, the dairy, the cuisine and the household. 

Colonel Peters is devoted to the Brahmin cattle, of which almost his entire 
herd is composed. I can testify to some of them being excellent milkers. 
But were they not remarkable in this respect, he contends they are valuable 
as Southern cattle, and for many reasons preferable to all others for the South. 
They are less liable to diseases, never have murrain, thrive best in hot 
climates, and can be transported at all seasons of the year from anyone point 
in the South to any other point, an ordeal which no other breed of cattle can 
be subjected to with impunity. The Brahmin are remarkable travellers, and 
make the finest oxen in the world. They are apparently vicious, but are 
such natural cowards they seldom muster courage enough to resist a bold 
attack. These facts are all verified by the experience of Colonel Peters, who 
persists in the notion, the Brahmin are not natural jumpers. Nimbleness 
never was a natural quality without a purpose; though I admit any animal 
on Col. Peters' farm would be foolish to jump from his pastures, as it could 
not possibly better itself. Although Col. Peters adheres to the Brahmin, he 
does not advise the growing of more than half-breeds for ordinary farm pur- 
poses. He thinks that proportion of the Brahmin infuses their peculiarities 
saflficiently into their progeny. Therefore he is importing a breed he thinks 
next best to the Brahmin — the Alderney. He has a bull of this breed, origi- 
nally imported by a gentleman in Charleston, that is an honor to his race, 
and should have his services demanded in every county in Georgia. 

That fine old Messenger Stallion, that has been known to trot a mile in 
three minutes and immediately pace over the same distance in the same time ; 



The Derby Game Fowl. 19 

that herd of one hundred and twenty-five Cashmere goats that know noth- 
ing of climbing fences because they skip and gambol in beautiful green grass 
up to their girths ; (after all is it not something Lo be admired in the Brah- 
min cattle, the goat and the sheep, that rather than suffer from hunger they 
will jump over or through a forty rail fence to get something to eat ? It 
should be no objection to them at least;) that flock of over three hundred 
Merino sheep that are truly " as gentle as lambs ;" that large lot of Essex 
and Berkshire hogs, (both of which I am vain enough to believe I can beat;) 
those lofts groaning under the weight of one hundred and eighty loads of we'll 
cured hay, were to me all matters of intense interest, and have inspired me 
with the determination to go and do likewise, though on an humbler scale. 
Should a similar feeling be produced upon others, it would be a benefit to 
Southern agriculture to have such oral and occular teaching disseminated at 
the public expense. D. WYATT AIKEN. 

The Derby Game Fo^vl. 




This breed originated in England, but has been neglected there of late, and 
now, according to English authorities, the best strains of the Lord Derby 
Game Fowl are to be found in the United States. Breton's '' Poultry Book' 
thus describes the markings of the breed : 

The cock is of good round shape, well put together; the head being long 
with daw-eyes ; long and strong neck; hackle well feathered, touching the 
shoulders; wings large and well quilled ; back short; belly round and black- 



20 Merino Sheej). 

tail long and sickled, being well tufted at the root — thick, short and stiff; 
legs rather long, with white feet and nails, the latter being free from all 
coarseness. The required " daw-eye " is that which resembles the grey-eye 
of the jackdaw. Their distinctive features are the white beak, feet and 
claws, essential to every bird claiming descent from that illustrious stock. 

The hen has the head fine and tapering; face, wattles, and comb bright 
red ; extremities of upper mandible and the greater portion of the lower one 
white, but dusky at its base and around its nostrils; chestnut-brown around 
the eyes, continued beneath the throat; shaft of neck-hackle light buff; web 
pale brown, edged with black; breast shaded with roan and fawn-color; belly 
and vent of an ash tint; back and wing-coverts partridge-colored; primary 
wing-feathers and tail black, the latter carried verticallj* and widely-ex- 
panded ; legs, feet and nails perfectly white. 



Merino Sheep. 



Mr. Watts has written an excellent article in your August number, Mr. 
Editor, on the subject of Merino sheep. So far as we can learn this breed 
of sheep originated in Barbary, Africa, a much hotter and drier country than 
any of our Southern, States and thence transplanted by the Moors to the south 
of Spain, another very hot country. If the animal has been grown there 
for hundreds of years, why should it not be the most suitable breed for your 
region ? 

For the past thirty years I have made continuous shipments of Merino 
sheep to the South, from Virginia all the way to Mexico, and I have never 
heard of their doing ill there when properly attended to. Against other 
breeds which I have sent forward, there has been more or less complaint, and 
I have no doubt justly so. In the hotter regions of the South several of my 
friends write me that they have given up the Cotswold and other long-wooled 
sheeii, as well as the Southdowns to keep 2'>ure, but for mutton sheep, they 
answer admirably to cross on the Merino, and the old native; though for a 
cross with the latter, some prefer the Merino. The Merino is unquestionably 
the best for wool. In the mountain regions of the South, the Cotswold and 
Downs, I am told, breed as well as at the North. 

For growing grass and grain and probably cotton also, in a rotation, and 
to improve the soil, sheep husbandry is unquestionably the best of all. I 
wish every Southern planter could see this as practised in the south of Eng- 
land ; I am sure he would heartily go into it. By this, almost alone, you will 
see wheat grown there on a poor light soil, originally, at the rate of forty 
bushels per acre, in large fields of many acres, and every other crop in pro- 
portion. 

The South cannot breed too many sheep, depend on that. The more they 
breed the richer the planters will grow, and the more rapidly will their soil 
be improved. 

New York. A. B. ALLEN. 



The Cruelty of Stanchions for Cattle. — Colorado Notes. 21 

The Cruelty of Stanchions for Cattle 

A corrcspondeut of the Prairie Farmer pronounces stanchions a mild form 
of cruelty to cattle, and we fully agree with him. lie adds: " When cows 
are sleeping, they invariably bend their necks and rest their heads at their 
sides. This must be their most comfortable sleeping position, of which they 
are deprived by stanchions. It cannot, or ought not to be a desirable object 
to gain more space by stanchions. A cow ought never to have less than 
three feet by five and one-half feet space to stand and lie down in, and the 
fastening by rope, chain or bow gives it, provided the short chains are 
regulated accordingly." 

But, it is urged that stanchions ensure increased cleanliness. In a properly 
built cow stable, cleanliness is ensured by other means. There should be a 
trench behind the stand from six to eight inches deep. This prevents the 
cows from stepping back to lie down beyond the intended space. The stands 
being just the required length, the droppings will fall into the trench, and 
only in cases where the cows are eating and have stepped forward, their 
droppings will fall on the stand. But there is even a provision against this, 
by making the cows get up a few minutes before feeding. In most cases, 
they will drop their manure as soon as they get up. When done with the 
feeding, a hand may go behind the cows with a hoe, and rake down in the 
trench such manure as may have been dropped on the stand ; he also pulls 
back under the hind part of the cow any straw or refuse feed lodged under 
the forefeet, so she may find a pleasant bed when she has done feeding and 
wants to lie down. 



itpairtmtnt of Matnxnl ^istcrg. 



Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in our October 
number,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be addressed, (post paid,) 
to Mr. Charles E. Dodge, Washington, T>. C. 



Colorado Notes. 



During my recent trip through Colorado, I was much surprised at finding 
so few insects in the mountain regions, compared with other localities. 
Every f»w years the hateful grasshopper, so-called, (Caloptenus spretus,) 
swarms in untold numbers, devouring every green thing ; but, aside from 
this, it seems that vegetation is not seriously injured by insect depredations. 
Even the Colorado potato-bug, which is supposed to be at home, is less in- 
jurious than at the east. At many points 1 examined potato fields, and found 
only a few of the beetles. Occasionally the wild prickly Solanum is seen 
growing, as a weed, near cultivated potatoes, and in many cases the propor- 
tion of insects found on the wild plants are three to one. Coloradians claim 
that the bug never originated with them, but they had it first from the 



22 The Bee Moth. 

east ; but whether they did or did not, they are certainly not so numerous or 
injurious as in some more easterly locations. 

At the highest point reached on Pike's Peak, I found specimens of the 
grasshopper mentioned above, and I was informed that they were often found 
on the mountains, when in great numbers, above the snow-line. One enthu- 
siastic observer declared he had seen thevoL frozen solid, and after thawing out, 
found them as lively as ever. Of course I didn't contradict him. 

Some species of gall insects appeared to be particularly destructive. On 
some of the dwarf oaks, at low elevations, the galls were as plenty as the 
acorns, and not confined to one bush, but spread over a large space. On 
other varieties of trees, the entire foliage was curled and distorted by leaf- 
galls. 

The lady bugs, in infinite variety, were very abundant everywhere, and 
many of the commoner species of butterflies were plenty enough during the 
warm part of the day, but the night-flying moths were remarkably scarce, 
very few being attracted to our camp fires. 

I had expected to make fine collections in the mountains but I was greatly 
disappointed, and since my return I have been told by an Entomologist who 
has made extensive explorations in that country, that such was his experi- 
ence. Perhaps when the insects are furnished farms and gardens to work in, 
and cultivated plants to feed upon, they may increase and multiply even as 
their eastern brethren. C. E. D. 



The Bee Moth. 



We give an outline figure of this terrible pest of the Bee keeper, in its 
three stages of larva, pupa, and perfect insect. The insect is known as 
Gallerea cereana, Fab., and its natural history is as fol- 
lows : The female deposits her eggs after dark, getting 
into the hive for the purpose, if possible, but if kept 
out by wire-gauze or any other means, she will deposit 
her eggs in any cracks about the hive, and the young 
worms hatching will be sure to work their way in- 
The young worms go to work immediately on the wax 
of the comb, boring through it in every direction, 
spinning silken cases as they go, and not only destro^Mng 
the comb but any young bees that may be in*the way. 
When fully grown the worm measures over an inch in length, and is dusky 
in color above and yellowish beneath. When ready to change it crawls down, 
and getting into the angles of the hive, spins a silken cocoon, and, in a short 
time, makes its appearance as a perfect moth. There are two broods in one 
season, the first appearing about May or June, the second in August. Their 
presence may be detected by their excrement, resembling gunpowder mixed 
with bee bread, etc., on the bottom of the hive. In the old-fashioned hive a 
very good trap for the worm was made by splitting sticks of elder, removing 




Answers to Corre^ondenis. — How to Treat Caged blocking Birds. 23 

the pith, and cutting notches along the side ; these to be placed at night in 
the bottom of the hive or on the setting board. The worms take refuge 
under them, and may be sought out and killed in the morning. Old rags 
placed between the bottom board and the back of the hive, have also been 
recommended as a trap for the worms; but where a hive is badly infested, 
nothing can be done unless to remove the bees to a new hive and destroy the 
old entirely. 



A Good Word for a Friend. — Some experiments were made in France 
during the past season, which furnish only additional proof of the usefulness 
of the mole. One which was experimented on in July, devoured in four days 
432 avornils, (a kind of maggot,) and 250 grubs. Another was placed in a 
box, and in twelve days it ate 872 avornils and 540 grubs ; vegetable food 
was also supplied, but it remained untouched. 



Answers to Correspondents. 



Large Wasp. — J. H K. The large black 
and yellow wasp, or hornet, measuring nearly 
an inch and a half in length, sent by you for 
identification is the Stizus grandis. It forms 
its burrows in the ground, sometimes making 
galleries nearly three feet long, with side 
chambers. Into one of these the female Stizus 
drags a common locust or harvest fly, (Ci- 
cada,) having first paralyzed it with her sting. 



and after laying an egg in it, leaves it as food 
for her yet unborn young. When hatched 
the grub feeds on the locust till fully grown, 
then changes to a pupa, and finally to the 
perfect fly. They sometimes store their nests 
with grasshoppers instead of locusts. They 
are not injurious to agriculture. There is 
another very similar species (5. speciosus) 
that has the same habits. 



Ho-w to Treat Caged Mocking Birds. 

The mocking bird is easily tamed and reared in confinement, but it requires 
attention at all times, and especially when quite young, and it is necessary 
to know something of its habits and its requirements in regard to food, drink 
and temperature. A writer in the Rural New Yorker gives the following 
excellent hints on this subject : 

They require feeding regularly every morning, and given fresh water in 
their bath dishes as well as for drinking. We procure for them in the city 
prepared food, such as can be found at any bird store. If you are not so 
situated that this food can be procured, give them a feed of Indian meal 
mixed with milk to the consistency of a thin paste. Jn their season give 
them whortleberries, of which they are very fond, also, cedar, elder, poke- 
berries and wild cherries. [Here in the South the well known mocking bird 
berry may be added.] These might be gathered and dried for winter use, 
as this is a desirable food for these birds, they thriving best on it. An egg 
boiled hard and grated with a small quantity of carrot is very good to give 
them once or twice a week. A small piece of raw meat minced fine is also 
of service, which they highly relish. During the summer season air is 
of great benefit to them, but they should not be placed in the hot sun. The 
greatest care should be exercised with them during the moulting season, 



24 



Chats about Caged Birds. 



which generally commences in August and continues until November. Then 
the bird should be kept in warm, quiet quarters, away from all draughts of 
cold air, which is very injurious. Supply them at this time with plenty of 
berries, spiders and grasshoppers especially the former, as in their native 
woods they live mainly on this kind of food. Regularity in feeding birds is 
the gre&i desideratu77i ; therefore do not neglect them during the moulting 
season. Put a nail in the drinking water, and let it lie until it becomes 
rusty. This is also good when the bird shows any signs of sickness. In such 
an event it is absolutely necessary to treat them kindly, give abundantly of 
insects, or meal worms, the latter can be found in granaries ; put also fine 
gravel in the bottom of the cage, and suffer as little disturbance as possible ; 
the quieter they can be kept the better ; warmth is essential. 







A supply of meal worms can be easily obtained by putting into a tight box 
or chest pieces of old flannel mixed with Indian meal, the whole slightly 
damp, to which add a few worms from the granary or bird stores. Place 
the whole in a warm place, and j-ou will soon have a supply. 



Chats about Caged Birds. 

The rearing and taming of birds is a matter of great pleasure and happy 
cares in some homes ; and their pretty waj'S and delightful melodies are well 
calculated to inspire cheerfulness in a care-worn heart, and to teach many a 
useful lesson to the young. While there are some who have fine success in 
the management of these household pets, there are others who would gladly 
rear them, if they possessed the requisite knowledge. Having had some 
experience and much enjoyment in the management of birds, the writer 



A Trip to the Rocky Mountains — II. 25 

^vould offer a few suggestions for the benefit of any reader who may need or 
desire them. 

One of the first things of importance in bird care is cleanliness, as this tends 
to prolong life and mal^e them healthy and cheerful, to say nothing of their 
added ornament. A cage should be thoroughly washed in every part twice a 
week; and the sand and papers in the bottom renewed daily. The perches 
should on no account be neglected, or lame feet and the loss of toes will be 
the consequence. If at any time one is obliged to clean the feet, bo careful 
to dip and soak them in water first, else the skin will come off with the dirt. 
The feet should be frequently examined, as bits of hair, wool and thread not 
infrequently- become entangled about the toes, cutting deep and sometimes 
twisting off a portion of the foot. 

Some birds keep themselves very neat, while others must be cleaned per- 
force. When they neglect to bathe themselves, they should be gently placed 
for an instant in moderately cool water, taking care not to frighten or anger 
them. As birds are peculiarly sensitive to the changes of temperature, care 
should be used not to subject them to too great heat or sun in summer, or 
the cold of a window in winter. They should be covered and protected as 
tenderly as plants or babies on a severe night. 

The following method is usually found very successful in taming birds. 
If you wish to teach one to fly abroad, or go out with you perched upon 
vour finger or shoulder, first tease it with a soft feather in an open cage. 
The bird will snap at the feather, and then at your finger, gradually coming 
out of the cage to perch upon your extended finger. Immediately stroke it, 
and lay before it some choice morsels. Your bird will soon take these from 
your hand. Then begin to accustom it to some peculiar call or whistle, and 
as soon as it permits Ttself to be grasped by the hand, carry it from room to 
room, (taking care that all doors and windows are shut,) upon the shoulder 
or hand ; then permit it to fly, and recall it with the same whistle or call. 

As soon as it attends to this call, take it into the open air, and you will 
thus gradually accustom it to your voice and will, so that it will not attempt 
to fly awa}^ when abroad. Do not, however, venture out with adults in the 
spring or pairing time, as they will surely be tempted to resume their freedom. 

If you wish to teach a bird to eat from your mouth, keep him for a time 
in the cage without food, and then, when sitting upon your finger, extend to 
him his favorite food upon the tip of the tongue, or from between the teeth. 
Birds may, also, be taught to sing upon the hand or shoulder by certain 
motions, tones and care. 

These pretty little creatures have sensitive natures, and much of the beauty 
of their song depends upon their food, surroundings and care. Canaries are 
by no means the only birds which we may tame and enjoy caged. The 
robin, ground thrasher, (brown thrush,) linnet, American goldfinch, mocking- 
bird, and many others, are capable of being made very happy in-doors. — 
Country Gentleman. 

A Trip to the Rocky Mountains— II. 

As stated in my last, we left St. Louis at half-past five o'clock, in charge 
of Mr. E. A. Ford, General Passenger Agent of the Atlantic and Pacific and 
Mo. Pacific railroads, en route for the Indian Territory. In addition to two 
splendid cars — one a sleeping car — we were furnished every comfort that an 
excurtionist could wish for, Missouri native champagne and choice Havana's 
included. And here I must say, if the success of Western railroads is to be 



26 A Trip to the Rocky Mountains — 11. 

estimated by the extent of the courtesies of their officials, their attentions to 
us seemed to indicate that stocks were up. 

Starting late in the day from St. Louis, there was little chance for observa- 
tion till we had passed over some 240 miles of our course, which brought us 
to Springfield— time, about seven o'clock in the morning. Here we break- 
fasted — more railroad hospitality — and after again taking our seats in the 
cars the enjoyment of the trip commenced. 

From this point the land seems to improve — although we saw no 'poor land 
in Missouri — all the way to the rolling praries of Indian Territory. The 
scenery at times is very picturesque and beautiful, especially so at Grand 
Eiver, a short distance beyond the State line. The towns all along this sec- 
tion of the road are quite new, and seem in a thriving condition. The soil 
is very productive, though as yet little cultivated, but that will be remedied 
when the railroad becomes an older thing. We are now in Indian Territory, 
and only twenty or thirty miles from the end of the track, where they pro- 
pose to show us how railroads are made, and in as beautiful a country as ever 
the sun shone upon. If the red man can't be taught agriculture under such 
conditions of soil and climate, and in such a delightful place, we will give him 
up entirely. The land is rolling prarie, well watered and heavily wooded 
along the streams; the rich black soil covered with luxuriant grasses, ad- 
mirably adapted for grazing purposes, and altogether it seemed a land 
" Where every prospect pleases 
And only man is Tile," — 

referring to poor " Lo " I suppose. At last we i-each the construction train 
at the end of the track, and then all walk to the point where the rails are 
being laid, and first spikes driven. 

Eeturningto the baggage car, we banquet a la railroad, a little more native 
wine — a little more speaking — all splendid fellows — and with feelings of deep 
obligations for the rare treat we have enjoyed, we again take our seats to 
review it all on the return trip. At Springfield we take supper, and stop a 
couple of hours to hear a few statements regarding the productiveness, etc., 
of this region. We were told that nearly all kinds of fruits and vegetables 
did well. Grain could be grown as well as in the more Northern States. 
Tobacco was as sure as in Maryland or Virginia. Clover and the tame grasses 
yielded well. Land can be bought from ten to fifty dollars an acre. Farm 
horses from one hundred to one hundred and twenty-five dollars. Cows, from 
fifteen to forty dollars; oxen, fifty dollars and upwards, and so on. The 
climate is considered healthy, and altogether, they think it's a good place to 
live. 

At Franklin, thirty-seven miles from St. Louis, after a good night's rest in 
our sleeping car, we are transferred to the Missouri and Pacific Eailroad, 
bound for Leavenworth and Denver. The same courtesies are kept up all the 
way, and it's a great wonder wo wore not killed outright with kindness. At 
Herman, we found fruits in abundance, and very cheap. The bluffs back of 
the town are covered with vineyards, and as the population is largely Ger- 



A Trip to the Rochy 3Iountains — 11. 27 

man, we miffht almost imagine we were on the banks of the Rhine — only the 
Missouri Kiver would have to undergo some change. We follow the course of 
this river to Jefferson City, with high bluffs on the left, then we leave it and 
strike across the country to Kansas City, where we are met by the Governor 
of Kansas and a number of the Leavenworth reception committee. 

To make a long story short, we reach Leavenworth about midnight, drive 
immediately to the hotel, and before we have hardly had time to get off the 
dirt and dust of our journey, we find ourselves in the dining room in company 
with representative people from all parts of the State, and then we do it all 
over again, and only get a chance to " put us in our little beds," when the 
grey dawn of morning begin to show itself in faint streaks against the east- 
ern horizon. But the decorations — it shall be called " drouthy Kansas," no 
more — such splendid specimen of grains, fruits and vegetables; they told 
the story completely, and there was no need of a single speech, except from 
our side of the house. After a troubled sleep of a few hours, we arose and 
were permitted to rest till afternoon, then carriages were provided, and we 
had a fine opportunity to see the country. The soil in this part of the State 
as well as in Southern Kansas, is very productive, and I think if some of our 
eastern farmers were to see the country as I saw it, I fear they would pull 
up stakes immediately. 

Saturday morning, the 29th, we made the acquaintance of Mr. Charles B. 
Judd, the gentlemanly Conductor of the splendid Pullman Palace Car "Aus- 
tralia," and in the charge of Mr, Beverly Keim, General Ticket Agent, Kansas 
Pacific Railroad, and Governor Harvey, we started for Denver. After pass- 
ing Topeka, the capital of the State, the most notable place, perhaps, is Abi- 
lene, where the Texas cattle are driven for shipment east. Night brings us 
to Salina, over one hundred and eighty miles from Leavenworth. Our cars 
are switched off upon a side track, and here we stop till morning. 

I can't say much for the agriculture of Kansas at this point, for insects of 
all forms, sizes and colors were so abundant, that I lost all sight of every- 
thing else in my endeavors to secure specimens. The grasshopper were got- 
ten up regardless of expense, and in size, color and number of species, upset 
all my previous calculations on the subject. You must bear in mind we are 
on the plains now, where the towns look as if they only intended to make a 
short visit, and not in Eastern Kansas. As we proceed on our journey it be- 
comes less civilized, and before noon we strike the buffalo range, (didn't see 
any buffaloes though, although the next week the trains were stopped by 
them.) At Ellis we sat down to the best dinner we had eaten in railroad 
dining rooms on the entire trip from New York, so, readers of The Rural 
Carolinian, when you go West, leave your lunch baskets at home ; they are 
only in the way. 

At this and two other points on the road, we examined the trees raised 
from seed by Mr. Elliot, Industrial Agent of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, who 
is conducting a series of very interesting experiments in tree planting on the 
plains without irrigation, and at 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation. 



28 A Trip to the Rocky Mountains — III. 

From Ellis I spend the remainder of the day in watching dead buffaloes 
that so thickly strew our pathway, and in catching insects at the stations, 
and after a good supper at Wallace, we go to sleep once more to wake up 
within an hour's ride of Denver, and in sight of the grand old Eockies, of 
which I will speak in my next 

Denver, Colorado, August 1st, 1871. C. E. D. 



A Trip to the Rocky Mountains—Ill. 



One gets a very poor idea of Denver approaching it from the east, or rail- 
road side, partly on account of its being the poorer part of the city, and 
partly from the fact that the grade descends rapidly for a number of miles 
before we come to the terminus of the railroad. The business portion of the 
place is well built up, the buildings being, for the most part, two stories high, 
and of brick. The dwelling houses are rather inferioi', still there are a num- 
ber of quite good looking two story brick houses. One very pleasing feature 
to me, was the abundance of shade trees everywhere, and you will please 
bear in mind we are in a country now where everything requires irrigation 
to grow at all. 

Carriages were provided by the city authorities on the afternoon of our 
arrival, and we were showed everything of interest around the city, including 
the system of irrigation, but I will speak of that more particularly at another 
time. A fine Boulevard has been laid out in the northern suburbs, with four 
rows of shade trees of several miles in extent. The trees are, generally, 
cotton-woods, and all seemed to be doing well. 

Tuesday morning, August Ist, seven teams might have been seen slowly 
moving off over the level plateau, northwest of the city in the direction of 
Golden. I say might have been seen, for i doubt if any one paid any parti- 
cular attention to them, as it was the only mode of conveyance only a short 
time ago, I can easily imagine, though, one of the natives asking of a 
comrade : 

"I say, Bill, whose outfit's that ar' ?" 

"Oh! Them's the agricult'ral editers goin' prospectin' up to South Park." 

Everything that travels through the mountain is termed an outfit, from a 
mule and blankets to a distinguished editorial party even. Well, that was 
our "outfit ;" and under the leadership of Captain Shaw, a warm-hearted fel- 
low, who has roughed it in " those parts " for many a year, and was made 
up of two provision and baggage wagons, five passenger teams, two of which, 
in their shabby-gentility, had evidently seen better days, and -one beach 
wagon, or ambulance, as the driver called it, which was quite a respectable 
concern. 

At noon we reached Golden City, which is noted principally for its fire- 
brick. It is located about fifteen miles from Denver, and is the first moun- 
tain town on our trip. 



A Trip to the Rocky Mountains — III. 29 

From Golden, we enter a rock}- gorge or caSon, and are fairly climbing 
the mountains. The botanists of our party, three in number, go to work in 
good earnest, and your correspondent tries the bugs, but, alas! his old friends 
of the plains have forsaken him. About six in the evening we reach the 
foot of Guy Hill, and prepare to camp, but our tents and provisions are far 
behind, and so we wait about an hour and a half for them to come up. Then 
our two cooks, "Moke" and " Heny," go to work to prepare supper, and 
as it may interest the readers of The Kural, I will give the bill of fare : 
Fried ham and breakfast bacon, sardines, green corn and tomatoes, a la 
tin can, hot soda biscuit, French mustard, mixed pickles, and tea and cof- 
fee. As nearly all the gentlemen made up their minds to sleep in a nei'^h- 
boring ranchman's barn, no tents were put up that night. The ladies of our 
party, I think, slept at the house. A few of ns, however, remained in camp, 
and spread our blankets in the bottom of the wagons. 

The road, on either side of Guy Hill, is very steep and winding, and the 
scenery very wild at some points, the sides of the caiion through which we 
are passing seems to rise almost above us. Noon of the next day finds us 
at Black Hawk and Central City, two mining towns, thirty-seven and tliirty- 
eight miles respectively from Denver. Here we visited several stamp mills 
where the ore is crushed, and one smelting furnace, where the metal and 
clay are separated by heat. The metal is mixed with many impurities, and 
they told us it was shipped to England to be assayed. Central is quite a 
city, and boasts of many fine stores for such a place, but the country round 
about is desolate enough. The beds of the once beautiful mountain streams 
have all been torn up by gulch mining, (i. e., shovelling over the earth in a 
stream or trough of running water, allowing the gold to collect at the bot- 
tom in little beds of quicksilver,) and the hill-sides are all dug over by pros- 
pecting parties, and the scene actually becomes sickening, when we think how 
much this part of God's beautiful earth has been marred by man for a little 
handful of gold. The beautiful " clear creek " is a dirty stream as black as 
ink, and gets an additional tinge of black at every stamp mill through which 
it " washes." 

From Central for a number of miles we are constantly rising, and some- 
times the road is so steep that the whole party is obliged to walk. The 
highest point is reached at last, and then it is down hill all the way to the 
Idaho Hot Springs. Here are soda springs where the temperature of the 
water is always above 100° F. Large bathing houses have been erected over 
immense tanks, and one can take a hot bath in water five feet deep. They 
are said to be curative. 

At the Platte, or the North fork of the Platte, or the South branch of the 
North fork of the South Platte, or at some stream in the vicinity, we stopped 
half a day for trout fishing; your humble servant pulling out the largest, 
finest specimen, after which he wisely gave up catching fish for insects. 
The evening before, as our tents did not come up at all, we had the pleasure 
of sleeping on the ground around our camp-fire, with only the heavens for a 



30 A Trip to the Rocky Mountahis — ///. 

canopy — and in the night our horses were stampeded by a bear, (so the 
drivers said,) but we didn't see him. 

On Sunday, the 6Lh of August, we reached South Park, and camped that 
night at Hamilton, a deserted mining village twelve miles from the rim of the 
Park, as thoroughly disgusted a set of individuals as ever shivered round a 
fire. We had read of the marvellous beauties of South Park, and had ex- 
pected to find one ef the prettiest spots on earth, beautiful groves, luxuriant 
green grass, and clear streams, abounding with trout and all that sort of 
thing. But, alas I we travelled over only arid plains, with here and there 
'• alkali soil," showing, through the scanty vegetation, the streams few and 
far between, or dried up, and the only groves those we had left high up on 
the " rim," or in the mountains. At Hamilton most of the party went to the 
hotel, and the remainder of us hired a bar-room for the night, and lay down 
to sleep on the dirty floor with our feet to the open fire place, which was 
the only comfortable thing about the place. This is one of the scenes of the 
Pike's Peak gold excitement in 1859. 

Our next point was Fair Play, ninety miles from Denver, near Mount 
Lincoln. We had intended to make the ascent of this famous mountain, but 
it was 80 smoky it had to be given up. At Pine Tree Spring we camped 
near a very singular pile of rock, where we discovered Indian fortifications 
for nearly a mile in extent. This part of the Park looks a little better, but 
did not begin to come up to our expectations. 

On the night of the 8th we camped once more in the mountains, and I for 
one was thankful that South Park was behind us, especially as we had 
travelled nearly all day without water, and that which we did find at last of 
the poorest quality. At night, however, we had good water, and the best of 
grass lor our stock. Here we saw evidences of agriculture, a few fields of 
rather good looking potatoes, and occasionally a field of " quite likely " 
grain surrounding the inevitable log shanty. Land here is secured by pre- 
emption and the final payment of SI 25 per acre. 

Our next point is Pike's Peak, Colorado City, and the Garden of the Gods. 
We camp two days at the Colorado Soda Springs, at the foot of Pike's Peak, 
and three miles from Colorado City. The Springs, three in number, bubble 
up out of solid rock, and are known (in Indian) as the doctor, or drinking 
spring ; the fountain, or bathing spring ; and the beast, or cattle spring ; and 
it is somewhat singular to see animals wade through the brook that flows 
near, and march to this bubbling soda spring to drink. A fine hotel is to be 
built here by the Fountain Colony, costing over $50,000 j and they hope to 
make this the Saratoga of the West. The waters of " the doctor " are very 
pleasant, and when mixed with lemon juice and sugar make a very good imi- 
tation of soda water. We tried to make the ascent of Pike's Peak in one 
day, without mules, Mr. Eaton, of the N. E. Farmer^ and myself, going higher 
than any of the other members of the party, gaining a point within six or 
seven hundred feet perhaps of the top. Mr. Williams, of the Horticulturist, 
reached a point perhaps two hundred feet lower, and was obliged to turn 



Lawns and Grass Plots. 31 

back, as the extreme rarity of the atmosphere had begun to affect his head. 
Three others reached timber line, and two went some distance beyond. In 
eight and a half hours we rose nearly 8,000 feet, and wore only pi-evented 
irom reaching the top by limited time. 

Colorado City is to be the present terminus of the new Narrow Guago 
Railroad, now building, A new colony is being founded in this vicinity, and 
is called the Fountain Colony. From Colorado City our course is home- 
ward (to Denver) over what is called the " divide," the water shed separat- 
ing the waters of the Platte and the Arkansas. It extends fifty miles out 
into the plains, and its elevation near the base of the mountains is 7,000 feet. 
Crops are here grown successfully without irrigation. 

On our way we pass Garden of the Gods and Monument Park, which are 
very picturesque piles of rock work, scattered over the open plain, sometime 
reaching a height of three hundred feet. In Monument Park the monuments 
are columns of soft white or grey sandstone twenty feet high, capped with 
irregular flat stone of a harder material. The theory is that the soil origi- 
nally reached to the top of these flat caps, and that time and water have 
■worn away both soil and rock, leaving only these white monuments, to note 
the fact. 

I would like to tell you more of the many beautiful objects in and about 
the mountains of Colorado, but time and space forbid. 

On the 14th of August, three days after leaving Colorado City, we drove 
into Denver, and on the 15th started for the Colony of Greely, on our way 
home, via Wyoming and Nebraska; but we will bring this already long let- 
ter to a close, and tell the rest of the story at another time. 

Denver, Colorado, August loth, 1871. C. R. D. 



orlitttltnre antr gnral 



La^vns and Grass Plots. 



House-yards and surrounding grounds in the South are too often very un- 
inviting places. The bare ground, however cleanly swept, is not the most 
refreshing object to the eye. How much better a carpet of fresh green grass! 

" But grass will not grow," you say. 

Have you tried it ? 

" Yes, tried and failed, and tried again with the same result." 

"Well, perhaps, you did not try in the right way ; and, may be, we can put 
3'ou on the road to success. We have made fine grass plots and lawns in the 
South, and so have many others ; and what has been done can generally be 
done again. 

The first essential is the proper preparation of the ground. Here is where 
most persons have failed, making their best succeeding operations so much 
waste of time and labor. You must have a deep, rich soil to begin with — say 



32 



Lawns and Grass Plots. 



from eighteen inches to two feet, well manured. If for a small plot do the 
work with the spade. For a lawn, deep ploughing and subsoiling will do. 
The whole surface must be finely pulverized and made smooth. 




Now for the grass. Throughout most of our middle and upper country, 
especially if the soil be strong and somewhat clayey, blue grass and white 
clover are the seeds to sow. Farther South, in partially shaded situations, 
the blue grass succeeds finely, and the white clover should not be lacking 
anywhere. Blue grass and white clover may be sown either in fall or spring. 
We prefer fall sowing — say from September to November, depending upon 
tbe latitude and the condition of the soil. The grass should have time to get 
a t^ood foothold before winter sets in. Sow just before a rain, if possible, 
and rake in lightly. Don't spare seed. At least three bushels of blue grass 
and from six to ten pounds of white clover per acre should be sown. Give 
the ground a light top dressing of plaster after sowing the seeds. 

We will suppose you have followed these directions and have got a stand. 
You may think you have not. The blue grass is very small at first, and will 
make little show the first year, but the white clover will produce its effect 
at once. 

A blue grass lawn requires attention. It is not enough that you have got 
your ground well seeded. The grass must be cut as often as once a week or 
ten days, through the season. If it be allowed to get tall and then bo mown, 
unless there should be immediate rains, it will be killed out by the sun ; so, 
if you are not willing to take the pains to mow your blue grass lawn or plot, 
don't plant it. 



Floioers for Summer Blooming. 33 

This brino-8 us to Bermuda grass. "Where blue grass will not succeed, or 
where it is considered too much trouble to cut it so often, the Bermuda 
comes in. That never fails, and you may cut it or not, as you like. Prepare 
the •'•round as for the blue grass and get sods of Bermuda grass, cut them up 
into small pieces and plant them out or scatter them broadcast, and press 
them in with a roller, sowing white clover seed as with the blue grass. 

All lawns and grass plots should receive an annual coat of manure, and 
have a roller passed over them occasionally. Ashes and lime once in three 
or four years are beneficial. 

If you want a lawn or a grass plot, and are not afraid of work, you can have 
it as easily in the South as anywhere. Try it ! 



Flowers for Summer Blooming. 

During the greater part of winter and the whole of the spring, the South- 
ern flower garden is, Or may be, gay with a varied succession of floral offer- 
ings ; but with the heats and drouths— often alternating with beating rains— of 
July and August, there comes a trying time for vegetation and bloom. Then, 
many of the plants so beautiful and popular in cooler climates fade, dwindle, 
and finally die out, and our flower beds are apt to present a rather desolate and 
desert-like appearance. This need not be. As we have shown in respect to 
the vegetable garden, there are plants— and not a few merely, but many— 
that perfectly withstand our hottest, dryest summers. These are found 
mainly among indigenous species, and those that originated in tropical or 
semi-tropical countries. The plants of more northern regions are suited to 
our winter and spring months. 

During the severe drouth and intensely hot weather of the past summer, 
we observed closely the effects of the heat and dryness upon both the vege- 
table and the flower garden. It is not our purpose to give here the results 
of our observation in full, but it may be useful to name some of the plants 
which showed most completely their adaptation to our climate, even under 
the most trying conditions; for these hints can be made available when plant- 
ing time shall come again. 

First, that graceful little shrub Plumbago capensis. The hottest and dryest 
time found it as fresh and bright as ever, and its delicate, pale blue flowers 
never failed. This, by the way, is one of the very best of our small shrubs. 
Equally regardless of burning sun and parching drouth is the Lantana, 
another indispensable perpetual bloomer. Budleya Lindleyana's drooping 
spikes of purple flowers were never lacking, through the whole summer. 
Matsea glabra or Manettia, a beautiful rapid growing climber, is another choice 
treasure in the Southern garden, whose brilliant scarlet blossoms never fail 
us. Tritoma uvaria, (Red hot poker,) throws up its tall flower stems at in- 
tervals during the summer, and is striking and picturesque. 

Amono- the annuals, the showey Zinnia, with its numerous shades of color 
No. 1, Vol. 3 3 



34 Winter Horse Apple. 

from white to crimson, may be counted upon in spite of sun and shower, 
from May to November or later; and if it bo common, it is among the best 
of our largo growing annuals. The Daturas are good in their place, and 
endure the summer well. Amaranths may require watering, but can be kept 
growing till winter, as can the cockscomb, adding much, when properly 
combined with other plants, to give variety to the bed or border. The Co- 
reopsis also suffers some from our severe drouths, but will reward a little 
trouble in watering. The Salvias deserve special mention, as very beautiful 
and continuing long in bloom. They will grow right on, and continue to 
bloom through the summer and autumn. Balsams may bo kept blooming in 
profusion the whole season, by making successive plantings. Verbenas, petu- 
nias, portulaccas and asters, can be had at all times in summer, but require 
some attention during severe drouths. 

Of climbing plants for summer bloom, we have the never-to-be-despised 
morning glory, some new varieties of which are very beautiful, the cypress 
vine, the Thunbergia, (too little known,) the Maurandias and the hyacinth 

bean. 

We have not attempted anything like a complete list of available flowering 

plants for our hot season, but the foregoing are sufficient alone to save our 

borders and flower beds from their too common summer bareness. 



"Winter Horse Apple. 




This is a fruit of uncertain Southern origin, but very generally popular 
whi'ro known. Size, medium to large; form, roundish oblate, sometimes 
rather conical and often irregular; color, clear pale yellow when rijte ; flesh, 
rich, juicy Htid of pleasant flavor. Its keeping qualities are good. The tree 
is moderately vigorous and fruits early. 



The Japan Pea (Soja hispida.) 35 

The Japan Pea, (Soja hispida.) 

It is singular how slowly even the best agricultural and horticultural plants 
sometimes make their way among us. We may mention as instances, 
Doura corn, Egyptian millet, tanyah, and running mango. All these have 
been long known and grown in the South, by a few individuals, here and 
there, or in some particular locality or localities, but the great mass of our 
farmers and gardeners are still entirely ignorant of their existence, and when 
attention is called to them, as has been done in The Kural Carolinian and 
seeds are in demand, none of our seedsmen have thera, or can give any in- 
formation about them. The Japan pea may be placed in the same cateo-oiy. 
It is by no means of very recent introduction, but we venture to say that not 
one in a hundred of our readers ever heard of it till it was mentioned some 
time ago in this journal; and yet we greatly mistake if it be not of even 
greater importance and value to the South, than all other peas and beans to- 
gether. 

The Japan pea is a native of the East Indies and resembles the bean more 
than the pea. Botanicaliy, it is neither a bean nor a pea, though allied 
to them. The plant makes a strong erect growth with numerous branches 
and grows from two to four feet in height. The leaves are much like 
those of the common bean. The pods are short, woody, and haiiy, and 
contain from two to three seeds each. They grow in thick clusters over 
the entire plant, making a heavy yield. The seeds when green resemble 
the bean, but on ripening and drying, become nearly round or pea-shaped. 
There are three varieties, the red, the yellow, and the green. The yellow 
variety is the one most generally disseminated. 

Prof J. Parish Stelle thus speaks of this vegetable in Our Home Journal : 

This pea classes with the tender plants which will not endure frost hence 
it should not be planted before the proper time for planting garden beans • 
or until all danger of frost has passed. I planted in rows three feet apart', 
last year, and left single plants two feet from each other in the rows but I 
found the crop rather crowded, so this season i am putting the rows four feet 
apart. Culture the same as for corn. When the first frost had touched the 
leaves, I pulled up the stalks, and after exposing them to the sun for a few 
days on an earth floor, I thrashed with a flail and run the peas through a 
wheat pan. The yield must have averaged fifty bushels to the acre I think 
though I made no careful measurement. To prepare for the table, we plunged 
them into boiling water, let stand over night, and then cooked with bacon 
the same as one would cook white or " Yankee soup beans." ' 

I do not consider the Japan pea a very exhausting crop, for its heavy 
foliage being cut down by the first frost, returns to the soil the greater bulk 
of what the plant had taken from it. But I do consider it a valuable crop, 
and one which must become even more valuable as the people o-et to find it 
out. The day for producing ordinary peas and beans, is rapTdly passing 
away from this country, on account of ihe pea and bean weevils. For a long 
time the latter has been chiefly confined to the South, but of late it seems to 
have broken over its bounds, and to have got as far North as Pennsylvania 
and New York, doing its business up there in quite a workmanlike manner 



36 The Laic of Leaf Arrangement. 

and spreading rapidly to the no little consternation of our friends in those 
"favored" regions. Well let it go. With our Japan pea, which can not be 
coaxed to follow and rebuild its ruins, we can cook on with no very great 
concern. The fight between their entomologists and our bean weevil, is 
"none of our funeral." We already foresee the result. And when the van- 
quished force retires from the field, we shall off* r them our sympathy, and I 
hope we shall be prepared to offer them our Japan peas — provided they are 
willing to pay us well for them; and they'll be willing — never fear that. 

We have grown the Japan pea for six or seven years, as a garden crop, 
and esteem it one of the best vegetables we have. To our taste, no other pea 
or bean even approaches it in richness and delicacy of flavor, and we believe 
it is as wholesome and nutritious as it is palatable. Tastes differ, however, 
and all may not like it. We have not tried it, to any extent, as food for 
stock, but know that mules and horses are very fond of the plant in its green 
state. 



The Law of Leaf Arrangement. 

One of the most remarkable instances of the prevalence of law in the 
natural world is shown in the arrangement of the leaves of the plants. 

Where the leaves are not opposite, it is found that they grow in spiral 
rows around the stem, at certain regular distances from one another. 

If we fasten a thread upon the base of a vine-leaf, and wind it around the 
shoot, we shall find the next leaf, above the one from which we started, is 
half way around the stem, and that the second is directly above the one 
which we began to reckon. This series may, therefore, be represented by the 
fraction f, in which the numerator shows that we have made one circuit 
around the stem, and the denominator that there are two leaves within the 
circuit; beginning to count with the leaf above the one from which we 
started. 

In another plant three leaves Avill be found in one circuit, the first leaf 
begins one-third of the distance around the stem, the second two-thirds, and 
the third completes the circuit. This series is, therefore, represented by the 
fraction J. 

Other plants, as the pear and currant, have a series of five leaves, making 
two circuits, the first leaf in the spiral row being placed at two-fifths of the 
distance around the stem, from the leaf assumed as the starting point, the 
second four-fifths, the third six-fifths, and so on. This series is, therefore, in- 
dicated by the fraction two-fifths. Other plants have a series of eight leaves 
in three circuits, and some thirteen in eight circuits. 

Taking into view these several systems, they may be represented by the 
following fractional series, viz: 3-4, 1-3, 2-5, 3-8, 6-13, etc. 

This series expands according to the law that any one of the terms, after 
the second, is equal to the sum of the numerators of the next preceding terms 
divided by the sum of their denominators. 

We have, therefore, the curious fact that mathematical series expresses one 
pf the fixed laws of organic growth. 



Improved Native Plums. 37 

Improved Native Plums. 

In the August number of The Rural Carolinian, there is an article copied 
from the Farmer and Gardener, written by our friend Mr. P. J. Berckmans, 
under the above caption, in which he says, "The Mirier Plum of the "West is 
said to be identical with this [the Wild Goose'] variety." 

I know that some of the "Western fruit-growers have said that the Miner 
and Wild Goose are identical ; but from all the facts in the case, which have 
come under my observation, both pro and con, I think that this is a mistake. 
Both, however, perhaps, had their origin from the Chickasaw. 

I will not go into any detailed account of the origin of the two plums, 
for any one at all acquainted with the origin and history of them knows 
that they are distinct varieties. The Wild Goose had its origin in Tennessee, 
on Cumberland river ; whereas the "Miner, " Downing says, originated with 
Mr. Miner, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Fruit, medium, oblong, pointed at 
apex; skin, dark, purplish red, with a fine bloom ; flesh, soft, juicy, vinous ; 
adheres to the stone. With this, agree, the plate and description in Tilton's 
Journal of Horticulture, Vol. 5, p. 139, for 1869, in a communication from D. 
L. Adair, of Hawesville, Kentucky. Some of our Western friends have taken 
great pains to ascertain whether the Miner and Wild Goose are distinct varie- 
ties or not, and have, I think, shown that they are quite different ; for which 
see Western Pomologist for 1870 and 1871. 

But, Mr. Editor, I do not think that our improved native varieties are all 
that are worthy of cultivation ; for we have other varieties which are of much 
finer flavor, if not quite so reliable ; and amongst these I would mention the Red 
Perdrigon, a vigorous grower, and healthy. Fruit, of medium size, roundish ; 
skin, fine deep red, lilac bloom ; very sweet and juicy ; ripens last of June and 
first of July. Also Lombard, a healthy, fine grower ; fruit, medium size 
roundish, slightly flattened at either end; skin, delicate violet red ; juicy and 
pleasant, but not rich; ripens first to last of June. These two varieties with 
me are almost as sure a crop as the Wild Goose. The Lombard is an enor- 
mous bearer; I have counted as many as forty-five large fine plums on a 
branch one foot long. 

If those who plant the plum, would plant a few trees also for the Curculio, 
and not have the ground too highly stimulated with strong manures; and 
fence the orchard to itself, so as to allow the pigs access to eat the faulty 
fruit, they would have pretty good success with 'even the fine varieties 
of plums. The amateur generally plants his plum trees near his dwelling, 
and as it generally is, the ground is very rich, and the water stands about the 
trees. In this case he will hardly have any fruit to ripen, not much at least, 
and it will be inferior in quality. 

Plant your trees on a rolling situation where the surplus water can run off, 
and plant tolerably deep ; use no strong stable manures ; sow in peas and 
lime, and plough under before planting, if the ground is not tolerably good. 

The Chickasaw plum stock will adapt itself to a greater diversity of soil 



38 



The Strawberry in Hills — Try it Once. 



than any stock with which I am acquainted ; hence, I use that stock for all 
the varieties of the plum, which we have in cultivation, and we work by 
budding close to the collar on current year's seedlings. 

A plum orchard should be kept clean of grass and weeds by shallow culti- 
vation. Do as little pruning as possible ; train low trunks froiii twelve to 
twenty inches; suffer no suckers to grow. 

I think, from observation, that the Chickasaw would bo a good stock upon 
which to work the Hale's Early Peach, as a preventative of rot. I am test- 
ing this and will report results in due time. 

Some of the Mississippi fruit-growers work Hale's Peach on the plum stock, 
as also other varieties ; and from reports which have come under my observa- 
tion they have better success than on the peach stock. We have Hale's Peach 
on peach stock now in bearing, part on tolerably strong, and part on poor land ; 
those on the strong rot much worse than those on the poor soil. This is on 
account of the greater flow of sap; hence, if worked on the plum, which is 
more dwarfish in growth, and will adapt itself to a greater diversity of soils, 
this peach would not rot so badly, if at all. Even on strong laud, and by judi- 
cious thinning the fruit, when small, one may have very fine specimens of 
fruit, as fine as on the peach stock. 

Covington, Ga. JESSE M. WELLBORN. 

The Strawberry in Hills— Try it Once. 

I mean, try cultivating yoyr strawberries in stools. 
For once determine that you will adhere strictly to the 
plan of cutting off every runner and keeping down all 
foreign growth ; and 1 mean by foreign growth every- 
thing except your plants. Select a good piece of 
ground, about sixty feet square, and put it in excellent 
tilth. Then take a garden line that will reach across 
it, and as early in March as you can, [in the fall here] 
get good, strong, well rooted plants, and put them out 
by the line, two feet apart each way — spreading out the 
roots fan-shape — and cover up to but not over the 
crown. Work this plant every ten days during the 
growing season ; and about the middle of December 
following, scatter some kind of seedless straw all over the plat about two 
inches thick, as a winter protection and let this straw remain over the bed 
as a spring and summer -mulch, which will keep the plants moist; and then 
your work is done until bearing season is over. Cultivated in this way your 
berries will be much larger, and the yield enormous. If the season should be 
a good one, you will gather from a pint to a quart to the stool. After they 
are done bearing, spado up the bed — straw and all — and keep it clean of run- 
ners and filth, as you did the season befoi-e; and the following December 
apply fresh mulching, and so on from year to year, and your bed will last in 
fine condition for many years. Try it once, and you will never adopt any 
other plan. WOODMAN, in Prairie Farmer. 




Species and Varieties. — Farmers, Plant Fruit Trees! 39 

Species and Varieties. 

Many practical men and ambitious beginners frequently fail to comprehend 
clearly the real difference between species of trees and real varieties. Apples, 
for example, are a distinct species of fruit. By species is meant a group of 
such individuals as possess an essential identity, and which are capable of 
uniform and permanent continuance by natural propagation. Varieties are 
individuals of different appearance. Southey once said "The variety is 
nothing else but a continued novelty." When Indian corn is planted, the 
product will always be Indian corn. Indian corn is, therefore, a species of 
grain. White, yellow, blue, red, and kernels of other colors are all varieties 
of corn of one species. As apples are a species of fruit, if the seed be planted 
as long as the vicissitudes of seasons endure, the product will be apples. The 
Baldwin apple, the Northern Spy, Seek no Farther, Talman's Sweeting and 
other apples are all varieties- 
Pears are another species of fruit. The Bartlett, Seckel and others are 
varieties. So with Strawberries, which are a species of frnit; but the Wilson 
is a variety, and others are varieties and not species. Horses and neat cattle 
cannot be hybridized, as the different species are so far apart. _ Ducks and 
gallinaceous fowls cannot be hybridized, as there is not sufficient affinity 
between the species. But species of the same geiiera may be hybridized as in 
the union of horses and asses. So with fruit. Apples may be produced on 
pear stocks ; and pears on apple stocks. 

Farmers, Plant Fruit Trees! 

If people, generally, were as fond of cultivating fruit as they are of eating 
it, what a plentiful supply of this healthful luxury we should have, and how 
much better it would be for the interests of all. We frequently gaze with 
amazement upon farms, than which none could be better adapted to the cul- 
tivation of nearly every kind of tree fruit, but upon which such a thing as a 
fruit tree is as great a rarity as snow in harvest. We fail to understand how 
it is possible that people can be so indifferent to their own comfort and their 
own interests. If the setting out of a hundred or two choice peach, pear, 
apple and plum trees, involved an outlay of as many hundred dollars, we 
could then understand why there are so many farms almost devoid of fruit 
of any kind, but when such is not the case, when fifty dollars would clear 
the entire expense, leaving out of the question the cost of planting, which is 
trifling, we confess to utter amazement, and not unfrequently to a feeling of 
indignation. The farmer who does not cultivate as much fruit as is sufficient 
for the largest possible wants of his family, is little less than a barbarian, for 
certainly he must be wanting in one of the broadest characteristics of true 
civilization, when he deprives not only himself, but his family, of what can- 
not be regarded as other than the cheapest, most wholesome, and, though to 
some it may seem a stretch of imagination, elevating luxuries. The cultiva- 
tion of fruit exerts upon the mind an influence not unlike that of the cultiva- 
tion of flowers. It is refining in its tendencies. Where there is an abundance 
of fruit, there is necessarily a smaller consumption of meat, and, consequently, 
less grossness of physical as well as mental habit. 

Go to work, then, farmers, and especially those of you who have hereto- 
fore neglected to plant fruit trees. Do not allow another season to pass over 
your heads without being able to say that, in a few years, you have a rea- 
sonable prospect of a crop of fruit sufficient for your families and for the 
friends who may need it. 



40 A Neio Breech-Loading Rifle, — Atlantic Phosphate Company's Worhs. 



iepadment 0f Sining anb i\t Swl^anic Srts. 



A New Breech-Loading Rifle. 



Dr. W. E. Evans, of Thomaston, Maine, has lately patented a rifle which 
competent judges pronounce the most complete, neat and destructive fire-arm 
ever invented. It is strong and beautiful in all its parts, not differing in size 
from the common rifle; it weighs nine and one-half pounds only. The rifle is 
breech-loading. The stock will hold thirty-eight cartridges of forty-four one- 
hundreths caliber. The whole number of cartridges can be put in in one 
minute without taking the rifle from the shoulder. It can be fired from twenty 
to twenty-five times per minute as a single breech-loader. There are no long 
springs to become weak ; each cartridge is forced into its position by a device 
which is strong and sure ; each cartridge is in a cell by itself, doing away 
with the liability of exploding by coming in contact with each other. There 
are but four working pieces in the whole construction of the rifle. 

By moving only one screw, the working parts can be removed and cleaned 
and replaced in a very few minutes. This rifle is very easily managed and 
would be a most fearful weapon in the hands of well drilled soldiers ; one 
thousand men armed with these rifles could pour in upon the enemy in one 
minute thirty-eight thousand balls — a perfect storm of lead, which no army 
could stand before. This new arm has been patented and its manufacture 
commenced. 



Atlantic Phosphate Company's Works. 

Our frontispiece presents a fine view of the works of the Atlantic Phos- 
phate Company, a comparatively new but enterprising and eflScient industrial 
organization, of which F. J. Porcher is President ; F. J. Pelzer, Treasurer ; Wm. 
Lebby, W. P. Hall, L. D. DeSaussure and B. G. Pinckney, Directors j Pelzer & 
Eodgers, Agents. 

The works are located on the Ashley river, a few miles above the city, and 
are conveniently situated and have every convenience for manufacturing 
largely their excellent fertilizer, for which we understand they anticipate a 
heavy demand during the coming season. We are glad to see our phosphate 
companies persistent and hopeful, and are confident that the future is full of 
promise to all of them, if conducted with energy and prudence, and that the 
Atlantic will not fall behind in the race of honorable competition. 



Vol. III.] 



THE RURAL CAROLINIAN. 

CHARLESTON, S. C, OCTOBER, 1871. 



[No. I. 



" Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science.'" 



D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 



OUR AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

"We ask especial attention to the thoughtful 
and earnest words of our esteemed co-worker 
Colonel D. Wyatt Aiken, which we print in 
the present number of Thk Rural Caroli- 
nian, on the subject of Agricultural Socie- 
ties — what they ought to be and do. Colonel 
Aiken has labored zealously and hard for 
our State Society — labored as few among us 
would or could have done — with few thanks, 
we fear, and certainly with loss of time and 
labor to himself, and he is entitled to be heard 
with more than common respect ; and his 
suggestions, independently of the source from 
which they come will commend themselves 
to every friend of Southern agriculture, as 
eminently sound and practical. Will they 
be heeded ? We will hope so ; but we can- 
not help feeling and saying that the fault 
lies not altogether in lack of interest in the 
subject among our farmers, but largely in the 
inherent weakness of the organization — or 
rather the lack of organization — which char- 
acterizes agricultural societies generally. 
They are too loosely put together for efficient 
work. They are societies only in name ; apd, 
practically, a few zealous workers among the 
officers constitute all there is of living organ- 
ism, or working power about them. 

Farmers need and must have, for the pro- 
motion and conservation of their special in- 
terests, and their elevation and prosperity as 
a class, some closer bond of union and more 
efficient methods of cooperation than they 
now possess. There must be county and 
town organizations, closely affiliated with a 
State society, and all working harmoniously 
under one head or supreme direction. Can 
this be better attained than by organizing 
subordinate Granges of Patrons of Husbandry 



in every county and neighborhood, all rep- 
resented in a State Grange, and all linked 
closely with the farming brotherhood of the 
whole union ? If there be a better way, let 
us adopt it, by all means ; but organization 
we must have, or we shall fall into the rear 
and be left behind in the march of improve- 
ment. 



WORK OF THE PATRONS. 
The Washington Chronicle, in an editorial on 
the new but rapidly spreading Order of Pat- 
rons of Husbandry, thus mentions one of 
the many ways in which its practical work- 
ings are benefitting the farmer : 

<' To a considerable extent it has already 
succeeded in superseding the work of middle- 
men for its members, both in the marketing 
of agricultural produce and in the purchase 
of agricultural implements and machinery. 
Among its early triumphs is recorded the fact 
that a Grange of the brotherhood in Illinois 
were enabled to purchase direct from the 
manufacturer for $90 mowing machines re- 
tailing at $125. The direct market thus 
opened up enables the manufacturer to de- 
duct that portion of the price of his wares 
which it has hitherto cost to market them. 

" But this is but a specimen of the successful 
application of this principle. Other economic 
advantages are opening up which are of great 
promise in removing the difficulties and ern- 
barrassments of productive industries in this 
country." 

DR. WYLIE'S HYBRID GRAPES. 

We are indebted to Dr. A. P. Wylie, of 
Chester, S. C, for specimens of a large num- 
ber of his hybrid grapes, some of them new and 
in bearing this year for the first time. They 
confirm us in the opinion we have frequently 
expressed of the great value of his labors to 
the grape-growers of this country. Among 
so many promising varieties some must prove 



42 



The Rural Carolinian. 



in every way adapted to our purposes for the 
table and for wine. 

We have taken notes of most of the varie- 
ties sent us, and purpose to speak of some of 
them in a future number; and we have the 
promise of sketches of the history of several 
of them from Dr. Wylie himself, and among 
the rest of" Peter Wylie, No. 1," which is 
still our favorite, though one or two others 
of the specimens to which we have referred, 
closely approach if thoy do not equal it in 
exquisitenesa of flavor. 



N. P. BOYER & CO. 

We trust this is the last time that the fore- 
going name will appear on the pages of The 
EuRAL Carolinian. If any of our people 
are swindled by this enterprising " firm " in 
the future, it will be because they don't read 
our journal, and that is their fault and not 
ours. Our readers are sufficiently warned. 

The communication of Mr. Dennis, in our 
last number, has incited many others to nar- 
rate their experience with the same party, 
and we have communications from different 
parts of the country, from Kentucky to Flor- 
ida, setting forth similar transactions to that 
exposed by Mr. Dennis. To print them all 
would monopolize the whole of that portion 
of the magazine devoted to such communica- 
tions, and as we believe the only good end 
which any exposures can subserve has already 
been secured, we are sure the writers will 
excuse us if we lay their well written and 
kindly meant articles all aside for the present, 
and drop the unpleasant subject. 



THE SEASON AND CROPS. 
A severe drouth, followed by heavy and 
continuous rains in August and September, 
in portions of the South, caused very serious 
damage to our principal crops — cotton, corn 
and rice — wherever these excessive seasons 
extended, but their area was limited and their 
effects, as usual, exaggerated. We will not 
venture estimates, at present, but wo think 
ourselves justified in saying that, taking the 
South as a whole, there has been at least an 
average production, more economically se- 
cured than usual, with the prospect of good 
prices for everything the farmer may have to 
soil, including cotton. 



Several interesting and valuable communi- 
cations were received too late for the present 
number, and among the rest, a review of Dr. 
Anderson's article on '• Cotton Caterpillars 
and their Habits," by Aug. R. Grote, member 
of the American Entomological Society etc., 
and " Hill-side Hedging vs. Hill-side Ditch- 
ing," by " Hillside," both of which we hope 
to have the pleasure of laying before our 
readers next month. 



We want for our next number an article 
on house plants and "window gardening," 
as adapted to our climate. Shall we not hear 
from the ladies on this subject? We also 
desire notes of experience in flower garden- 
ing, and lists of the best flowering plants for 
the South, with hints on cultivation. 



Dr. R. Fowler, of Daleville, Lauderdale 
Co., has been appointed General Deputy of 
the National Grange Patrons of Husbandry 
for Mississippi. We learn that a deep and 
widely extended interest in the Order is mani- 
fested in the Southwest. 



FARM AND GARDEN NOTES. 
Loves of the Planis. 
The poetical idea that there exists between 
certain plants an attraction or sympathy 
allied to the affections of human beings 
seems to have something like a basis in ob- 
served facts ; and that there are dislikes or 
repulsions as well as loves and attractions is 
equally a matter of experimental knowledge — 
in other words the growth of certain plants 
is promoted by the close neighborhood of 
certain other kinds, and retarded and in- 
jured by the vicinage of others. According 
to the ancient Romans, the grape vine loves 
the elm and is at enmity with the cabbage. 
Whether this be true or not, we cannot say ; 
but a New England farmer has observed and 
proved by experiment that the ruta-baga is 
very inimical to corn ; and in Europe it has 
lately been discovered that a strong attach- 
ment exists between the ruta-baga and the 
mangold, and "careful experiment has estab- 
lished the fact that even on land where the 
swede or ruta-baga has failed for the last few 
years, if sown in the same rows with the 
mangold, it attains a remarkable growth." 
It would bo interesting to point out other 



Editorial Department 



43 



similar cases and sbow the reason why one 
plant manures, or poisons, ns the case may be, 
another plant of a different species. 
Gunpowder in Agriculture. 
Colonel L. A. Hardee, of Honeymoon, 
near Jacksonville, Fla., claims to have dis- 
covered that violent concussion, caused by 
the explosion of gunpowder or otherwise, is 
B perfect annihilator of insect life— the small- 
er species at least — within a certain range, 
and that this agency can be so utilized as to 
completely rid our orchards of curculios and 
our fields and gardens of other pests ; and, 
what is more wonderful still, that the same 
agency promotes vegetation to such an ex- 
tent as to throw all other fertilizers into the 
shade. Both these points, he assures us, have 
been demonstrated by repeated experiments. 
He thinks also that the spread of epidemics, 
like yellow fever, may be nrevented by the 
same means. The subject is worthy of care- 
ful investigation, and, while we can hardly 
hope that the sanguine expectations of the 
discoverer will be fully realized, we believe 
there is something in it so far as the distruc- 
tion of insect life is concerned, at least. 
The Trophy Tomato. 
Even the Trophy does not please every- 
body. The editor of the Germantown Tele- 
graph denounces it as a humbug, and a writer 
in the Rural New Yorker, though expressing 
himself much pleased with it, says that it is 
a late instead of an early sort. 

" Progress among tomatoes," he adds, "is 
a good deal like drawing water with two 
buckets, while one is coming up the other is 
going down ; and if we gain in size and 
quality, we lose in earliness or something 
else." 

"With us, as we have before stated, the 
Trophy proved as early as any kind on trial, 
including Early Smooth Ked and Tilden, 
and much larger and more solid than any of 
them. 

Labels for fruit Trees. 
For fruit tree labels, the Field and Factory 
says, " take a sheet of zinc, cut it in strips 
half an inch in width and two and a half 
inches long, bore a hole in one end, and write 
with a goose quill, which is the best, the 
name of the fruit on it. But common ink 



will not do, as it would soon wash off. You 
must make an ink for yourself, which is easily 
enough done, as follows : Go to a druggist 
and get six gruins of sulphate of copper, 
which mix with one ounce of water ; dissolve 
and add three grains of sal-ammoniac and 
twenty drops of sulphuric acid, and you have 
an ink that if well put on, will last for twenty 
years." 

Caragua Corn. 

We received last spring from the Agricul- 
tural Department some twenty or more grains 
of a Peruvian variety of maize, under the 
above name. These grains were more than 
twice the size of our common corn, and 
seemed to hold out a magnificent promise. 
We planted them in good garden soil, and 
they all germinated and grew finely, the stalks 
reaching the height of fifteen feet or more. 
Tassels appeared in due time, but few of the 
stalks showed any silk, and not one of them 
produced a grain of corn. A similar result 
followed an experiment made several years 
ago with corn from South America. 

Striking Cuttings. 
An excellent contrivance for striking cut- 
tings, where one has neither green-house nor 
hot-bed, is a box with a few inches of soil in 
the bottom and covered with a pane of glass. 
Plant the cuttings in small pots in a soil 
composed of at least half sand and " plunge" 
them partially in the earth within the box^ 
which, being kept moist, helps to keep the 
air from getting too dry. Avoid too copi- 
ous waterings, or the cuttings will "damp 
off." Coleuaeg, Begonias, Heliotropes, and Sal- 
vias, as well as Geraneums, Verbenas and 
Petunias, may be propagated in this way. 

The Splendid Salvia. 
We have elsewhere mentioned the Salvias 
as among the most desirable summer bloom- 
ing plants for our Southern gardens. Mr. 
Peter Henderson, author of " Practical Flo- 
riculture," says, that Salvia Splendens is per- 
haps the most gorgeous plant in our gardens. 
Single plants sometimes attain a height of 
six feet, and nearly as much in diameter, 
having a hundred scarlet, plume like flower 
spikes; the color is so intense when seen 
against a green background, that it is often 
visible at the distance of half a mile. 



44 



The Rural Carolinian. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 
No Life without Phosphorus. 

Dr. Frankland has been making a series of 
experiments upon the development of fungus 
growths in water and has arrived at the fol- 
lowing conclusions . 

" 1. Portable water, mixed with sewage 
urine, albumen, and certain other matters, or 
brought into contact with animal charcoal, 
subsequently develop fungoid growths, and 
other organisms, when small quantities of 
sugar are dissolved in them and they are ex- 
posed to a summer temperature. 

" 2. The germs qf these organisms are 
present in the atmosphere, and every water 
contains them after momentary contact with 
the air. 

" The development of these germs cannot 
take placB without the presence of phosphoric 
acid, or a phosphate, or phosphorus in some 
form of combination. Water, however much 
contaminated, if free from phosphorus, does 
not produce them. A German philosopher 
has said, 'without phosphorus, no thought,' 
which may now be changed to ' without 
phosphorus, no life.' " 

Effects of Battles on Vegetation. 

While our Florida horticulturist. Col. Har- 
dee, is advocating the use of gunpowder as a 
fertilizer, as noted in another place, we learn 
from Europe that the effects of battles on 
vegetation have been most deleterious. Such 
plants, it is said, as have not actually died, 
have withered or grown up wan and sickly, 
as if poisoned by some injurious substance 
in the air or the soil. German chemists have 
explained the phenomenon as arising from 
the diffusion of sulphur in the air and over 
the surface of the soil. This sulphur, in the 
shape it is contained in the smoke of gun- 
powder, is supposed to combine with the 
oxygen in the atmosphere, to form sulphu- 
rous acid, a deadly poison in its effects on 
organisms of any kind. 

Experiments with Oolored Light. 

Certain colored rays of light are said to be 
particularly favorable to the development in 
organic infusion of infusorial life, while other 
rays are more favorable for the production of 
microscopic forms of vegetable life. Thus, M. 
Pouchet says, white light is the best fitted for 
obtaining the former result, after which 
comes the red ray, then the violet, the blue 
and finally the green ray. On the contrary, 
for the development of vegetable " proto-or- 
ganisms," the green ray is the best fitted; 



next to this the blue and violet rays ; and, 
lastly, the white light ; the red ray hindering 
the development of these organisms. 
Watering Plantt with h'on. 
It is stated as a new discovery that won- 
derful effects may be produced by watering 
fruit trees and vegetables with a solution of 
sulphate of iron. Under this system, accord- 
ing to the British Medical Journal, beans will 
grow to nearly double the size, and will ac- 
quire a much more savory taste. The pear 
seems to be particularly well adapted for this 
treatment. Old nails thrown into water and 
left to rust there Avill impart to it all the 
necessary qualities for forcing vegetables as 
described. 



INDUSTRIAL ITEMS. 

Dr. Benjamin Rhett, of Abbeville, S. C, 
has invented and patented a new ditching 
machine, which, judging from the descrip- 
tion and drawing kindly furnished us by the 
inventor, is likely to prove a most important 
and valuable labor-saving implement, es- 
pecially in the hands of the intelligent and 
enterprising rice planter, as it will enable 
him not only to dig but to clean out his 
ditches at a much less cost than at present, 
and with forty times the rapidity. The ma- 
chine may be worked either by horse or 
steam power, and, made of sufficient size and 
strength, is capable of digging a canal or a 
railway cut as easily as a ditch. We hope in 
a future number to give a full description of 
the machine with the necessary illustrative 
drawings. 

Mr. John Commins, of this city, has 

invented a method of treating our nodular 
phosphates without the use of sulphuric acid. 
It consists in heating the mineral to redness 
in a furnace or kiln and allowing the sea 
water to drip from the top on the heated 
mass. By this operation the stone is 
thoroughly disintegrated, and it is claimed 
by the inventor that the phosphate of lime 
becomes soluble and capable of being assimi- 
lated by plants. The Journal of Applied 
Chemistry speaks of it as an important inven- 
tion, and expresses the hope that it will prove 
entirely successful. 

A harvesting machine for corn, which 

takes the ears from the stalks while standing 



Editonal Department. 



45 



in the field, two rows at (v timff, was lately 
exhibited in Illinois. The stalks are taken 
between projecting metal-faced fingers, and 
as the machine advances the butt of the ear 
is brought in contact with a short sickle, 
playing at the rear of the fingers, cutting it 
ofl", while the stalk passes under the machine 
without being pulled up ; the ears are re- 
ceived into a large hopper at the end of the 
machine, and discharged when it is full. 

A process has been recently patented 

by Mr. T. F. Henley, an engineer of great 
experience, the aim of which is to extract, 
by simple pressure, a large portion of the 
juice from the fibres of meat, and to leave 
the latter in an available condition as food if 
preserved simply by moderate desiccation. 
Thus, there is a two-fold product — meat juice 
and dried meat. The meat juice, rich in ex- 
tractive matters, and containing over fifty 
per cent. o»f albumen, is evaporated in vacuum 
pans, so as to retain its solubility, flavor and 
unchanged alimentary qualities. 

LITERAEY NOTES. 

In The Southern Magazine for September — 
an excellent number by the way — F. Ebener, 
Ph. D., discusses and illuslrates in a very in- 
teresting manner the " Eelationof Forests to 
Temperature, Fertility of Soil and Comfort," 
showing, 1st, that Woods are Regulators of 
Temperature; 2d, that Woods Regulate Rains, 
and through them the Creeks, Rivers and 
Lakes of a Country ; and 3d, that Woods 
Regulate the Elementary Composition of the 
Air and the Currents of air. The discussion 
is timely and the facts cited of the utmost 
importance. We ask especial attention to The 
Southern Magazine, not merely because it is a 
Southern magazine, but because it has intrin- 
sic merit and value to our people and deserves 
a liberal support. Baltimore : Murdock, 
Brown & Hill ; $4 a year. 

The "Address" of Joseph W. Taylor, 

Esq., of Alabama, before the Literary So- 
cieties of Washington-Lee University, on 
Commencement Day, June 22, 1871, is an 
eloquent and impressive " plea for the con- 
version of Washington-Lee University into 
a Memorial University by the people of the 
South, to constitute their final and crowning 
monument to the memory of General Robert 
E. Lee. 



" The Annual Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture on the operations of 
the Department for the year 1870," shows the 
proper work of the Department of Agricul- 
ture to have been carried forward with much 
wise forethought as well as industry and en- 
ergy. We have carping grumblers among 
us, who denounce the Department as a mere 
"political machine" and an "imposition," 
but, though it has done some unwise things 
and made many blunders, perhaps— as what 

Department of Government has not ? we 

believe it is one of the most valuable agencies 
now "in operation for the promotion of our 
country's prosperity. 

Our friend and correspondent, H. Ri- 

vett-Carnac, Cotton Commissioner for Bom- 
bay, India, has sent us several interesting 
documents illustrative of the progress of 
agricultural industry in that country. In a 
speech at the opening of a railway sometime 
ago, Mr. Rivett-Carnac, said : 

" The trade and the cultivation may fall 
oflT to some extent, but with all the advan- 
tages that the Berars now possess, I do not 
believe that the cotton here will be crushed 
by the recovery of the American trade. At 
the same time I cannot say too strongly how 
thoroughly I agree with those who urge that 
it is desirable that the trade of this side of 
India should not depend on one single staple 
and who advocate the improvement' of other 
crops and the encouragement of other branches 
of trade, besides cotton, so that Bombay, like 
Calcutta, may have more than one strino- to 
her bow." * 

Diversify your industry I That is the true 
policy, in India as in America. 

Edmond About has written a new book 

entitled " Woman under the Second Empire." 
It is said to be full of very spicy revelations 
about the influence of certain ladies at the 
Tuileries upon the political action of the Em- 
peror Napoleon. About asserts that, but for 
the instigations of a certain German princess 
Napoleon III. would never have declared 
war against Prussia. The princess is Madame 
Pauline de Metternich. 

The " Address" of Hon. Marshall P. 

Wilder, at the late session of the American 
Pomological Society at Richmond, is a most 
instructive and interesting document and de- 
serves a more extended notice than we have 
space at present to give it. 

Another new book has been published 



46 



The Rural Carolinian. 



in England which is destined to make a "sen- 
sation." It is entitled " The coming Race," 
and has been published in New York, by 
Francis B. Felt & Co. It describes a totally 
new community, discovered by an American, 
beneath the surface of the earth. 

Of the German national song, " The 

Rhine Watch" (Die Wacht am Rhein), 
nineteen versions into other languages have 
been made, of which seven are English and 
three French. 

James Ward Davidson, author oi Liv- 
ing Writers of the South, is preparing a Dic- 
tionary of the Living and Dead Writers of 
the South. . 

A new novel from Ouida is forthcom- 
ing. " Folle-Farine " is the title. 

GLEANINGS. 

Curing Figs in Asia Minor. — E. J. Smith- 
ers, Esq., United States Consul at Smyrna, 
communicates to the Department of Agri- 
culture some facts in regard to the curing of 
figs in that neighborhood. "The fruit," he 
says, " is allowed to ripen on the tree and to 
fall to the ground, where it remains three or 
four days, or until dry enough to bear trans- 
portation. It is then collected in hair sacks, 
and tightly pressed, in order to save space 
and to prevent fermentation. The sacks are 
then taken early in the morning to the local 
market, where professional packers resort to 
purchase material for the day's packing. At 
the packing-house the different qualities are 
assorted, and the fruit skilfully manipulated 
and moistened with salt water. Each quality 
is then placed in boxes of different sizes for 
the general market." 

This plan, it is evident, will not work here, 
but that is no reason why we should not grow 
and dry figs for market. The kind of fig 
grown at Smyrna is described as " large, 
whitish, thin skinned, very juicy and sweet, 
but unpalatable when fresh." This can hardly 
be the "White Marseilles of our catalogues, as 
Mr. Berckmans suggests, if Mr. Smithers 
has accurately described it. 

Bran for Poultry. — A correspondent of the 
Oermantown Telegraph says, " that the best 
food to make hens lay is a mixture of bran 
and middlings. His mode of preparing the 
feed is to mix about five parts of bran with 



one of middl?^gs. ' In the morning,' he says, 
' I wet up with water about four quarts of the 
mixture in a large tin pan, taking pains to 
have it rather dry, though all damp. This I 
set in a warm, sunny spot, south of their 
shed, and they walk up, take a few dips, don't 
seem to fancy it like, but they soon return to 
it, and continue to feed from it at intervals 
during the day.' " He has plenty of eggs. 

Lima Beans in California. — Captain Jona- 
than Mayhew, of Santa Clara Valley, has a 
field of one hundred acres of Lima Beans. 
The crop is in a very promising condition. 
The beans sell at about three and one half 
cents per pound, when the common white 
beans bring two and a half cents, and are 
said to be no more trouble to cultivate or to 
market. 

Wash for Plaiits. — The Florist and Pomolo- 
gist says, that the following is strongly re- 
commended for mildew, scale, red spider, 
etc., upon greenhouse plants and out-of-door 
shrubs and trees : Flour of sulphur two 
ounces, worked to a paste with a little water ; 
sal soda, two ounces ; cut tobacco, half an 
ounce ; quicklime the size of a duck's egg ; 
water, one gallon. . Boil together and stir for 
fifteen minutes, and let cool and settle. In 
use it is diluted according to the character of 
the plants, which are to be syringed with 
water after the application. 

To Kill the Slug on Grape-Vines. — Strong 
soap suds will do it. Make the solution with 
hot water, let it cool, and apply with a gar- 
den syringe, having a fine rose jet, to the 
under side of the leaves. Repeat the opera- 
tion twice a day until the pests are expelled. 
So says a correspondent of the Journal of 
Horticulture. 

The Aphis on Vines. — To kill the thrip, or 
aphis, the Journal of Horticulture says, use a 
decoction made from the leaves of tobacco, 
and applied with a garden syringe to the un- 
der side of the loaves. A pailful of this 
preparation is sufficient for a good-sized gra- 
pery. In making this preparation, you should 
be careful to have it of just the right strength 
It is best to make a quantity quite strong, 
and then to reduce its strength by adding 
water, applying it to a few leaves. 

A New Early Peach. — The American Agri- 
culturist has received from Mr. S. G. Bilgon, 



Editorial Department. 



47 



of Littleton, Ilalifax Co., N. C, specimens 
of the Beatrice Peach, a seedling raised by 
Thomas Kivors, of Sawbridgeworth, Eng. 
land. Like all early peaches it is small, but 
of high color, very fragrant, and of good 
quality for a very early variety. Mr. Bilgen 
finds it at least twenty days earlier than 
Halo's Early, and possessed of superior ship- 
ping qualities. 

MERE MENTION. 
The Gopher Cart is attracting more atten- 
tion than any new labor-saving invention 
that has been brought before the public for a 
long time. The inventor is endeavoring to 
perfect arrangements for its extensive manu- 
facture. 

According to J. F. Huddleston, Esq., 

of McNairy Co., Tenn., the leaves of the 
ailanthus tree, eaten by cattle, are a perfect 
preventative to murrain ; which is important 
if true. 

The Ventura Signal says that the to- 
mato in Southern California is a perennial 
plant, which blooms and bears fruit during 
the entire year, when properly cared for. 
Near the seashore, where there are no frosts, 
the editor has seen them of five year's growth. 

The State Entomologist of Missouri 

says that the washing of fruit trees with 
soap, or the application of any alkaline solu- 
tion, is an infallible protection against borers. 

No plant yields anything like as much 

nutriment from the same extent of soil as the 
banana. Baron Humboldt estimated that it 
returns twenty times as much as the potato, 
and 113 times as much as wheat. 

The State agricultural societies of Ver- 
mont and California propose to exchange 
fruit specimens this year, each sending to the 
other's annual fair three specimens of ten 
different kinds of apples, pears and grapes. 

. An exchange says that if tree-planting 

continues in Iowa for ten years at this year's 
rate, 1885 will find the State beautified with 
great forests. 

CATALOGUES. 

Eruitland Nurseries ; P. J. Berckmans, 
Augusta, Ga. ; Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 
Shrubs, Koses, Flowering Plants, etc. 

Evergreen Nurseries ; Peters & Hatch, 

Memphis, Tenn. ; Fruit and Ornamental 



Trees, Greenhouse and Bedding Plants, Bulbs 
Seeds, etc. 

Langdon Nurseries; C. C. Langdon & 

Co, Mobile, Ala.; Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Vines, Roses, Evergreens, etc. 

Louisiana Nurseries ; Samuels & Sto- 

ner, Shreveport, La. ; Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Grape Vines, Shrubs, Hedge Plants, 
etc. 

H. A. Dreer, 714 Chestnut street, 

Philadelphia ; Bulbs, Flower Roots, etc. 

Peter Henderson & Co., 35 Courtlandt 

street, New York ; Dutch Bulbs and other 
Flower Roots. 

James Flemming, 67 Nassau street. 

New York ; Hyacinths and other Flowering 
Roots. 

C. L. Allen & Co., 76 Fulton street, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Hyacinths, Lilies and other 
Bulbs. 
James Vick, Rochester, N. Y. ; Bulbs 

and Flower Roots. Illustrated. 

FAIRS AND PREMIUM LISTS. 

We make the following additions to the 
list published in our September number : 

Industrial Association of Georgia, Sa- 
vannah, Ga., Nov. 21st. Henry D. Capers, 
Secretary, Savannah, Ga. 

Orangeburg County Agricultural So- 
ciety, Orangeburg, S. C, Oct. 24th to 26th. 
Address Executive Committee, Orangeburg, 
S. C. 

Mississippi State Fair, Jackson, Miss., 

Oct. 23d to 28th. J. L. Power, Secretary, 
Jackson, Miss. 

West Alabama Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Association, Eutaw, Ala., Oct. 17th. 
J. H. Barger, Secretary, Eutaw, Ala. 

Eastern Division Fair, Knoxville, 

Tenn., Oct. 10th to 14th. C. McCorkle, Sec- 
retary, Knoxville, Tenn. 

South Georgia Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Association, Thomas ville, Ga., Oct. 
31st to Nov. 4th. Charles P. Hansell, Sec- 
retary, Thomasville, Ga. 

North Alabama Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Association, Florence, Ala., Oct. 31st 
to Nov. 4th. James M. Weems, Secretary, 
Florence, Ala. 

We have received no Premium Lists 

of the North Carolina Fairs, but learn from 
the Carolina Farmer that the Raleigh Fair 
commences Oct. 17th ; the Willington Fair 
commences Nov. 14th ; the Weidon Fair 
commences Nov. 7th ; the Henderson Fair 
commences Oct. lOih. 



48 The Rural Carolinian. 

DEPAETMENT OF CORRESPONDENCE AND INQUIRY, 



RUNNING COMMENTS. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

Allow me to offer the following Running 
Comments on the September number of your 
journal : 

Salt Marsh Mud. — This has been very 
' extensively used as a special manure for the 
cotton plant and sweet potatoes by nearly, if 
not quite, all the best cultivators of the Sea 
Islands before the war, as they found it to be 
the very best and most reliable manure that 
they could apply, and I found it, in one ex- 
periment, very good for Indian corn. The 
salt marsh grass, cut green, is, probably, the 
strongest green manure known by us, besides 
being one of most nutritious and healthy of 
green foods for almost every kind of stock, 
the only objection to it being its great weight 
and consequent expense of gathering and ap- 
plying. I believe that very little, if any, is 
now used, as our present laborers are unwil- 
ling to gather it. Mr. J. J. Mikell could 
give you all the information on this subject 
that could be desired. 

A Big Cotton Plant. — A " tall story " 
certainly. The long cotton frequently rat- 
toons freely with me, and occasionally under 
palmetto trees plants will escape the winter 
without further injury than the loss of all 
the leaves, but then they generally get killed 
the succeeding winter. Even were it to grow 
to the height of my tallest pear tree, which 
is about twenty-five feet high, and while 
bearing excessively ^ as it frequently does, the 
fruit would hardly fill, watery as it is, more 
than three or four barrels. Three bales dry 
lint are rather more than three barrels watery 
fruit 1 

Strawberry Culture. — I have found, 
from experience, that plants set out in Octo- 
ber are very apt to die out during the drouth 
of spring, and even when they do not, seldom 
or never bear any fruit, while similar plants 
set out while in blossom, from December for- 
ward, are more certain to live, and rarely fail 
to bear a moderate crop immediately, the 
flowers on the plants at the time rarely fail- 
ing to set and ripen fruit. The very best 
manuring and mulching, for it is both, that 
can be applied to the strawberry plant, is the 
warm or decomposed leaves found at the 
roots of first, live oak trees ; next, oak trees 
of any kind ; and, lastly, of any tree, and, 
by the bye, this is one of the very best disin- 
fectants, us well as most easily obtained al- 
most everywhere in the country. 

ElPKBiENCK WITH ToMATOES. — My experi- 
ence with the tomatoes that I had in cultivation 
agrees in the main with yours. I, however, 
still think that my favorite of the last, the 



"jAlger," is more vigorous, more productive, 
and better for salad, being, when fully ripe, 
easily peeled without scalding, and perfectly 
free from any hard or woody core near the 
stem which the Trophy has. My family pre- 
fer the Scarlet Prolific and Dixie, for soup 
and catsup, but the Alger and Trophy for 
salad. I found the Maupays Superior also 
an excellent variety, and the one that 
preserved its round, smooth shape, better 
than any other variety that I cultivated. 
The cherry tomato proved pretty and pro- 
ductive, but too small to be worth gathering. 
As it; is too much inconvenience to culti- 
vate and keep distinct many kinds, I will, 
next summer, if alive, confine my cultiva- 
tion to the Alger, Trophy and Dixie, before 
I reduce my list to one or two varieties. By 
the bye, does not high manuring predispose 
tomato plants to bear fruit, at first, of irregu- 
lar and abnormal shape ? I think that it 
does, for even my favorite, the Alger, grew 
very differently, and worse the past summer 
than the summer before when it was grown 
in fresh land, but with rather little manure. 

Tea Plants on the Coast. — I have not 
been able to get either the Tea Plant, Ca- 
mellia, Sweet Shrub, [Oalycanthus,) Fra- 
grant Olive, or Laurustinus, to grow or even 
live in my garden. This I attribute partly 
to the salt atmosphere, and partly to the 
clayey nature of the soil, therefore I would 
advise persons similarly situated, to experi- 
ment with any of these plants only on a lim- 
ited scale at first. 

To Cure Black Moss. — Moss may be 
cured much more rapidly by simply boiling 
it for a short time and then drying it, when 
by beating the vegetable covering will easily 
be beaten off, but 1 do not think that when 
thus cured it will have the bright black color. 
Also, by putting a quantity in a heap, and 
exposing it to the weather, it will soon be- 
come fit, and of a fine black color. 

Okra Cotton — Was a variety of short 
cotton that bore its fruit either on the stem, 
or on very short branches, like the okra 
plant. Boyd's Prolific is, I believe, a selection 
from this variety ; as it did not branch, it 
could bo planted very close. 

Influence of Color on Plant-Growth. 
— As the blue or violet rays have proved so 
beneficial on plants, pigs, and even a bull, 
why not try it upon delicate and weakly 
children, especially those suffering from ma- 
rasmus and summer complaint. The win- 
dows in the nursery might be glazed with 
blue or violet colored glass. It is worth a 
trial at least, and then if proved beneficial, 
hospitals for such children of even the rich ; 



Department of Correspondence and Inquiry. 



49 



est parents might be constructed, and it is 
the children of piiront? well oil' thiit sire most 
apt to die from these causes. 

KOBT. CniSOLM. 

AIR TREATMENT OF WINE. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I find in the August number of The Ru- 
ral Cakolinian. !i criticism on the reply I 
made to Mr. G.'s enquiries in last October 
number, written by J. M. Welborn, Esq., of 
Covington, Ga. He uses the following us his 
text — my answer to Mr. G. — " Any kind of 
wine can be made and fully matured in two 
months by using R. d' Heureuse's Patent Air 
Treatment." 

The simple enunciation of a theory of what 
may be accomplished by any new discovery, 
(the details as in this case could not under 
the circumstances be published at the time,) 
is not sufficient to warrant such conclusions 
as my friend has drawn, i. e., "I do think 
that Mr. C.'s answer is calculated to lead 
astray." I would respectfully ask Mr. W. 
who are likely to be led astray, by this sim- 
ple reply to Mr. G., in your column of en- 
quiry and answers ; Mr. W. knows full well 
that'in that answer to Mr. G., there was no 
space to enter into details of specific instruc- 
tions. Mr. G. has since obtained the aparatus 
with full information for its application in 
the manufacture of wine /?-om the Scupper- 
nong or any kind of grape juice. 

My friend will find by reference to my 
answer to Mr. G., that I said nothing about 
sugar, yet he gravely asserts that I propose 
to make first class dry or sweet wine from all 
kind of grapes, good, bad and indifferent, 
without other assistance than the application 
of the " Air Treatment." The assumption 
is simply his own. 

It is reasonable to suppose that those de- 
siring the benefits of the patent, will apply 
to the agent for full information in relation 
to all the details of preparation, manipula- 
tion, etc., before ordering apparatus ; how 
then can he be led astray if he receives the 
required information. 

No man having any knowledge of the re- 
quisites for wine making will for a moment 
suppose that a good quantity of wine with 
fair body and alcoholic strength, can be made 
from any grape, deficient in saccharine pro- 
perties. 

Therefore, the wine-maker taking the sac- 
charine strength of his grape juice, with the 
must scale, will if deficient, add required 
amount of sugar; but, I still assert that 
sound dry wine, of weak alcoholic strength, 
can be made from the Scuppernong and 
Muscadine grapes by air treatment without 
the addition of sugar or brandy. 

Such wines made by the usual mode would 
not keep, owing to the large amount of albu- 
menous and glutenous matters retained in 

No. 1, Vol. 3. 4 



solution in the wine after fermentation. 
Those can only be removed by oxidation, 
either by years of storing, or in a short time 
by air treatment; weak solutions of alcohol, 
(as wine of less than 7 per cent, alcohol,) 
containing albumcnous nitrogenous matter, 
have atfinity for the oxygen of the atmos- 
phere and combine to generate acetic acid 
(vinegar,) thus grape juice containing less 
than 14 or 15 per cent, sugar, under the 
old process of fermentation, produce vinegar 
instead of wine. 

" I do think C. claims more for it (the air 
treatment,) than the patentee does." 1 would 
respectfully refer now, W., to the April num- 
ber of the Grape CuUurist, p. 102, 1870, 
where Mr. d' Hcureuse gives full instructions 
for the manufacture of sweet or dry xolne from 
the same must. I do not claim that I can 
make any kind of wine from the Scupper- 
nong and Muscadine grapes, from the very 
simple fact, these will only make Scupper- 
nong and Muscadine wine ; but I can make a 
sound, light, dry wine of these or any other 
grapes, (by air treatment,) that contain not 
less than 12 per cent, sugar and not over 
three-fourths of one per cent, of free acids. 

Mr. W. has my sincere thanks for the very 
interesting advertisement he gives (the air 
treatment) in your able journal, i, e., " it may 
be of great utility in a quicker and thorough 
fermentation and early maturity, of which I 
have no doubt." I am also under obligations 
for the information (new to me,) that prize 
essays are written wholly as advertising for 
the benefit of patentees. The awarding com- 
mittees, no doubt, will also appreciate the 
personal compliment bestowed upon them. 
A. C. Cook. 

New Orleans, La., August SO, 1871. 

HINT TO AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

State Agricultural Societies cannot be con- 
demned, but it is a lamentable fact that they 
are less attractive now to farmers, than to 
any other class of people. 

The farmer derives more pleasure and profit 
from an agricultural journal at the cost of $2 
a year, than from a visit to an agricultural 
fair at the cost of $20. He knows, that the 
most thriftless farmer, may show the best pair 
of Kentucky horses or the best milk cow, or 
may make the most wheat on an acre of good 
land, manured at heavy cosf ; and he is not 
interested ! The premium list offers no in- 
ducement to him to incur expense ; and 
nothing improving to attract his notice, or to 
stimulate his ambition. He, therefore, hardly 
reads the reports of the proceedings. But 
let liberal premiums be offered biennially for 
the best managed farms or plantations, em- 
bracing all the departments of plantation 
economy, and the profits, improvements and 
comforts, in proportion to the investment 



50 



The Rural Carolinian. 



and the qnnlity of tlie land: somowhat as 
follows, iuid you will sco. soniethini^ lively: 

$12;') for th'o best nianiij^od farm of not lc.«s 
than ten or more than twenty acres in culti- 
vation. 

$250 for the best managed farm of not less 
than twenty-one or more than thirty acres in 
cultivation. I 

$.jOO for the best managed farm of not less 
thsin thirty-one or more than sixty acres in 
cultivation. 

$7.30 for the best managed farm of not less 
than sixty-one or more than a hundred acres 
in cultivation. 

$1000 for the best managed farm of over a 
hundred acres in cultivation. 

Fairfield, S. C, August 21st, 1871. 

WATEK MAGGOTS IN EICE. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian: 

My reply to the inquiries of "North San- 
tee Phniter " will be as concise as possible. 
I will preface the same, however, by saying 
that the cause of water weevil and maggot in 
rice, is still an open question, as much so, as 
rust in wheat and oats. 

I have observed that upon the appearance 
of either, the deep watered places in the field' 
suifer greatly, in comparison with the high, 
being the first to check ; and assume a bluish 
cast,' and if not dried and hoed, the whole of 
the rice will soon be afiected with black mould ; 
and soils made up mostly of vegetable matter 
suifer most; clay soils seldom. Stale and 
stagnant water in my experience has always 
produced them, or diseased the roots of the 
plant. During the late war when I attended 
myself to detail, I never had them; or the 
rice checked in growth. Since then I have 
been laid upon the shelf; Cutfee refusing to 
be controlled. 

My practice has been to avoid deep flowing 
for any length of time, except when the plant 
has fully eared out. Should maggots make 
their appearance before the rice is in full joint, 
dry immediately, pass the hoe through the 
rows in two or three days, and return the 
water ; if after, let the tide ebb and flow until 
there is a change of color and growth. In 
flowing, or drying, I am governed by the 
state of the roots, always allowing the plant 
to put out new, and then make the change ; 
if afterwards, the growth will be checked. 

. EdWAHD BARNWKLIi. 



land, and that the appellee's cattle had no 
bu!<inesH there. 

That sounds right — like good wholesome 
law. Does it not in eflect decide that with- 
out my permission my neighbor's stock have 
no busine.ss on my land? If so, what more 
do we want ? In order to make the decision 
meet our present want, that the State Agri- 
cultural Societies of South Carolina and 
Georgia shall make up a case for the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and jointly clear 
the expenses of the suit by which to deter- 
mine whether a man's land is his absolute 
property, or whether it is to continue tram- 
melled with the condition precedent of fences 
of a certain description in order to sole en- 
joyment; a failure wherein renders his land, 
whether planted or not, common pasturage 
for the world. Fence laws are a curse to 
any country, particularly to the poor farmer 
and agricultural tenant; but as you can't 
so persuade them, let us to the Supreme 
Court of the United States to emancipate us 
from this Erreat thraldom. X. 



A SUGGESTION. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

A short time since it was stated by an ag- 
ricultural paper that the Suj)reme Court of 
the United States had decided "the Illinois 
llailroad Company, appellants, not liable in 
damages to the cattle owner whose stock wore 
killed by one of their trains because it appear- 
ed to the Court that the Company owned the 



WHAT WAS IT? 
Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

It is well known that in the early part 
of the present century the middle section of 
our State was a grazing country, and that 
from Darlington, Marion, Sumter and the 
adjoining counties, herds of beef cattle were 
annually driven to the markets of Philadel- 
phia and New York. Tradition says that in 
those days our pine forests and sand hills 
abounded in a wild pea, which not only fur- 
nished a tine summer pasture, but aflbrdcd 
food through the winter to thousands of 
cattle. 

Cannot some of your oldest readers or 
botanical contributors tell us something 
more definite about that wild pea? Why has 
it disappeared ? Is it because of any change 
in our climate within the last half century, 
or has the annual burning of the woods, to- 
gether with the close cropping of stock, de- 
stroyed the seed ? Does it propagate by 
seed or from the roots? A distant neighbor 
in the sand hills of Chesterfield professes to 
know the vine when seen, and promised me 
the seed from two plants in one of his fence 
corners, but they have failed to bear for the 
two last summers, and he bus suggested that 
I had better take one of the vines next win- 
ter and transplant it. 

If we cannot hope again to see our piney 
woods covered with a growth furnishing tine 
pasturage, still such a pea might be made 
valuable if once started, and cattle kept ofl" 
until it got good foothold under many of our 
fences which enclose both arable and wood- 
land. On many ])lantations tiiere is no diffi- 
culty in furnishing abundant summer range 
for the cattle, but they become so wretchedly 
lean in winter that half the summer is lost in 



JAterary and Home Department. 



61 



bringinsj thorn up to a growing point, and 
any plant which would lu'lj) us to winter 
them at an inappreciable expense would cer- 
tainly be an acquisition. E. M. 



CliOP PllOSPECTS. 
Editor of The Rural CaroUninti: 

Corn generally in this region looks very 
well ; in fact it is now made, blades pulled 
and will soon be ready to house ; and we are 
glad to see from all appearances that there will 
be an abundant corn crop made. 

Cotton looks very badly. Knin ! rain 1 rain ! 
is the by-word here, and really we have had 
but little weather suitable to gather the fleecy 
staple. In fact, there has been so much rain 
that the seed has sprouted in the bin. There 
will be nothing like a full crop in this region. 

I have recently had a bird's eye view of a 
considerable portion of Orangeburg's fine corn 
crops; exceedingly fine; but cotton nothing 
like so good as last year. Our farmers and 
planters are now paying more attention to 
grain ; and I think this fall will find much 
more land seeded in grain than has been for 
several years. "We would like to have you 
stimulate our planters to put in more grain, 
and use more pasturage. 

By this means we think the farmer will be 
enabled to plant a little less cotton, with more 
thorough tillage, and some quantity of corn, 
to raise all of his bacon. F. C. 

September 12 th, 1871. 

BUD WOEMS IN CORN. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

After twenty-five year's experience, I find 
that they are habitues of low bottom clayey 
lands; tLat they enter the corn just above 
the grain and go upwards ; that the corn dies 
as soon as they get up a certain distance in 
the stalk ; that some stalks survive the at- 
tack, but present a sickly appearance, the 
blades becoming striped, a streak of white 
running the entire length of the bhide. The 
stalk then is very much inclined to sucker or 
send up young shoots, and if allowed to grow 
will produce an almost wortliless "nubbin " 
on top. The original stalk seldom produces 
anything. 

Now for the worm. It is about three- 
eighths of an inch in length, and about the 
diameter of a small knitting-needle ; body 
white ; head, dark brown. I have found 
them in corn from a few inches to two feet 
high, and often after looking for them in 
vain in the stalk, have found them in the 
hole from which the corn was taken. 

Prevention. — Soak your seed corn in a tol- 
erably strong solution of salt petre (nitrate of 
potash) the night before you plant it. Drain 
your lands properlj', getting below the 
.springs, and my word for it j'ou will not be 
bothered with these pests any more. 



The drouth injured the cotton severely 
around this part <>f the country. 

E. A. Nix. 
Skiloh, Orangeburg Co., S. C, Sept. 1, '71. 

CHINA BERRIES AS MANUilE. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I have noticed in the September number of 
The Rural Carolinian, a statement from 
the Haivkinsville, G<i., Dispatch, recommend- 
ing the common China berry as a manure for 
corn. I do not know that the berry is any 
better than cotton-seed, using the same quan- 
tity to the hill, but can say from an experi- 
ence of two j-ears, that the China berry is 
equally as good as the cotton-seed. The (^hina 
berry was first recommended (to my know- 
ledge) by O. R. Folk, Esq., (a young planter, 
but one of the most successful in this vicin- 
ity,) in the spring of 18C9; since then they 
have been used by a few persons in small 
quantities. The berrj' should bo gathered 
before shrivelling, say in March. Birds will 
destroy a great many but may be prevented 
by a " scare crow" put on the tree. 

W. 

Colleton, S. C, September, 6th, 1871. 

HINTS FROM A STOCK BREEDER. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

Permit me to advise your Southern readers 
not to buy a Chester, Yorkshire or Suftolk 
hog. They will not do for your climate ; but 
a Berkshire, Essex or any of the black breed 
are at home in the South. I have tried them 
all, and as far north as this country, the 
Chester will not do. 

I observe some of the Southern Agricul- 
tural Journals do not favor the short horn or 
Durham cattle for the South. Your only 
trouble is good grass ; and if your people 
will only give the Orchard grass a fair trial, 
there will be no longer an absence of butter 
and milk for your tables. We in Kentucky 
begin to think it as fine as our far famed blue 
grass. And if you will sow Alsike clover 
with it the better. J. B, Briggs. 

Russellville, Ky. 

riROPS IN FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

Crops of early corn are good ; late corn is 
a failure. Cotton, with a favorable fall, I 
think, will average one-half a crop, and we 
have the promise of an abundant pea crop. 
Rice will be two-thirds of a crop. Wheat 
made one-third. Oats sowed in the fall made 
a full crop. Spring oats are a failure. 

T. D. F. 

Feasterville, S. C. 



INQUIRIES AND ANSWERS. 
R. C, in reply to a question in regard to 
the practicability of growing buckwheat in 



52 



The Rural Carolinian. 



the South, says: "I have never grown it 
myself, but a planter in Beaufort informed 
me, that before the war he grew all that he 
used, and if I remember aright, ground it in 
the common hand mills then in use. He 
s»id, what I knew from experience, that it 
would not succeed if sown in the spring, 
owing to the heat and drought of midsummer, | 
but if sown in July or August, it did very 
well." 

K. B. J., Camden, Miss. The plant 

sent belongs to the extensive family of panic 
grasses, (Panicum,) of which there are more 
than four hundred species, some of which 
run into many varieties. The common mil- 
let belongs to this genus, but most of the 
species are worthless. The specimen in ques- 
tion is prolific panic grass, {P. proliferum,) 
and is sweet and tolerably nutritious. We 
have never known it to be cured for hay, but 
see no objection to it except its coarseness. 

J. R. L. desires information through 

these columns on the subject of the Chufa 



and wishes to know where seed can be pro- 
cured. The Chufa, {Ci/perus esculenius,) was 
cultivated to a limited extent in Georgia, be- 
fore the war, but we have heard nothing of 
it lately, and do not know who has seed. 
Can any one give the desired information ? 

"A Subscriber" asks Col. D. Wyatt 

Aiken for further information on the winter 
pasturage of sheep and for his method of 
weaning lambs. Our advertising pages will 
no doubt be open to " Subscriber" for the 
other matter mentioned. 

J. "\V. M. wishes to know the best 

method of putting up hams to prevent the 
"skippers;" also how to make the diflferent 
kinds of catsup. We shall he glad to hoar 
from those having experience on both these 
subjects. We give a recipe for making to- 
mato catsup in another place. 

J. W. M., (in reply to a late inquiry,) 

states that a thoroughbred Southdown ram, 
dropped last spring, can probably be had 
of T. J. Sumner, Salisbury, N. C. 



LITERARY AND HOME DEPARTMENT. 



OUR MARY. 

She went in through the orchard-gate at 

dawn. 
With frock tucked up and left arm basketed ; 
A drove of pigs ran from the fenced lawn. 
Lustily squealing — white, blue, black, and 

red ; 
Then came a huge ram stately from the shed ; 
As though he'd enter in no race with swine, 
Or wishing to be free of crinoline ; 
Expressing thus a silent Jewish scorn. 
Or love of freedom, better far than corn. 
Now, gathering up her robust arm, she held 
The oaken basket closer, as if she 
Her finger-tips to the white breasts would 

weld ; 
While with the other hand she shook the tree. 
The large, ripe apples dented the wet earth, 
Not falling with a bounding glee and mirth, 
But with dull, heavy thuds, like great, round 

drops 
Of summer rain amid the thirsting crops ; 
And onward to the other trees she hies 
With cautious step, for, until clear sunrise. 
The long weeds are low bent with laden dew, 
Which no neat maiden would walk careless 

through. 
She fills her basket with the golden fruit. 
Leaving the long-beard standing gravely 

mute, 



And walks back to the dairy : a brave 

girl 
Who keeps the farm-yard in a ceaseless 

whirl 
Of duty-doing. On the dairy-shelf. 
Where no one may put hand except herself, 
Those speckless cedar pails attract the eye ; 
Within that portal no o'er cunning fly. 
Ever took lodging for a single night, 
Nor could an ant escape her faultless sight 
For one sweet, cozy moment's space to stand 
Amid the allurements of that promised laud 
Of actual milk and honey. But away 
To other rounds of labor as the day 
Grows up with added radiance : hens to nest 
About the brushwood on the upland crest — 
The greenly-hidden summit of the hill. 
Where also lambs lie by the languid rill, 
Deep couched in kindred gentleness awhile, 
Alike from sun-heat, and the fiercer guile 
Of hunger-flame, protected. Thus her work 
Extends even to the woods and fields anear ; 
Hunting the truant calves through morning 

mist, 
When the first bluebird sings the new-born 

year ; 
And if one item she omit or shirk, 
Night hath no rest in its deep wings for her, 
In dreams of marriage-bells, or lover's tryst. 

[P. J. Malonk, in Appletons' Journal. 



Literaiy and Home Department. 



63 



WOMEN AND DRESS. 
The discussion of the "Woman Question," 
now going on in such a lively manner, has 
called out some important facts and sugges- 
tive ideas on both sides, and some good as 
well as much harm, is being done by the so- 
called " Woman's Rights movement." One 
of the most intellectual women of our day, 
and one of the raciest of writers, is Mrs. 
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, author of " Gates 
Ajar," and other brilliant works, and the fol- 
lowing is what she says on one of the " Wo- 
men Problems" of the day : 

The average young man walks into his 
tailor's twice a year, pays a bill, and has coats 
and pantaloons and vests. That is all he 
knows. He requires shirts, and somebody 
makes him shirts. He thinks no more. Will 
he have a hat ? Behold I a piece of felt, with 
a galloon string. It does not flop over his 
forehead. It will never twitch off his back 
hair. It does not blow into his eyes. Its 
elastic cannot blister his neck, or produce de- 
pressions of the cerebellum. It will not be 
out of date before the summer is over, seldom 
or never a matter of anxious reflection. It 
is a fixed fact, like yesterday's dinner or the 
last election. 

The average young woman expends enough 
inventive power, enough financial shrewd- 
ness, enough close foresight, enough pertur- 
bation of Fpirit, enough presence of mind, 
enough patience of hope and anguish of re- 
gret upon one season's outfit — I had almost 
said upon one single street suit — to make an 
excellent bank cashier or a comfortable grad- 
uate of a theological seminary. 

If you doubt the truth of this statement, 
just take in for yourself, with the "crickets 
eye," the first )'oung girl j'ou may meet down 
town. How fearfully and wonderfully made I 
How do you suppose those bias folds, and 
double box plaits, and fluted ruffles, and cor- 
ded bands, and shirred waists, and paniered 
skirts, and bowed, and corded, and laced, 
and buttoned, and spangled, and fringed, 
and folded, and dotted, and hunched, and 
bunched, and horrible mysteries got together? 

There was manoeuvering enough expended 
upon the dressmaker to have elected a repre- 
sentative, and concentration of mind upon 
the seamstress, intense enough to have with- 
stood a Wall street panic, and headache 
enough put into the sewing machine to 
have mastered " Porter'sHuman Intellect." — 
And now it requires care enough to keep her- 
self together to save a soul. 

I once saw a young lady ride the whole 
way from Portland to Boston in the cars with- 
out once leaning back against the cushioned 
seat, so that she should not tumble her black 
silk sash. 

A barber told me that he " curled a young 



lady" once for a ball; "and she had two 
hundred and forty-seven curls when she was 
done, and I began at ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and I never got through with her till 
nine o'clock at night I" 

Dr. Dio Lewis tells of a being who put 
four hundred and twenty-five (I think) yards 
of trimming upon one single dress. 

Four hundred and twenty-five yards ! Con- 
ceive of the Hon. Charles Sumner or Professor 
Longfellow in four hundred and twenty-five 
yards of trimming I Imagine the speech on 
San Domingo, or the Psalm of Life, written 
in a black silk sash tied in a snarl to the au- 
thor's coat tail, he pausing at every classic 
methaphor, or at the close of each martial 
stanza, to see if he had tumbled himself be- 
hind. Fancy Brown Scquard at a consulta- 
tion in two-hundred and forty-seven curls. — 
Picture him timing the pulse of a dying man 
with one hand and tightening his hairpins 
with the other. 

From the time that a girl-baby is put in a 
flim.sy muslin underskirt, with three frills, 
and a boy-baby in a solid piece of blue flan- 
nel, with a sailor-collar and brass buttons, to 
the day when Mary leaves school and_ begins 
(alas! poor Mary !) to " do her own sewing," 
the girl's mental" force is imperceptibly, in- 
siduously, poisonously draining away into the 
covering of her poor, little, innocent, beauti- 
ful body. By that it is " time for her to 
be married ;" and then the last state of that 
woman shall bo worse than the first. 

Men dress to please themselves. Women 
dress to please the men. A man's attire has 
regard to his comfort, his convenience, his 
means, his business, his whereabouts, his 
health, hishappiness. A woman's has regard 
to the whims, the fancies, the weakness, the 
admiration, the passions of men. 

Run your eye over any " female" seminary 
that you may chance upon, and how often 
would you find a girl to whom it has ever 
occurred to inquire why it is that she should 
put ten rows of velvet in a " Grecian pat- 
tern" on the bottomof a dress, while her bro- 
ther has his coat bound once with a silk braid, 
and then calls it a " gimp," and never knows 
the difference to his dying hour? Why she 
wears four feathers, several yards of ribbon, 
a piece of lace, cambric flowers and a veil 
upon her straw hat ; and he only a lute-string 
band, pinned straight round the crown? 
Why her hat tips over her nose, and his 
stands square on his head ? Why she is bur- 
dened with a pink parasol, and he goes hand- 
free, sunburned and happy? Why he may 
freckle from forehead to chin if he likes ; and 
why she locks herself into her room and cries 
when she discovers the dent on the bridge of 
her nose? 

It takes more than brains and money to 
dress as women are expected to do — it takes 
morals. 



54 



The Rural Carolinian. 



That few ])ure-minded women know or 
think that in donninj; the latest modes, they 
have sprung from the corrupt hiijenuity of 
Parhian harlots, only makes matters worse. 

Good women ought to think. It is their 
duty to see, not to ignore, to exile, not to 
overlook an immodest style. The mischief 
and misery will never be remedied until they 
do. Bad women think, meanwhile, and so- 
ciety res]X)nds to the thinker, irrespective of 
moral quality. 

These are sharp, plain words in which to 
put very sad, subtle truths which require 
sharp, plain words. This would be no place 
to say them if they were said in their place. 

If every woman who has the training of 
young girls in her hands would teach them, 
as fa.-t and as far, as slowly and as finely, as 
carefuil}^ and as tersel}' as she can that the 
entire past and present theory of feminine 
dress is a degredation to a good woman and an 
opportunity to a bad one, she would do more 
toward saving the world than any pulpit but 
the i^ew Testament, and than any preacher 
but St. John. 



THE PERSIMMON AND ITS USES. 

In this country, where nature has scattered 
her blessings with a liberal hand, many 
things reallj^ possessing much merit are but 
little appreciated. Perhaps if our resources 
had been less they would have been better 
developed. Among those plants heretofore 
mostly neglected, which are capable of being 
turned to several economical uses I would 
mention the American persimmon. 

This tree (the Diospi/rus Virginiana) is 
found on all variety of soils, but seems to 
grow best on poor land. It is generallj' 
plentiful in old fields and wornout soils, and 
sometimes becomes a pest in cultivated fields. 
It is a rapid grower, symmetrical in shape, 
has beautiful green, glossy leaves, and, I 
should think, would answer well for shade or 
ornamental purposes. It is an improver of 
land, as any one can see who will take the 
trouble to examine the soil about them. I 
have often remarked the corn, etc., much 
better just around one of these trees than a 
little way off. It is much subject to the 
attacks of a sawyer beetle that cuts off the 
small limbs. Will not our Entomologist tell 
us about this insect? 

But it is time I were speaking of its eco- 
nomic uses : 

The Wood. — This is tough, firm, and fine- 
grained, and very hard when seasoned. It 
makes excellent axle-trees, plane stocks, mal- 
lets, etc., and burns nearly or quite as well as 
the hickory, leaving an ash rich in salts. 

I have no doubt it would prove an excel- 
lent wood in all those arts requiring a tough, 
hard, close-grained material. The bark of 
this tree is u.seful in dyeing. 

T/ie Fridt. — The fruit, when green, yield 



a very astringent, rough juice, that makes an 
indelible black dye, suitable for several pur- 
poses; and Dr. Woodhouse says that i^ is 
■prejerable. to oak bark for tanning. As this 
material is plentiful in most parts of our coun- 
try, our country tanners should make a note 
of this fact. The ripe fruit, after it has been 
touched by frost, makes nice pudding and 
custard ; and a good beer is sometimes ex- 
tracted from them. Below I give receipts 
for making the pudding and pies: 

Persvnmon Pudding. — Pick all over, re- 
jecting the unripe ones. Force through a 
seive in order to separate from ' the seeds. 
Add a little sugar, and flavor to your taste. 
Piece in pans, and bake quickly. When 
done grate some brown bread crust and loaf 
sugar over them and set back to brown. 

Persimmon Custard. — Prepare the fruit as 
above. Add three eggs to everj- pound, and 
make as thin as you wish with milk. Sweet- 
en and flavor to j'our taste ; put in shallow 
pans with crusts, and bake slowly. Set away 
to cool. J. 



THE TOMATO AS A MEDICINE. 

Dr. Bennet, a professor of some celebrity, 
considers it as an invaluable article of diet, 
and ascribes to it very important medical 
properties : 

1. That the tomato is one of the most pow- 
erful aperients of the Materia Medica, and 
that in all those aifections of the liver and 
organs where calomel is indispensable, it is 
probably the most efi'ective and least harmful 
remedial agent known to the profession. 

2. That a chemical extract pill can be. ob- 
tained from it which will altogether super- 
cede the use of calomel in the cure of dis- 
ease. 

3. That he has successfully treated diar- 
rhcea with this article alone. 

4. That when used as an article of diet, it 
is almost a sovereign remedy for disjiopsia 
and indigestion. 

5. That the citizens in ordinary should 
make use of it either raw, cooked, or in the 
form of a catsup, with their daily food, as it 
is a most healthy article. 



Sweet Oil for Poisons. — A plain farmer 
in one of our exchanges, says that sweet oil 
will cure the bite of the rattlesnake and 
poison of all kinds in man and beast. The 
patient must take a spoonful of it internally 
for a cure. To cure a horse it requires eight 
titncs as much as for a man. It is an antidote 
for arsenic and stryclinine. It will cure bloat 
in cattle caused by eating too freely of fresh 
clover ; it will cure the sting of bees, spiders 
and other insects. It cures persons poisoned by 
ivy. We are afraid that our "Plain Farmer" 
is claiming too much for his universal poison 
remedy, but there can bo no harm in trying it. 



Publishers' Department. 



55 



Red Clover Blossoms. — Tho extract, 
spread in linen or soft tliin lejither, is sulci to 
be an excellent remedy for cancerous ulcers. 
It is also hii^hly recommended in ill-condi- 
tioned ulcers of every kind, :uid deep ragi^ed- 
edged and otherwise badly conditioned burns. 
It possesses a peculiar soothini; property, and 
proves an efficacious detergent, and promotes 
a healthful granulation. Clover blossom tea 
is said to be a specific for whooping cough. 



RECJPES. 
Tomato Catsup. — Boil ripe tomatoes in a 
porcelain kettle till they are quite soft ; mash 
and strain through a sieve ; season with salt, 
Cayenne pepper and white mustard seed ; boil 
till half boiled away; have your bottles hot; 



pour the catsup in hot, but not boiling; cork 
and seal up and i)ut away in a cool place. 

Corn Bkkad. — One quart of sour, or butter 
milk ; oius teaspoonful of soda ; t)tie teaspoon- 
ful of salt; one tablespoonful of melted lard 
or butter ; two i!ggs, to be beaten light before 
added ; sufficient sifted corn mcuil to make a 
soft batter. Bake in a quick oven. 

To Takk Ink out of Linkn. — Take a 
piece of tallow, melt it and dip the spotted 
part of the linen into the tallow ; the linen 
may then be washed, and the spot will disap- 
pear, the linen remaining uninjure4. 

Fruit Stains. — Pour hot water on the 
parts; rub in hartshorn, or oxalic acid dis- 
solved in water. 



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56 



The Rural Carolinian. 
FARM AND GARDEN CALENDAR FOR OCTOBER. 



It should be understood that the following directions are given with special reference to the latitude of 
Charleston, and persons residing any considerable distance North or South of this place must make 
the necessary allowances for difference in the seasons — about five days for each degree of latitude. 



AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

The first thing in order, where the staple 
is largely grown, is cotton picking. The 
work should be pushed, but not too rapidly, 
to permit the necessary care to guard against 
waste. Let no cotton seed be wasted ; we 
have only begun to appreciate its value. 

We need not repeat our injunctions to 

sow Wheat, Oats, Rye and Barley largely 
■wherever the soil favors. Farmers differ in 
their opinions about the best time to sow 
wheat, and regard must also be had to the 
locality and the nature of the season. We 
think October the best month to get in the 
crop. Wheat requires a soil either manured 
or of considerable natural strength to make 
it a 'paying crop, and the land must be thor- 
oughly prepared. Avoid situations where 
there is likely to be too much moisture during 
the spring. Clayey loams are excellent for 
wheat, and rather light calcareous soils, if in 
a good condition, produce fair crops. On 
poor soils, sow rye in preference. Barley is 
a grain that has received too little attention 
in this country. It requires a strong soil. 
Sow from one to one and a half bushels per 
acre, or two bushels if to be cut for green 
feed. 

Sweet Potatoes should be dug toward 

the last of the month if there be danger of 
frost. We put the potatoes up in heaps, 
cover them with vines or litter, aud let them 
go through the heating process before bank- 
ing. They keep better and the bank requires 
no chimney. 

Put up your Bread Corn in the shuck, 

to guard against the ravages of the weevil. 

Cut and cure your Pea-Vine Hay. 

Save, also, Pindar Vines and Sweet Potato 
Vines for the same purpose. Some late native 
grasses, too, may still be cut for hay. 

During this month and the next, the 

State and County Fairs will generally be 
held. Set it down as one of the tilings to be 



done, if possible, to go to the nearest Fair, 
and, if not an exhibitor, be an observer and a 
learner, and if you can a teacher also by 
exchanging experience with your brother 
farmers. 

GARDEN WORK. 

Continue to transplant Cabbages. The 
plants should be from European seed. Sow 
seed for the spring crop. Plant out Cauli- 
flowers and Broccoli, having the ground very 
rich and deeply dug. 

Turnips sowed last month, if you were 

fortunate enough to get a stand, should be 
hoed and thinned. In the latitude of Charles- 
ton sowings of White Flat Dutch, or of 
Purple Top, may still be made. Ruta Bagas 
(the thinning of the rows) may be trans- 
planted as readily as Cabbages. 

Spinach for winter use may still be 

sown. Sow in drills from nine to twelve 
inches apart, and thin out to from four to six 
inches apart in the row. 

Sow Radishes (French Breakfast is 

best) and sow and transplant Lettuce. 

Leeks and Onion sets may be put out, 

and toward the last of the month, Artichoke 
and Asparagus beds should have their winter 
dressing. 

Strawberry beds prepared last month, 

if not yet planted may now be attended to. 
Water the plants if the weather be dry. 
Raspberries may be planted toward the last 
of the month or in November. 

In the Flower Garden any operations 

directed for last month, if they failed or were 
neglected, may be performed now, but as 
early in the month as possible. Continue to 
set out bulbs of the early flowering plants, 
such as Narcissus, Crocus, Jonquils, Iris, etc. 

Clear up the garden and yards, and 

prepare composts. The salt and lime mix- 
ture will promote the decomposition of your 
refuse vegetable matters. Save wood ashes 
and soot to add to the heap. 



THIS 



RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] NOVEMBER, 1871. [No. II. 



To "North Santee Planter. 



It affords me much pleasure te give you the advantage of my observations 
in rice culture, as far as it is in my power with pen, ink and paper. Such of 
our planter friends as are near will be able to do much more for you. I reply 
.to your questions : 

Ist. What is it that produces maggots in rice ? 

Answer. The water weevil produces the maggot. This little weevil is a 
great pest in the rice field. It deposits its eggs at the roots of the rice in a 
dry stage as well as flooded. At the flooding of the rice the larva attacks 
the roots. 

2d. Has deep watering produced these maggots ? 

Answer. No, The weevils prefer depositing these eggs in the flooded rice, 
and particularly in the less clayey or stiff soil, which is generally the lower 
portions of the fields. I have known such portions of the fields attacked by 
maggots in a very wet season, when the fields had been kept as dry as possi- 
ble for weeks. 

3d. Did deep watering cause the rice to check in those fields cultivated 
with point and long water ? You add : " But in a few days all portions of 
the field checked, except the hills. It remained in this condition until 
hoed, when it started to grow," etc. 

Answer. I judge by your remarks, it only needed hoeing, which it ought to 
have had in a very few days after the ivater was taken off. 

4th. What system have you found best for getting maggots out of rice, 
without checking it when in barrel or jointing? 

Answer. Maggots cannot be got out of rice without drying the field. When 
the lie-by water was put on I usually flooded ten days, and then dry (entirely 
off) for four days. This I arranged so as to take advantage of the new and 
full moon tides for flooding up every fourteen days. This was done until the 
shooting of the rice ; then I kept flooded all the time, changing occasionally. 
I did not succeed always, but it was the best I could do. 

5th. When rice is checked from any cause, while young, jointing or 
No. 2, Vol. 3. 5 



58 To "North Santee Planter." 

in barrel, how should it be managed for starting it growing?. If rice cheeks 
in water should it be dried ? If checked dry should it be watered ? When 
" rice is checked from any cause." 

Answer. This is a stumper. I imagine I hear friend Foster say: "Pre- 
scribing for maggots is like prescribing for an unmistakable case of chronic 
rheumatism. But here we are called on to prescribe for a patient on North 
Santee — no disease mentioned, no special cause, ' a7iy cause.' It may be colic, 
gout, small pox or brain fever. Patient of any age or condition. I can't do it." 

Well, I think my old planter friends will say with me that the above 
cannot be answered satisfactorily. However, I will ask " Planter " a few 
questions which would be suggestive to the mind of any old planter. What 
is the age of your rice? A good stand or otherwise? Grassy or clean? 
What system of management brought it to this condition ? What grasses 
have you to contend with ? Soil light, black, heavy, clay stiff or friable ? 
Original growth rush, marsh, bay or timbered swamp ? Was soil well 
ploughed, harrowed and put in good order, or is it an old goose-grass patch 
hacked through according to the enlightened notion of the XYth Amend- 
ment ? Your field level or otherwise ? Have you been troubled with full 
river and east winds so as to affect your average ? Seasons hot or cold ? 
Wet or dry? I could go on with many more questions, but I think 
"Planter" will now understand why I decline attempting to enlighten him on 
the above. 

In the management of a crop of rice, I am guided very much by the 
general appearance of the different fields, the condition of the plantation 
generally, and more particularly the availability and control of the labor. 

I think my old planter friends will agree with me in saying there is more 
difference in the rice soils of Georgetown District than in the constitutions of 
men. And we all knoio what Avill kill a Frenchman will fatten a Dutchman. 

6th. Would it be best on alum or salt land to let the rice joint during its 
dry growth ? 

Answer. If doing well, most decidedly. 

7th. During seasons of salts is ijb best to hold stale water upon rice jointing, 
shooting, or in barrel? 

Answer. Hold stale fresh water unless you can replace it with fresh 
water. 

8th. Should the fields become dry is it best to put on hard or brackish 
water ? 

Answer. The patient is in a very had way. Must be seen after. Cannot be 
prescribed for from a distance. 

9th. How hard can it (water) be without doing injury ? 

Answer. I have killed very many acres of rice experimenting with hard 
and brackish water, but I cannot undertake to describe the degrees of hardness 
to " Planter's " satisfaction ; for example : water just hard or brackish 
enough to kill rice at Cat Island, Kushland and Duck Point, could bo used to 
advantage on rice at Mill Dam, Bear Hill, and Hicehope. 



An Experiment. 59 

I did not succeed with gas-house lime. If "Planter" desires to experi- 
ment, he will find it best to plough early in the fall. Spread evenly over the 
ploughed land from thirty to fifty bushels lime per acre, (by the middle of 
December.) Do not flow, but let rain and frost have every chance. Harrow 
four or five weeks before planting season. Harrow again when ready to 
plant. 

Will " Planter" oblige me by sending some of those water weevils to Mr. 
Charles E. Dodge, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, for exami- 
nation. F. W. JOHNSTONE. 

St. Gemme, La. 



An Experiment. 



In one corner of one of my fields is a hill-side of gentle ascent from a 
branch to "the woods," comprising about one acre and a half, and presenting 
a Western front. This plot has for days unnumbered been covered with 
broom-sedge and small sweet gums. When the original timber was taken off 
no one knows. The surface was covered with small white flint rocks, vary- 
ing in size from pebbles to fifty pound weights. The soil, if any, was cold, 
damp, grayish and sterile, and crawfish holes were as numerous as the stones 
on the surface. In wet weather this hill-side was a slosh, for water lay on it 
and in it, but it never bogged. In ordinary weather it was too damp to 
work, and in dry spells it became as hard as a board. It was only in very 
dry weather the broom-sedge would burn, and this end was effected in the 
Spring of 1869 after several ineffectual attempts. 

In March, 1869, the plot was ploughed and cross-ploughed with scooters, 
and in a few days bedded up horizontally and planted in sorghum cane. 
With careful culture and fair seasons the yield was almost nothing, not a 
stalk growing higher than six feet, nor larger than one's finger. 

In 1870 an effort was made to cultivate this plot in corn. In May the 
prospect was so unpromising the crop was abandoned to the weeds. 

In January last a ditch three feet deep, and as narrow as a laborer could 
dig it, was dug from the branch up the centre, and when half way up the hill 
was branched so as to form a complete Y. In the bottom of this ditch were 
laid regularly two rows of small flint stones, and one covering these two, 
leaving an opening beneath. Upon these were thrown promiscuously the 
flint stones from the surface of the plot until the ditch was one-third full. 
Upon these were laid regularly small pine twigs, and about three inches of 
dirt thrown in upon these, which was ramed firmly'with an ordinary wooded 
maul sawed off square. This done, the remaining dirt was drawn into and 
on top of the ditch, leaving a ridge or bank just where the ditch had been. 

On the 27th April the land was thoroughly broken iip with long scooters 
and immediately cross-ploughed. On the 8th May it was laid off in five feet 
horizontal rows, and one acre measured from the top of the hill was 



60 An Experiment. 

maoured with two hundred pounds of Stono Fertilizer. The next morning 
the land was bedded up with shovels, the beds opened with an ordinary- 
scooter, corn dropped three feet apart and covered with a double-footed 
plough. 

For the next ten days the weather was cold, very wet and windy. By the 
25th May there was an almost perfect stand of corn, and the young stalks 
looked bold, vigorous and healthy. On the 29th the crop received four 
scooter furrows, when peas were planted, the land being mellow and friable, 
and ploughing beautifully. 

From the 1st to the 10th of June almost incessant rains fell, the land 
became thoroughly' saturated; the flow of water from the covered drain was 
bold and constant ; the corn grew off rapidly, and not a crawfish hole was to 
be seen. On the 13th June the corn was hoed and thinned out to a single 
stalk, being now about one foot high and looking very green and healthy ; 
the land was in high season j 25th June, five furrows with shovels and heel 
sweeps were given the crop. At this season rain fell almost every day. 

July 1st, peas and corn looked well, though the excessive rain disclosed 
" wet spots " on the hill-side. July 2d, four furrows with shovels and heel 
sweeps were again given the crop. July 11th, three sweep furrows, followed 
by a hurried hoeing, " laid by " the crop ; both corn and peas looking re- 
markably well. The following ten days wore excessively hot, windy and 
parching, but had no perceptible effect upon the corn. July 20tb, fine rain, 
which secured the croj). 

October 3i-d, the corn was gathered, shucked and measured, (an occasional 
bushel of ears being shelled and the average taken) and the yield proved to 
be twenty bushels, two pecks and one gallon, worth the day it was gathered 
twenty dollars and sixty-two cents, ($20 62.) 

What did this corn cost per bushel ? Upon the supposition that the benefit 
to the land paid for the ditch, the labor expended on the crop was six days 
with man and horse with the plough and two days with a hoe hand, worth, 
in the aggregate, nine dollars, ($9.) The phosphate cost five dollars and a 
half, ($5 50,) and the gathering and shucking, etc., required the labor of two 
hands, a horse and cart one day, valued at two dollars, (82.) Hence the crop 
actually cost $16 50, and was worth $20 62. Or the land rented for $4 12 
per acre, if the supervision be thrown in gratuitously. 

The fodder I regard just about worth the gathering, and the pea crop has 
been ploughed in as a manure to the oat crop already sown. 

The details of this little experiment are given, because they corroborate 
three ideas that I have long entertained. 

First, the corn crop is the most unprofitable crop we can plant on our 
uplands. With the most favorable seasons the upland corn planter pays at 
least eighty cents per bushel for his crop. The same land planted in small 
grain, sorghum or cotton, will, under similar circumstances, buy the corn 
crop and pay a handsome rent besides. 

Second, there can be no better stimulant to any of our crops than the 



Hillside Hedging vs. Hill-side Ditching. 61 

Charleston phosphates, and so far from being too high-priced, they are worth 
every cent paid for them. In the spring of 1870 a majority of the cotton 
phintors invested in these commercial fertilizers, and for what purpose? Sim- 
ply to make " a big cotton crop." The result proved that these fertilizers 
did their duty nobly, for they produced an immense cotton crop, which went 
into the hands of speculators, who bought and sold at their own price. The 
planters consequently lost money, and the entire blame was attached to their 
best friend instead of to their own imprudence. Had those fertilizers been 
applied one half to small grain, or other cultivated crops than cotton, the 
South to-day would have been independent. I have seldom applied phos- 
phates that did not pay me, and those paid best which were applied heaviest 
to the best land. 

Third, the value to our lands of underdraining is incalculable. This ex- 
periment, with others I have made, proves to me that there is not an acre of 
land in the South covered with stones, that would not be sufficiently im- 
proved to pay for the labor if it were simply cut up into sections by deep 
narrow ditches, the stones thrown into them and covered simply with the dirt 
taken from the ditches. For this operation not only clears the surface of a 
nuisance, but utilizes that nuisance most profitably. 

If a ditch such as I have described above be dug across the direct clay 
knob in the South, and both ends be left open, (the upper end by having a 
perpendicular box or gutter inserted into it, touching the stones and project- 
ing a foot above the surface, and the lower end left open at the foot of the 
hill,) there will be a constant flow of air through the drain, and an equally 
constant drip of water from the lower end. As a German once very naively 
said to me, "these underdrains are the lungs of the earth, they give breath, 
life and vitality to the land." I have desti'oyed wet, sour spots on stony 
places by simply digging a hole, say three feet square and six feet deep, cart- 
ing off the clay and filling up the hole with adjacent stones. 

D. WYATT AIKEK 



Hill-side Hedging vs. Hill-side Ditching. 



We have recently read with much interest the articles in the April and 
June numbers of The Rural Carolinian, in which the writer recommends 
the substitution of permanent obstructions of rows of logs and brush or 
hedges, for hill-side ditches. 

His idea is both novel and suggestive, opening a new and wide field for 
thought upon the all-important subject — the preservation of our hill-sides. 
Though much pleased with his theory, believing it can be made to serve the 
end designed, we are, nevertheless, constrained to differ with him as to the 
method for reducing it to practice. "We do so, however, with much deference 
to his better judgment. 

After a somewhat careful consideration of the subject, we are inclined to 



62 Hillside Hedging vs. Hill-side Ditching. 

the opinion that obstructions made of such material as would last only for 
one year, would be, for various reasons, better than the kind he recommends. 
The advantages attending obstructions of this kind over permanent ones, 
are: 

1st. They would be cheaper and more easily built, notwithstanding the 
necessity of having to rebuild them annually, as there is always, with per- 
haps a few exceptional cases, an abundant supply of corn and cotton stalks 
at hand, which suit admirably for the purpose, and could with little or no 
additional labor and time, be placed upon the lines of obstructions when 
removed from the field in preparing it for the plough. 

2d. The ground occupied by them one year, which, were they permanent, 
would be like so much dead capital, can be planted the next, after being 
much improved in fertility by rest and the accumulation of vegetable mould, 
by placing the new a few feet removed from the spaces occupied by the old 
obstructions. 

3d. At the end of one year, they would be sufficiently decomposed to be 
easily incorporated with the soil, and could be, with great advantage, applied 
to the thin spots between the obstructions. Whenever it occurs, as it doubt- 
less sometimes will, that the corn and cotton stalks at hand fall short of a 
supply, the deficiency can be easily made up with the rakings of the fence 
coi'ners, and a few loads of woods trash if necessary. 

Where the land has not been freshly ploughed, the space to be occupied by 
each obstruction should be well broken up before the stalks are placed in 
position. They should then be placed on the lines with some care, and 
pressed together by being walked upon. Then with a turn plough of some 
sort, run two or three furrows just on the upper side of each obstruction, 
throwing the dirt well up on th« stalks. The next step will be to complete 
the job by placing weights upon the obstructions to render them still more 
secure. In rocky portions of the country, rocks, as a general thing, can be 
easily obtained on the spot for the purpose. In the absence of rocks, a few 
small logs will answer, and the time and labor required to get them will be 
but a trifle in the end, as they can be used for years. Only on steep hill- 
sides, hoAvever, do we think it will be found strictly necessary to use weights. 
As to the size of the obstructions, from three to four feet wide at the base, 
and from twelve to eighteen inches high, according to circumstances, would, 
perhaps, be about right. 

We are again constrained to differ with your Fairfield correspondent, 
though with the same deference as before. We think he is in error, also, in 
regard to the running of the rows and obstructions. Instead of running 
them parallel, we are of the opinion it would be best to let them cross each 
other. The obstructions should be run on a perfect level, and the rows 
obliquely across the hill-side,* giving them only a very gradual declivity 
towards the lowest point of the field, crossing the obstructions at oblique, 
instead of at right angles. If run parallel to each other on a level across 
the field, there would bo great danger, not only of injury to the land between 



Value of Education to the Farmer. 63 

the obstructions, but of injury to the obstructions by a too sudden rush of 
water, caused by its breaking over the rows during heavy falls of rain. 

If run as above indicated, the rows would be, so to express it, like eo many 
check dams, holding the water without the danger of its breaking across 
them, to such an extent, as to cause it to flow so gently against the obstruc- 
tions, that there need not, we think, be any fear of their being washed away, 
not even after having become pretty thoroughly decayed. Another advan- 
tage attending this arrangement, and one of no little importance, is that the 
rich deposit spoken of by your Fairfield contributor, as accumulating on the 
upper side of each obstruction, would be distributed almost the entire length 
of the rows. The crossing of the obstructions by the rows, will not involve 
the necessity of the ploughman's turningat every obstruction, as by a little 
lift of his plough he can easily pass over them. A system for the preserva- 
tion of hill-sides that will prevent the washing away of the soil, and, at the 
same time, hold the water sufficiently long upon the land for a large per- 
centage of it to be utilized, is the one we need. 

The one we have hero endeavored to explain, will, we think, if judiciously 
applied, accomplish both these results so highly desirable. In applying it to 
land where yawning gullies, hideous to behold, are to be seen on every hill- 
side, which, unfortunately, is but too true in regai'd to nearly all of our red 
clay lands, it would be much better if they could be first leveled over, and 
the land restored to its original evenness. This is practicable, and can be 
done with a little energy and determination in the right direction. If not in 
one year, it can be accomplished in two or three. Just here, Mr. Editor, the 
way opens and loads to the consideration of the subject, the reclaiming of 
hill-sides, a subject of no less importance than the one we have just consid- 
ered, and though much inclined to say something more in regard to it, we 
defer its consideration to another time, fearing we have already trespassed 
too far upon your columns. Oq a future occasion, if pardonable in a young 
farmer to presume to make suggestions to older and wiser ones, we may en- 
deavor to explain how we think gullied hill-sides can be easily and cheaply 
reclaimed. HILL-SIDE. 

St. Mattheiu's, September, 1871. 



Value of Education to the Farmer. 



"We have lately read, for the second time and with renewed pleasure and 
profit, " An Address, delivered at the Grand Prairie Fair, Oxford, Ind., Sep- 
tember 10th, 1869," by Professor E. T. Brown, A. M., and cannot resist the 
temptation to make a few brief extracts for the benefit of the readers of The 
EuRAL Carolinian : 

WHAT AGRICULTURE OWES TO SCIENCE. 

We are not more industrious, nor more energetic than were our fathers, 
yet our labor is four-fold more productive than theirs in the average work of 
the farm ; and vastly more than this in our factories, machine shops and 



64 Value of Education to the Farmer. 

mills, and especially in our facilities of transportation and travel. All this is 
to be credited chiefly to the better education of all classes. 

Formerly science in its gown and gloves strutted through the halls of col- 
leges, while ignorance, in poverty and rags, toiled on in the field and in the 
workshops. But when the masses had learned to think, and a liberal educa- 
tion had expanded and elevated their minds, then science laid aside the 
gown and the gloves and went into the shop of the mechanic and the fields 
of the farmer, and commenced the lesson of productive labor — what is best to 
do, and how is best to do it. 

HOW TO MAKE FARMING ATTRACTIVE. 

Make the work of the farm educated labor — teach the farmer to under- 
stand why he does everything he is required to do for the successful cultiva- 
tion of the soil, as the professional man is expected to know the m;A?/ of every- 
thing he does, and farm work will become as attractive as the labor of the 
learned professions now is. We may talk of the dignity of labor, and of the 
importance and independence of the farmer's life, yet so long as his work is 
mere muscular toil, so long will it be repulsive to a largo, and indeed the 
better class of American mind, and they will break away from it at every 
oppoi-tunity. That this should be so is perfectly natural. Man is a complex 
being. He has a mind as well as a body — a brain to think as well as hands 
to execute, and he feels how degrading is his condition in any occupation 
which virtually ignores his higher and better manhood, and demands of him 
only animal drudgery. But it is affirmed that the more you educate young 
men, the more certain they are to leave the farm for a mercantile or other 
professional life. In repl}^, I ask when have you educated farmers' sons in 
the science of the farm, when have you taught them agricultural chemistry 
and vegetable physiology, and the kindred sciences involved in an intelligent 
prosecution of farm work, my experience of the last ten years testifies very 
diff'erently. 

FARMERS SHOULD BE LEARNED MEN. 

Our professional men should be learned men, but the man of the broadest 
and most nearly universal education, should be the farmer, because his busi- 
ness demands the widest knowledge ; but in all the history of the past he 
has been consigned to an ignorant, undiscriminating routine of toil and 
drudgery, repulsive to those doomed to it, and held in contempt by those 
who arrogated to themselves superior stations. In one of the apochryphal 
books of the Jews, written after their captivity, we find the following charac- 
teristic passage : " How can he get wisdom that holdeth the plough and glorieth 
in the goad, that driveth oxen and is occupied in their labor, and whose talk 
is of bullocks? He giveth his mind to make furrows, and is dilligent to give 
the cows their fodder. So every carpenter and workmastcr that laboreth 
night and day. But they shall not be sought in the public councils, nor sit 
high in the congregation. They shall not sit in the judge's seat, nor under- 
stand the sentence of judgment." (Ecclesiasticus, chapter 38.) 

LOOKING INTO THE FUTURE. 

This, however, suggests another matter of verj- grave import to the agri- 
cultural interests of this country. If the agricultural and mechanical arts 
advance only at the rate of the last half century, this Mississippi Valley will 
produce more food, at the close of this century than the entire population of 
the globe can consume. It is evident that the true policy is to divert a large 
portion of our labor from the production of food to the manufacturing inter- 
ests of the country. The eating capacity of the whole human race is a fixed 
quantity, and when the production of our grain fields reaches that quantity, 
the suz'plus must be waste. 



Power of the Soil to Retain Manure. 65 

A SENSIBLE STIGOESTION. 

But in manufactures, our advancing civilization creates now wants niore 
rapidly than even the lightning speed of our machinery can supply them. 
A few crops like the wheat crop of the late harvest will convince the farmers 
of the West that relatively, too great a proportion of the labor of this country 
is devoted to the production of food. It is the interest of the farmer that he 
obtain the articles which he consumes as directly from the hands of those 
who produce them as possible, and that his bread and meat be consumed by 
the manufacturer with the least possible charges for transportation. If the 
farmers understood their own interests they would, after the necessary im- 
provement of their farms, invest every dollar of surplus capital which they 
produce, in encouraging and fostering our infant manufactories. 



Power of the Soil to Retain Manures. 



Few cultivators of the soil seem to bo fully aware of the wonderful power 
of even a loose and light soil to retain plant-food that has been artificially 
applied. I found a striking instance of it a few years since. 

The place on which I settled some thirty years ago was new fresh land, 
save some ten or twenty acres which had been partially cleared and culti- 
vated. This by injudicious culture bad been nearly exhausted, but as the 
labor of clearing new land was great to me then, I planted the old field. The 
soil was a light sand, and hardly repaid for the planting and culture. I no- 
ticed there was about half an acre on a steep hill-side which produced well. 
I cultivated this land for several years, and that hill-side always produced 
well. A stranger passing one day stopped and enquired who lived here, and 
remarked that he settled this place twenty years ago, but that losing his 
wife he became discouraged and sold out. As he was about leaving, I asked 
him what he bad done to that hill-side to make it produce so much better 
than the other land when it looked poorer and more barren. He replied that 
there he had his cow-pen. It had been fifteen years since his cattle trod the 
land, and j'et as poor as it looked it produced well. 

it is now thirty-two years since that piece of land was cow-pened, and it 
shows a marked difference in its products from the soil around it. 

I am often asked is guano any benefit the second year? I answer unhesi- 
tatingly that it is. Two years ago I planted a piece of land in sugar-cane, and 
manured heavily with guano in the drill. I made a fine crop of cane, and in 
the fall planted the same piece of land in wheat without manure. As the 
wheat grew, the rows where the cane was planted showed a marked difference 
over the other portions of the field, and the yield was double. Two years ago 
I planted a field in Norway oats ; used Pacific guano and bone-dust. Last year 
I planted the same field in cotton, using two hundred pounds of Pacific guano 
to the acre. From some cause, which I cannot comprehend, the crop was a 
comparative failure. This season I planted the same field in my prolific corn, 
without manure of any kind, and the yield has been such as to satisfy me 
that the soil had retained a good portion of the plant-food contained in the 



QQ The Seasons, Crops, Health, etc., in Virginia. 

guano, and that the corn got the benefit of it. This field produced on an 
average thirty bushels to the acre. There are fields joining mine the same 
light land, with the same culture, that have not produced five bushels to 
the acre. There may be something in the variety of corn, but not all ; on 
other fields that had not been previously guanoed, the yield was not more 
than half. 

Thus, it is very plain to see, that manures judiciously applied are not ex- 
hausted by the first crop, nor do the rains wash them away, or leach them 
through. If the rain washed the fertilizing properties of the soil away, the 
earth would long ago have been a barren waste. It is bad culture that 
wastes the soil, not plants. This I am satisfied of by many years of prac- 
tical experiment. I have been thirty-two years cultivating the piney woods 
land I live on, and it produces better this year than the first year I planted 
it. CHAS. A. PEABODY. 

Columbus, Ga., October 6th, 1871. 



The Seasons, Crops, Health, etc., in Virginia. 



In S. E. Virginia the man of the plough has, this year, been blessed with 
very favorable seasons. Dry weather and wet, of short duration, have oc- 
curred in some sections, but these have been of limited extent. As a general 
thing the crops, both early and late, have hud a sufficiency of rain to fully 
develop the growing plants. Hard winds and some hail-storms have occurred, 
but not of a nature to produce much damage. 

In consequence of the favorable seasons crops are quite good. The corn 
crop will be a large one, and the price will be at a low figure. Much of the 
oat crop was inferior, but a large area was planted which made up in quantity 
what it lacked in quality. The sweet potatoes are large and abundant, and 
still growing. The pea-nut crop, too, will be the lai'gest of any since the 
war. This is the money crop here now, and much is being sacrificed to it. 
Corn, oats, pea-nuts and sweet potatoes are our staple crops. Other crops for 
home use, as Irish potatoes, beans and peas are cultivated to some extent; 
also, cotton, wheat, rye, garden vegetables and fruits. Our gardens goner- 
ally have suffered much from the ravages of insects. Fruits have been scarce 
and inferior. Irish potatoes rotted badly. "Wheat was good, but a short 
yield; and cotton is inferior. Considerable sickness is prevailing among the 
people, mostly chills and bilious fevers. Our laboring classes take little care 
of their health, often work in rains, go to work before bi'eakfast in the morn- 
ing, eat their meals hot, consume too much bacon, take late suppers and go 
immediately to bed. 

The general aspect of affairs is encouraging. Some little spirit of improve- 
ment is manifested. Farms are somewhat better cultivated. There is less 
of idleness and intemperance. Education has begun. Political meetings are 
more rare, and more men are settling upon homes of their own. 



Sugar Culture in Louisiana. 

No frost has occurred up to date, (September 22d,) but last night the raer- 
cur}^ fell to 48°. The forests have put on their garniture of "red, yellow 
and bronze," and both nature and man appear to bo making haste for the 
advent of the snow King. 

May the Lord of the harvest, annd the Euler of the seasons be with us 
all — you of The Carolinian and we of Southland — and keep and guide us 
through this lower vale up to the bright city of the groat Hereafter. 

Cottage Borne, September 22d, 1871. B. W. J. 



Sugar Culture in Louisiana. 



HOW IT COMiMENCED. 

In 1792 Stephen Bore, finding his indigo crop a failure for three successive 
years, determined to try the cultivation of the cane. His friends protested 
against this seeming folly of an almost ruined man; but the attempt proved 
a success, and through his efforts one of the most productive branches of in- 
dustry on the continent Avas established, gradually increasing from 30,000 
hogsheads in 1835 to 459,410 hogsheads in 1861. 

On a plantation below New Orleans, which had been cropped forty years 
in succession, thirty loads of cane, weighing 60,000 pounds, were taken from 
an acre of ground in 1867, when the plant contained less than the average 
of saccharine matter. After passing between the rollers of the grinding mill 
these 60,000 pounds of cane were converted into 48,000 pounds of juice, and 
12,000 pounds of bagasse crushed so dry as to readily burn in the sugar- 
house furnace. The product of the 48,000 pounds of juice was 1,950 pounds 
of sugar. 

facts and FIGURES. 

A gentleman of the parish of St. Landry writes under date of January 5th, 
1869 : The following is a correct statement of my crop : 

Ninety-two acres of plant cane and 82 acres of corn, cultivated by 12 men, 
produced 193 hogshead sugar, 341 barrels molasses, and 1,600 bushels of corn. 
"We ground 72 acres of cane, and sold 3 acres for planting for §1,000. The 72 
acres of cane produced 193 hogshead sugar, weighing 218,090 pounds; 341 
barrels molasses, 14,322 gallons, averaging per acre 3,029 pounds sugar, and 
200 gallons molasses. 

Net proceeds from the above, including the 3 acres of cane $32,221 18 

EXPENSES. 

For cultivating the crop 81,225 00 

For taking off the same 1,551 31 

For pork in lieu of wages 662 00 

Sugar hogsheads, molasses barrels, repairs to sugar-house 

and other expenses 3,500 00 

$6,938 31 

$25,282 87 

We consumed in making the sugar 660 cords of gum wood. In taking off 
the crop we hired 30 extra hands, whose wages are included in the above. 



68 Sugar Culture in Louisiana. 

aS'umber of days cutting cane 42 

Number of days grinding 21 

Total capital invested 840,000 

The following table shows the yearly and total product of a sugar planta- 
tion near Donaldsonville, of about 1,300 acres, 700 to 800 in cultivation, for 17 
years, including the four years of war, in which the working of the place 
was very much interrupted : 

Year. Hogsheads Sugar. Proceeds of Sugar 

and Molasses. 

1853 572 823,107 33 

1854 630 33,580 50 

1855 425 40,616 70 

1856 Sugar crop a total failure in Louisiana. 

1857 570 42,638 46 

1858 1,002 8'\742 94 

1859 619 59,983 24 

1860 453 37,844 57 

1861 527 37,466 98 

1862* 130 15,507 39 

1863t 280 44,395 60 

1864J: 72 20,838 24 

1865 Cane used for plant. 

1866 252 43,997 02 

1867 217 40.000 00 

1868 275 48,900 00 

1869 430 71,760 00 

17 years. Total 6,454 8641,378 97 

PARTICULAR ADVANTAGES OP SUGAR CULTURE. 

The sugar cane is as little liable to disease, or injury from insects, and ordi- 
nary accidents, as any crop produced in the country. As the crop is laid by 
in June or July, and thus remains until October or later, it exempts the 
laborer from exposure, giving him time to harvest his corn crop and prepare 
for grinding and such other work as may be necessary. It can be carried on 
by cooperative associations, like the dairy business of New York, the sugar 
houses, like the cheese factories, working up the products of the surrounding 
country, producing a finer article for market with less expense and greater 
returns to the planter. Sugar producing being at the same time an agricul- 
tural and manufacturing business on a large scale, machinery can and will bo 
successfully applied to the cultivation of the cane in future. The steam 
plough has already been successfully introduced, working to a depth of 
twenty inches, and a capacity of twelve acres per day; and we are assured 
b}' a Northern planter, settled on the Bayou Tcche, that, by means of im- 
proved implements and some simple contrivances of his own, he has greatly 
cheapened the cost of cultivation. 

A. N. WALLACR, in Rural New Yorker. 

*In the beginning of October a large, fine crop on the fields, but was nearly all lost by 
the stampede of the negroes. 

f Nearly all of the serviceable negroes seized for military use. 

+ Rest of able-bodied negroes pressed by General Banks for military purposes, etc. 



Rust Proof Wheat. — Broadcasting and Drilling Grains. 69 

Rust Proof ^A^heat. 



The -uriter of a communication in the August number of The Rural 
Carolinian wishes to know if there is any variety of wheat not subject to 
rust. We doubt if there is a variety to be found wholly exempt from it, 
though some varieties are unquestionably much less liable to the disease than 
others. A variety famous in Georgia, and known there as "The Bill Dallis 
Wheat," can, wo think, bo put down as one. Much has from time to time 
been said in its favor by wheat growers through the columns of the Southern 
Cultivator, who claim for it as being to a marked degree exempt from rust, 
besides being hardy and prolific. We were induced by this to give it a trial 
the past season, and considering the unfavorableness of the seasons, we har- 
vested a very fair yield of good heavy wheat. Rust appeared, though not 
until the Avheat was nearly ripe, and then only in spots, and so slight as not 
to do any damage, whilst throughout this entire section of country the crop 
was almost entirely destroyed by it. A friend who also planted "The Bill 
Dallis Wheat," can say about the same in its favor. It is a fine looking 
wheat, the grains being large and well developed. For further information, 
your correspondent can address Mr. Jas. Stogner, Augusta, Ga. 

A. G. S. 



Broadcasting and Drilling Grains. 



In some back numbers of The Rural Carolinian, when it was I cannot 
now remember, a subscriber wished to know which was the best way to seed 
a field with grain, whether to sow it broadcast, by hand or otherwise, or to 
drill it in. 

The desirability of either method depends very much on circumstances, 
such as the condition of the soil, kind of grain to be sown, etc. In the first 
place, it is almost impossible, or at least useless, to attempt to seed a weedy 
piece of land, where the grass and other foul matter chokes up the funnels 
or spouts of the drill, for the grain will not then bo evenly distributed, nor 
yet evenly covered, for there will be no grain at all along the drill mark, 
from where the drill commenced to choke to where it managed to rid itself 
of its unwelcome stopper, where there generally is about a handful, thus 
being far worse than broadcast seeding. And, for this reason, I consider 
seeding with the drill the best, for it becomes absolutely necessary to have 
the field in extra order, the weeds or rubbish, if there bo Any, nicely turned 
under, and the surface made even and mellow, so as to make the drill system 
efifective, thus very materially assisting in improved cultivation. 

Besides this the seed becomes nicely and evenly covered, out of the reach 
of the numerous feathered depi-edators, who are constantly hovering over the 
field while you are seeding it, awaiting only until 3'ou have completed your 
task to begin theirs; theirs being exactly the reverse of yours. The seed 



70 Farmers 3Iust Organize. 

also comes up more evenly when Bown with a drill, and withstands a dry 
spell much longer. Some planters prefer to take half the quantity of seed 
required for the ground, go over it thoroughly with the drill, and then take 
the remaining half of the seed and drill it in across the first, thus drilling it 
in two different ways. We do not see much benefit to bo derived from such 
a course, so we very seldom practice it. In sowing broadcast the land need 
not, necessarily, or rather is not generally, ploughed and prepared carefully 
and thoroughly for the seed, but with drilling the reverse is the case ; al- 
though where thorough culture is always the rule and not the exception, as 
it is in many localities, many of the farmers prefer broadcast seeding to the 
use of the drill ; but then the birds are not so troublesome or the labor so 
inefficient. By using the drill there is quite a saving of gi'ain, although I 
shall always advocate using plenty of seed, and the very best that can be 
found. DAYID Z. EYANS, Jr. 

Cecil Fruit and Truck Farm. 



Farmers Must Organize. 



That the husbandmen of our country are beginning to get their eyes open 
to the evils under which they are 8ufi"ering, and to be casting about for reme- 
dies is very evident, and it is one of the most hopeful signs of the times. 
One of these evils is the depredation committed upon the agricultural class 
by speculators and organized companies engaged in trade, transportation and 
manufacture. What the true remedy is in this case, is correctly pointed out 
by the Tennessee Agriculturist in an article now before us. It is organization, 
as the writer truly says, and his remarks are so much to the point that we 
quote a few paragraphs : 

THE FARMER FEEDS ALL. 

Merchants, mechanics, doctors, lawyers, etc., are all necessary for the proper 
transaction of the business of life, but after all is said and done by these 
various parties, they are, at last, all dependent upon the farmer. Tlie farm- 
ing class is the base, or substratum upon which society is built. To this class 
all others look for support, and the world at large prospers or suffers in the 
same ratio as the farmer is successful or unsuccessful. It is then eminently 
proper that the interests of the farmer should be looked to at all times. 
Everything which could possibly add to his prosperity should be fostered 
and nurtured. Yet, singular as it may be, the farmer himself seems to appre- 
ciate his position as a most humble one, and suffers himself to be imposed on 
by all other classes without taking any action to suppress such imposition. 
Ho sells his crops for less than will pay him for raising them, and year after 
year sinks money in his farming business. 

now THE FARMER IS FOOLED. 

One of the principal causes of this is the fact that among farmers there 
is no combination. They do not work together. Each considers himself 
best able to manage his own affairs, and henco pays his own price for labor, 
and sells his crops at the best price he can get. Not so with other classes. 
Lawyers have their regular rates of charges. Physicians also have a sched- 



Farmers Must Organize. 71 

ule of prices to be charged for their labor. There are " labor unions " and 
"moneyed rings;" and, in fact, cver^^where we find these combinations for 
mutual protection except with the farmers. 

BUYER vs. SELLER. 

Cotton buyers first make an estimate of the probable yield of the crop and 
then fix their prices for the staple. Grain buyers do the same thing, and the 
poor farmer toils on day by day, and after a year of weary labor sacrifices 
the fruits of his toil at the fixed price of the speculator. This will always 
be the case unless farmers change their course, and make an efl'ort to pro- 
duce such articles as are necessary for home use. We desire that our farm- 
ing population shall take this matter into consideration. They feel that they 
are imposed on; but they never bestow a thought upon the remedy for the 
evils under which they suffer. Let them devote a little thought to the sub- 
ject, and endeavor, as far as in them lies, to produce a different condition of 
affairs. The remedy lies within themselves. 

SOME OF THE CONSEQUENCES. 

So long as our farmers are disjointed as they now are, the speculator will 
take them in detail, and consume all the profits that the farmer might other- 
wise realize, and to which he is justly entitled. These complaints are not local 
but extend to all sections, and go through all the ramification of farm pro- 
ducts — from the neat cattle that are put on the market to the giuseno- that 
is gathered from our hills. There is a remedy for these evils, and it is 
within the reach of our producing community. 

In reporting on market abuses and their remedies, Mr. J. B. Lyman, as a 
Special Committee from the American Institute Farmers' Club, says that in 
'New York City the up-town consumers pay for butter 10 to 15, and often 20 
cents per pound more than it sells for at first hands. The best butter-makers 
near Philadelphia, on the contrary, sell directly to the consumei*. In New 
York a lai-ge proportion of the market prices is absorbed by the brokers, 
middle-men, etc., whose profits vary greatly, being sometimes very laro-e. 
In the article of apples, for instance, thousands of barrels, on arrival in the 
city, are sold for $2 75 to $3 per barrel to dealers, who repack the apples 
after sorting out a few of the smaller ones, and sell them at §5 per barrel. 
In this handling of produce by market middle-men unjust and illegal prac- 
tices are often followed. For instance, the middle-man culls a lot of rhubarb, 
sells the choice at 20 cents and 24 cents per package, and the remainder at 
16 cents, making returns to the farmer at the rate of 16 cents for the whole. 
It is generally the case that the farmer gets no more for a choice article than 
for a second-rate produce, the middle-man pocketing the diffei-ence and say- 
ing nothing. On the other hand there are farmers who indulge in dishonest 
practices ; others consign to dealei"s who do not make a speciality of the 
article shipped. 

THE REMEDY — ORGANIZE. 

In view of the trickery and unjust combinations too often observed in the 
Xew York markets, the committee recommends : Thoroughly honest packino- 
on the part of the producer ; that the farmer be careful to ship to reliable 
commission firms who deal specially in the articles to be disposed of; and 
that farmers in every village form clubs [Granges of Patrons of Husbandry 
would be still more to the purpose — Ed.] for mutual protection, sending their 
most vigilant and capable members to the city from time to time for infor- 
mation. 



72 The Department of Agriculture and Cotton Estimates. 

The Department of Agriculture and Cotton Estimates. 

Hon. Frederick Watts, Commissioner of Agriculture, writes to the editor of 
the Gennantown Telegraph, in defence of the Department against the charge, 
made by a writer in that paper, that its correspondents and employees are 
in collusion with the cotton speculators. The plan adopted for the collection 
of information in regard to crops, he says, is as follows : 

A corps of correspondents was established in every State and Territory — 
the aggregate number of these correspondents now amounting to several 
thousand. Nearly all have been selected from the class of practical farmers; 
not one in a hundred has been taken from the commercial and trading classes. 
Few of them have been personally known to any of the officers of the depart- 
ment, and few have been appointed upon their own application. They have 
been selected mainly because of their prominence as agriculturists, or because 
they have been recommended by leading citizens in their respective localities. 
It has been the aim of the department to have at least one correspondent in 
every County in the Union. I am induced to believe that the utmost care 
has at all times been exercised in the selection of these correspondents. The 
records of the department do not show that one fraudulent return has ever 
been made to it. It may be presumed that if such return were made, the 
honest farmers of the locality misrepresented, would at once expose it. The 
correspondents receive no pecuniary compensation, but their services are in 
part requited by supplying them with the seeds and publications of the 
department. 

About the 15th of each month circulars are sent to correspondents pro- 
pounding specific interrogatories concerning the acreage and condition of the 
growing crops and the condition and yield of other products of the farm. 
The answers are required to be in figures, so that the utmost possible pre- 
cision and method may characterize them. On every circular is now printed 
the following explanation : " In representing acreage, condition or product, 
in comparison with an average crop, 100 will be the basis ; an increase of 
one-tenth, or ten per cent., will be recorded 110, and a decrease of five per 
cent, will be marked 95, etc." There is thus no room for misapprehension of 
the nature of the return desired, and no possibility of serious mistakes except 
that which may result from the restricted observation or imperfect judgment 
of the correspondent. In the very nature of the case, however, mathemati- 
cally exact returns cannot be expected ; estimates only are possible. Fields 
in cultivation are not measured; the contingencies of drouth and floods, 
insect ravages, frost and other adverse influences cannot be foretold ; the 
harvest is not placed in the scale. 

The circulars are made returnable on the first day of the second month 
after they are distributed. It seldom happens that more than six weeks 
elapse between the distribution of these circulars to correspondents and 
their return to the department. A portion of the intervening time is, of 
course, consumed in their transmission by mail. As soon as they are re- 
ceived by the department the estimates contained in them are classified and 
tabulated. The tabulations are submitted to the statistican, by whom they 
are analyzed and commented upon, after which they are given to the public 
in the monthly report of the department. A portion of the annual report is 
devoted to the presentation of aggregate results derived from the monthly 
returns of correspondents. 

It will thus be seen that the statistical work of this department is method- 
ical, comprehensive and thorough, and in its preliminary stages is as far 



Probable Future of Cotton Culture. 73 

removed as possible from corrupt influences. Its correspondents are farmers 
and planters who have crops to sell ; they are not members of " wheat rings " 
or " cotton rings." In the case of the cotton crop it would seem to bo illogi- 
cal to assume that the planters would "systematically underrate" the yield 
" through the season when the old crop is being sold by the factors and spec- 
ulators"' at W\<r\\ figures, when the same planters must know that the new 
crop, if abundant, would depreciate in value inconsequence of the reaction in 
prices. Whatever the policy of othei's may be it is manifestly the policy of 
cotton planters to tell the truth. But were the cotton planters, who are 
correspondents of the department, and who are believed to be men of high 
character, disposed to combine to make a fiilse return, it would be impossible 
for them to do so, for their names are not known to each other or the world. 

In regard to the imputation that the Department itself may make false 
returns, Mr. Watts says : 

That it is possible for it to make erroneoxis returns, predicted upon incom- 
plete or incorrect advices from correspondents, is frankly admitted ; for, as 
already intimated, even with one or more competent correspondents in every 
County in the Union, it is only possible to make an estimate of farm products 
that will approximate correctness. But that the department has made false 
returns is an insinuation that does not appear to be warranted by its past 
history. Upon its record as already made up it must rely for exculpation 
from every charge affecting its fidelity in the dissemination of statistical in- 
formation. That this information has been for eight years eagerly sought 
and generally credited by the savans and political economists and the com- 
mercial and other classes of this country and Europe, is a fact which should 
weigh heavily in favor of the presumption that the statistical work of the 
department has been properly managed. No other authoi-ity upon the sta- 
tistics of American agriculture has been so frequently and confidently quoted 
as its reports. 

Probable Future of Cotton Culture. 



We have received from Mr. J. N. Cardoza a historical sketch of cotton cul- 
ture and the cotton trade, showing a very careful collation of facts and 
figures running back to 1793, and deducing some very interesting conclu- 
sions. The article is too long to be reprinted here in full, and we must con- 
tent ourselves with a brief summary of the author's deductions from the facts 
cited, leaving our readers to form their own opinions in regard to their cor- 
rectness: 

1. That there is a natural limit to the rate of cotton production, irrespec- 
tive of price, in the conversion of compulsory into voluntary labor, labor 
being the principal element of production. 

2. That there is no such limit to the rate of consumption, irrespective of 
the price of yarn and goods, as under the influence of increasing wealth and 
the general spirit of improvement, consumption \s progressive. 

3. That as the crop of 1871-72 will have fallen short as compared with the 
crop of 1870-71 by about one million of bales in the United Slates, with the 
moderate increase in other countries, the total supply will not exceed 
6,000,000 bales, of 410 pounds each, while the total consumption, allowing an 
increase of 12 J per cent, in the British, and 5 per cent, in the continental con- 
sumption, will not fall short of 5,000,000 bales, and with the American con- 
No. 2, Vol. 3 6 



74 Agricultural Miscellany. 

sumption (North and South) of 1,000,000, the stock on hand in Europe on the 
1st of January, 1872, cannot probably exceed 600,000 bales. 

4. That this is bringing the supply and consumption very near to an 
equal it)'. 

5. That keeping in view the natural limit to increased production in the 
changed relations of labor, and the progressive increase of consumption in the 
East, under moderate prices of cotton fabrics, (the consumption in British 
India and China having augmented 85 per cent, in an average of five years,) 
the export of cotton goods from Great Britain, in the year 1870, having 
exceeded that of 1861 by 68 per cent, to China and 44 per cent, to India. 

6. That the final conclusion from these facts is that the supply and con- 
sumption are now nearly at an equilibrium, and that the tendency, under a 
moderate state of prices for the raw material and manufactured products is 
that consumption will soon exceed the supply. 



Agricultural Miscellany. 



WHAT SOILS TO USE ASHES ON. 

It seems to be agreed by farmers who have investigated the matter, that 
the ashes do the best on light soils, and some contend that they are actuMly 
injurious on moist and compact clays. The same authorities admit their 
value on the opposite character of soils. One farmer says: "I sowed 100 
bushels of ashes mixed, leached and unleached, on dry loam alluvion, and 
my hay crop was increased one-half." Another states that he applied the 
leached, which he allowed to stand twelve months, to his corn crop on similar 
land, and found it greatly increased. One farmer of our acquaintance, clear- 
ing some new land, saved the ashes and applied them to his sweet potato 
crop, and raised over 1,000 bushels to the acre. It is a safe rule for any 
farmer having land that he knows is deficient in potash to apply wood ashes 
if he can get them, if not, the best fertilizer which contains potash. 

SEA-WEED AS MANURE. 

At a meeting of the New York Farmers' Club, Mr. Wm. F. Howes, of East 
Danvers, Mass., said : 

I am not a farmer by profession, except in a small way, but have had a 
o-ood opportunity of observing the result of the sea-weed treatment on one 
particular farm, where I was kept pretty closely to work from a small bo}' 
up to eighteen years of age. I then left farming to save my life, and after 
following the sea regularly for thirty years, I came in possession of a part of 
the same farm, which had been managed during the thirty years by a man 
who believed in sea-weed, and the improvement has been wonderful. The 
land that I could not then plough deeper than four inches without turning 
up the yellow dead earth, we can now plough to six and eight inches, and 
turn up a dark, rich mold. Where we then raised nubbins, we now raise ears 
of corn at the rate of fifty bushels of shelled corn to the acre, which is proba- 
bly above the average crop in this State, though some say they easily raise 
upwards of one hundred bushels, and take premiums for it at the fairs. The 
land 1 have described have been in constant tillage and mowing, a rotation 
every five or six years, say two j^ears in grain and three or four in ha}', a 
good dressing of sea-weed from the barnyard and pigstye ploughed under 
for each grain crop, and no other manure. Neighboring farms under the sea- 
weed treatment have done equally well. We have had farmers among us 



The American Pomological Society. 75 

who affected to despise sea- weed, but they are about all gone, while all agree 
that it is a boon to the farmer. 

COMPOSITION OF COTTON SEED. 

Cotton seed is peculiarly rich in bone earth, phosphate of lime, potash and 
soda. An analysis of 3.6| grains of cotton seed ash gave the following 
results : 

Silica 0.1000 

Carbonic Acid 0.3504 

Chlorine 0.3940 

Sulphuric Acid 0.0980 

Phosphoric Acid 11.3618 

Lime 1.0784 

Magnesia 6.0838 

l^'otash 13.3566 

Soda 3.1070 

36.6000 
It will be seen by the above that 36| grains of the ash of cotton, or 1,000 
grains of the pure seed before being reduced to an ash, gave 33 grains of 
phosphoric acid, potash, magnesia and soda. The seed is also rich in 
nitrogen. 



lepadmcnt of motiicnlinxt antr Sural 



The American Pomological Society. 

This is one of the live institutions of this country. It never has a dull or 
uninteresting session. It never lacks a full attendance from every portion 
of the United States and the British Colonies. It always has an attractive 
show of fruits, instructive debates, and a cordial and friendly interchange of 
experience and opinions; and its last session, (the thirteenth biennial meeting,) 
held at Eichmond, on the 6th, 7th and 8th of September, was one of the 
most interesting that has ever been held, and particularly so to Southern 
fruit-growers, as its discussions related mainly to fruits suitable to our climate. 

This Society has, among its members and especially for its officers, men of 
the highest character and the most liberal attainments, and full of zeal for 
horticulture. Its President, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, is a man of whom any 
society might well be proud, and its Secretary, Mr. F. E. Elliott, to whom it 
is largely indebted for its success, is one of the leading pomologists of the 
West, and well known wherever American fruits and fruit-growing are 
spoken of. It has a Vice-President for each State in the Union, and for each 
of the British Provinces. Among the well known Southern pomologists, who 
ably represent their respective States are C. C. Langdon, of Alabama; Wm. 
Schley, of Georgia ; J. S. Downer, of Kentucky ; W. B . Wilkes, of Mississippi ; 
A. P. Wylie, of South Carolina, and Walter L. Steele, of Korth Carolina. 

Greatly to our regret, business prevented our attendance at the late 
session, and our too limited space does not permit us to give any detailed 



76 The American Pomological Society. 

account of the proceedings. They will be publiabed in due time by the 
Society. We notice that Dr. "Wylie's hybrid grapes attracted great attention 
and the highest commendation. The Committee on Grapes reported as fol- 
lows concerning them : 

Hybrids. — By Dr. A. P. Wylie, Chester, S. C. A large collection of these 
were offered by Dr. "Wylie. They were, for the greater part, of such excel- 
lent character as regards flavor and general appearance as to preclude the 
committee from deciding which were the best; one, however, Peter "Wylie, 
Xo. 1, was of a particularly excellent character. 

The committee feel that too much can scarcely bo said in praise of Dr. 
"Wylie's persevering efforts in the improvement of the grape. 

Among the important business of the meeting was the recommendation of 
lists of fruit most suitable for the different regions of the country. The fol- 
lowing were named for Georgia, South Carolina and Alabama : 

Apples. — American Summer Pearmain, Eed Astrachan, Eai'ly Harvest, 
Early E,ed Margaret, Familj-, Homony, Horse, Julian, Eed June, Buncombe, 
Carter's Blue, Caroline Greening, Taunton, Yopps Favorite, Ben Davis, Can- 
non Pearmain, Junaluskee, Kittageskee, Magnum, Nickajack, Pryor's Eed, 
Shockley, Stephens's "Winter, Yates. 

Pears. — Bartlett, Belle Lucrative, Beurre, Giffard, Flemish Beauty, Seckel, 
St. Michael Archangel, Beurre d'Anjou, Beurre Clairgeau, Beurre Diel, 
Beurre Superfin, Doyenne Bossock, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Lawrence Onon- 
daga, "Winter Nelis. 

Peaches. — Amelia, Baldwin's Late, Columbia, Crawford's Earl}^, Early 
York, Early Tillotson, Gross Mignonne, Hale's Early, Lady Parham, Lagrange, 
Old Mixon, Stump the "World, Susquehanna, Austin's Late Eed, Chinese, 
Eaton's Golden, Heath'.s Late "V\''hite, Newington Cling, Old Mixon Cling, 
Pineapple. 

Grapes. — **Concord, **Delaware, Hartford Prolific, **Ives' Seedling, 
Maxatawney, Black July, **Scuppernong. 

YiGS. — Brown Turkey, Black Ischia, Celestial or Small Sugar, Brunswick, 
Green Italian, Lemon, White Nerii. 

Oranges. — Mandarin and Maltese Blood, (for Florida.) 

Pomegranates. — French Sweet, Large Sweet,'V'iolet Fruited,Common Sour. 

The Standing Committees of the Society are as follows : 

Executive Committee. — J. E. Mitchell, Pennsylvania ; Geo. Thurber, New 
York ; J. F. C. Hyde, Massachusetts ; E. "W. Furnas, Nebraska ; P. J. Berck- 
mans, Georgia. 

General Fruit Committee. — P. Barry, New York ; E. E. Hunley, Ala- 
bama ; Dr. Eichard Thurston, Arkan.sas ; Dr. Stentzel, California; T. S. 
Gold, Connecticut ; Ew'd Tatnall, Sr., Delaware ; John Saul, District of 
Columbia; M. S. Littlefield, Florida; P. J. Berckmans, Georgia; O. B. 
Galusha, Jllinois; Dr. Allen Furnas, Indiana; Mark Miller, Iowa; "W. M. 
Howsley, Kansas ; Z. E. Huggins, Kentucky; S. L. Goodale, Maine; Eobert 
Manning, Massachusetts; A. T. Linderman, Michigan; P. A. Jewell, Min- 
nesota; William Muir, Missouri; J. H. Masters, Nebraska; George W. 
Elwanfcr, New York; John Capp, New Hampshire; A. S. Fuller, New 
Jersey*^ Joshua Lindlcy, North Carolina; Eobert W. Starr, Nova Scotia; 
Dr. J. A. Warder, Cincinnati; D. W. Beadle, St. Catherine; J. S. Houghton, 
Philadelphia ; J. P. Childs, Ebode Island ; D. H. Jacques, South Carolina ; 



** This indicates that the varieties so marked do better than those not so marked. 



Peter Wylie No. 1 Gi-ape. 



77 



Fred. H. French, Tennessee; A. S. Lipsoomb, Texas; Bartlett Bryant, Yer- 
mont; Franklin Davis, Virginia; O. S. Willey, Wisconsin. 

Foreign Fruits.— George W. Ellwanger, New York ; CM. Hovey, Massa- 
chusetts ; Parker Earle, Illinois ; Dr. John A. Warder, Ohio ; Edwiu lloyt, 
Connecticut; J. E. Mitchell, Tennsylvania ; R. R. Ilunley, Ala^bania. 

Synonyms and Rejected Fruits. — John J. Thomas, New York; John A 
Warder, Ohio ; W. C. Flagg, Illinois ; Robert Manning, Massachusetts ; J. S 
Downer, Kentucky; W. C. Barry, New York. 

Revision op Catalogue.— P. Barry, New York; F. R. Elliott, Ohio 
Charles Downing, New York ; W. C. Flagg, Illinois ; Robert Manning, Mas 
sachusetts ; George Husmann, Missouri ; P. J. Berckmaus, Georgia. 

Permanent Committee on Native Fruits. — P. J. Berckmans, Georgia , 
Chas. Downing, New York : Robert Manning, Massachusetts ; Thomas 
Meehan, Pennsylvania; W. C. Flagg, Illinois; P. T. Quinn, New Jersey; 
John M. Allan, Virginia. 



Peter ^TVylie No. 1 Grape. 

Parentaae I Female— Halifax and Foreign, No. 1. "I ^ ^ 
i-arentage. | Male— Delaware and Foreign, No. 8. ] 

The first is an oblong blue 
grape, the latter a dark red 
grape. 

This hybrid bore, when 
three years old, for the first 
time in 1867. In the spring 
of 1868 it was almost de- 
stroyed by cattle, so that I 
had to reinstate it from cut- 
tings. It was. one of the 
most rapid and vigorous 
growers of about fifty of the 
same cross in the same nur-* 
sery row. I have now sev- 
eral fine vines just coming 
into bearing, one (the old- 
est) of which bore a heavy 
crop this season. 

The vine is one of the 
clearest from mildew and 
rot, entirely native, in ap- 
pearance, vigorous and short- 
jointed; holds its leaves 
late ; is perfectly green now, (October 1st.) 

This summer was very unfavorable in this region for the grape ; the con- 
stant showers in June, with hot days and cold nights, caused most of the 
common kinds to rot; the Herbemont and Lenoir with mo all rotted, not 




78 The Truth About the Souppernong Grape. 

even leaving one full bunch, while only a few bunches of this on the most 
exposed parts of the vine rotted. 

Fruit, (medium from four to six-eighths of an inch in diameter;) bunches, 
small or medium, (between size of Catawba and Delaware ;) color, when 
about ripe, greenish; when perfectly ripe, a rich, yellow, transparent color ; 
sweet, juicy, but few seeds, only a trace of pulp, and to my taste of a de- 
cided Frontignac flavor; I will venture to say that in sweetness and rich 
Frontignac flavor, it has no equal in America, in out-door culture. 

I have sent specimens of the fruit to Eavenel, the elder -and younger 
Berckmaus, Summer, Saunders, Meehan, Chas. Downing, Jacques and others; 
and all who have tasted it are high in its praise. 

It ripens among the very first, hence it was impossible to save perfect spe- 
cimens for the late Am. Pomological meeting at Eichmond, but still the 
committee, composed of the first pomologists of our country, spoke in the 
highest terms of it. I have noticed that after hanging ripe a long time on 
the vine, it loses almost all its musk or Frontignac flavor, but none of its 
sweetness. I think it would make a fine raisin. 

Chas. Downing says, (when it had been long since ripe,) August, 7th, 
1871: "Peter VVylie, No. 1, is a juicy, sweet grape, sufficiently vinous to 
make it good ; foliage rather small, but thick and colored." Eavenel says : 
"A sound medium sized grape, of greenish amber color, of remarkably high 
flavor, and resembling that of white Frontignac, the quality of the foreign 
grape plainly predominating, the leaf having no resemblance whatever to the 
foreign grape, while in the fruit it is unmistakable." Dr. L. E. Berkmans 
says, "of a delicate, well defined Muscat flavor; quality exquisite." 

A. P. WYLIE, M. D. 

[Peter Wylie No. 1 is, to our taste, the best grape ever produced in America, 
so far as our knowledge extends, though several of Dr. Wylie's late seedlings 
approach it very closely. — Ed.] 



The Truth About the Scuppernong Grape. 



This grape has had the misfortune to bo unduly praised and over-estimated 
at the South, and most unreasonably abused and under-rated at the North. 
It is much to say for it that it has merit enough to hold its place, and make 
good its proper claims against both the extravagant adulation of its friends 
and the deprecating estimates and pungent ridicule of ignorant or interested 
enemies. 

It is a great thing that we have here at the South a grape — granting for 
the argument's sake that it is only tolerable in quality — that never rots, 
never mildews, has no disease, and never fails to produce an immense crop. 
Those who are so unfortunate as to live in a climate where it cannot be grown 
may well cry out, " sour grapes !" 

But the Scuppernong is not a grape of merely tolerable quality. When 



The Jujube [Zizyplms Sativa.) 



79 



grown on suitable soil, in latitudes best fitted to perfect it, it is a sweet and 
rich though not highly flavored fruit, (superior, to our taste, to the second 
and third-class grapes of other species,) and makes an excellent wine. But 
when it is pronounced equal or superior, as a table grape, to the Delaware, the 
lona, or the Walter, as it is by some — well, all wo will say is, that tastes differ. 

Some of the disparaging remarks made about this grape at the North — 
as those credited to our friend Fuller, for instance — have been honest expres- 
sions of opinion by men who know what good grapes are, and were, probably, 
borne out by the specimens tasted ; but as Mr. Van Buren, of Georgia, lately 
said in the Country Gentleman, " Northern men cannot decide upon the merits 
of this grape intelligently, for the reason that they never can see it in perfec- 
tion unless they come here in September and October, which they are pretty 
sure not to do, as that is considered by them to be our sickly season. Those 
who have seen the poor, wilted, green specimens sent from its most Northern 
line of growth, can have but a very imperfect idea of its character as grown 
in the southern portion of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama 
and other Southern States, where our long summers and extreme heat bring 
out its excellence." 

There is another circumstance that has led to much confusion in regard to 
the Seuppernong. There are, undoubtedly, many sub-varieties of the white 
Vitis rotundifolia, some of which are quite inferior in quality; all of which are 
propagated under the name of Seuppernong. Our Horticultural Societies 
and nurserymen should take hold of the matter and have these interlopers 
weeded out. 

Let justice be done to the Seuppernong. That is all we ask. 



The Jujube (Zizyphus Sativa.) 

The Jujube is a native of the East Indies, and was originally called by the 
botanists Malus Indica or India apple. 

The trees are of medium size, seldom 
growing more than twenty-five or thirty 
feet high. They have very crooked branches, 
covered with long recurved thorns, and a 
foliage of dark, shining green. In their 
native country the trees bloom in January 
or February, and the fruit ripens in June 
and July. 

Fruit oblongs of a brownish color, and 
about one inch in length, containing one seed, somewhat resembling that of 
the date. It is esteemed delicious, being of a most pleasant sub-acid. It 
dries readily, and can thus be preserved with but very little trouble. 

The Jujube has been cultivated to a limited extent in the Southern Atlantic 
and Gulf States. It will prove hardy wherever the orange can be grown, 
and should be more extensively cultivated. 





80 Preparation of Soil for Fruit Trees. — Dr. Wylie^s Hybrids. 

Preparation and Enrichment of Soil for Fruit Trees. 

President Wilder, in his most excellent and eloquent address at the late 
meeting of the American Pomological Society, laid great stress on the neces- 
sity for thoroughness of preparation and adequate fertilisation of the soil in 
fruit-growing. He said : 

It seems scarcely necessary in this presence to say that thorough prepara- 
tion and enrichment of such soils as are not already rich, is essential. Ordi- 
nary farm culture will not produce the highest class of fruits; they must 
have garden culture, and with this they never fail. After this thorough 
preparation, the cleaner the culture the better, at least in our older States, 
where the soils have been depleted by cropping. But one of the lessons 
which experience has taught us most impressively is that, contrary to our 
former views, this after cultivation should be shallow so as not to injure the 
roots, but to preserve them near the surface. 

The subject of manures is a most important one, and every year becomes 
more so. The supply of manure in the older part of our country is unequal 
to the demand, and every year increases the disparity. What would be our 
feelings if the supplj' of wheat, on which we depend for our daily bread, 
were inadequate to the demand ? Yet men are not more dependent for life 
upon their daily bread than are our fruit crops upon the food which is sup- 
plied to them in the form of manure of one kind or another. To supply this 
want we shall be compelled to rely in great measure upon artificial fertilizers, 
and chemistry has not yet taught us, as it will doubtless in the future, how 
to supply the wants of our fruit crops with certainty and abundance. But 
we cannot too often or too forcibly impress upon the minds of all cultivators 
the sacred duty of saving every particle of fertilizing material and applying 
it in such manner as will produce the utmost effect. And on this last point 
the lesson which experience has taught us is, that manure applied to fruit- 
trees should be either in the form of a top-dressing, or as near the surface as 
is consistent with the composition of the soil, and the preservation of its 
fertilizing elements. 



Some of Dr. Wylie's Hybrids. 



Having the promise of descriptions of some of the most promising of Dr, 
Wylie's hybrid grapes from their distinguished originator, we refrain at 
present Irom any extended remarks in regard to the specimens we have had 
the pleasure of tasting. The Doctor sent us so many varieties that we con- 
fess to having become somewhat confused by the number of fine and novel 
flavors. After tasting twenty or more new grapes of such diversity in the 
combination of the various qualities possible in the fruit of the vine, we 
seemed to lose the power to discriminate properly or describe fitlj' what 
our palate discovered in them. Among those, however, that we laid aside 
for repeated tastings and comparison, we were particularly struck with the 
following : 

Labrusca and Foreign, No. 2. — Leaf of the Labrusca type, large, white 
and woolly on the under side ; fruit medium dark purple, with a blue bloom; 
juicy, sweet, fine flavored; very good ; bunch large and many shouldered. 



The Red Currant Tomato. 



81 



Hybrid and Herbemont. — (F, Halifax and Delaware Hybrid, No. 1 ; M. 
Herbemont.) Leaf deeply throe lobed, underside smooth ; fruit small, purple 
with a blue bloom; very sweet; very little acid, with a peculiar and not 
easily described spicy flavor; said to be an extraordinary grower and great 
bearer. We shall bo glad to see more of this fine grape. 

Black Hamburg and Labrusca, No. 1. — Foliage of the native type ; fruit 
medium to large ; color, purplish red ; fleshy, with a lively somewhat foreign 
flavor. This has been in bearing, we are told, for several years, and never 
rots or mildews. 

Labrusca and Foreign, No. 4. — Leaf small ; fruit above medium size ; 
dark purple ; flesh nearly solid and with a decidedly foreign flavor, sweet but 
sprightl}-; excellent. 

Clinton and Syrian, No. 2.— The leaf of this and several others had got 

detached from the bunches so that 
we could not make that out. Fruit 
medium, greenish white, sweet, high 
flavored,delicious; approaching closely 
to the Peter Wylie, No. 1, in quality. 
Delaware and Clinton, No, 1. — 
A small black grape of most exquisite 
flavor — to our taste next to the Peter 
"Wylie, No. 1, in quality — may equal 
it. One of the best. Dr. Wylie says, 
as regards health, bearing, etc. . 

Others, of which we took notes, are, 
perhaps, equally worthy of mention, 
but of some of them we did not form 
any very decided opinion, and a few 
did not please us. 




the red currant tomato. 



This is a very pretty ornamental 
plant of trailing habit and profuse 
fruitage. A single plant will cover a 
trellis of four or five feet in breadth, 
and six feet in height, and when 
adorned with its long, currant-like 
bunches of fruit, presents a very at- 
tractive appearance. The fruit is edi- 
ble, like the common varieties, but is 
too small to be of much value as a 
vegetable, though some have recom- 
mended it for that purpose. 



82 Experience with Grapes in Georgia. 

Experience -with Grapes in Georgia. 

Is grape-growing a success or a failure in the South ? This question is not 
as yet decided. The general opinion is that grape-growing is a failure, except 
that of the Scuppernong; but this conviction is premature, and is arrived at 
without a thorough knowledge of the different varieties, kinds of soil and 
location required, and the proper treatment of the vines. The Scuppernong 
alone is recognized as a grape worth cultivating. 

Admitting the Scuppernong to be free from disease and sure for a crop, 
the same advantages can be claimed for some varieties of the bunch-grape ; 
such as Concord, Ives' Seedling, Hartford Prolific, Clinton, Keuka, Delaware, 
Creveling, Goethe, Diana, and Norton's Yirginia. 

The time of ripening of the bunch-grape is from the 10th July to the last of 
August, and of the Scuppernong from the Ist of September until frost. Now 
the admirers of the Scuppernong will see that they can have the benefit of 
some other varieties in full before the Scuppernong comes in, to say nothing 
about the superior quality for wine and table use. 

For the benefit of your readers, I will give the result of experience with 
several varieties which we have fruited in our vineyard: 

Concord. — Perfectly healthy, vigorous grower ; no sign of rot ; ripe 25th 
July; very productive. 

Clinton. — Showed no sign of disease ; will make splendid wine. 

Creveling. — This is also free from disease, and of excellent quality. 

Delaware. — A moderate grower, but perfectly healthy and productive. 

Merrimack, — A vigorous grower ; healthy. 

Salem. — This showed a little sign of mildew, but no rot. 

Diana. — Healthy. 

Keuka. — This is perfectly healthy; fruit magnificent in appearance and 
flavor. I think it one of the most reliable and desirable varieties we have in 
cultivation for table and for market. 

Hartford Prolific. — Perfectly healthy ; remarkable for its earliness. 

Mary Ann. — Perfectly healthy, but too foxy for our taste; should be dis- 
carded where better varieties can be planted. 

Ives' Seedling. — A healthy and reliable grape. 

IsRAELLA. — This mildewed badly. 

loNA. — lona also mildewed and fruit rotted ; poor grower; I do not think 
it will succeed with us. 

Maxatawney. — A white grape, from superior quality ; perfectly healthy. 

Weehawken. — Perfectly free of any disease; fruit excellent; will make, 
no doubt, a superior white wine. 

Goethe. — This is the most reliable of Rogers' Hybrids, and will, no doubt, 
make a splendid white wine ; perfectly healthy. 

We have some other varieties in cultivation, which we have not fruited 
yet — some of them are very promising. Will some others of our Southern 
grape-ffrowcrs give us their experience ? 

Covington, Ga. LA. BURKHART. 



Agricultural Miscellany.— Hogs and their Treatment. 83 

Horticultural Miscellany. 

SHORTENING THE TAP-ROOT. 

Mr. Median, of the Gardener's Monthly, ia very positive as to the usclessness 
of attempting to preserve the tap-root in transplanting. He says, "the short- 
ening of a tap-root is of no more injury to a tree than the shortening of the 
tinger nails to man. This matter was settled by Setiebier and others oyer a 
hundred years ago. Their experiments we have repeated ; and no intelligent 
man teaches any other doctrine. 

MULCHING. 

While on this subject, Mr. Wilder said in his address at Richmond, we will 
add, as another of the lessons of experience which may be said to be fixed, 
the advantage of mulching for dry seasons and soils, whereby the tempera- 
ture and moisture of the soils are kept uniform, and the fertilizing elements 
in a soluble state, an essential condition for the production of perfect fruit. 

THE CHINESE WISTARIA AS A TREE. 

This is a beautiful runner, popular everywhere. It is made to run on trel- 
lises — grows very rapidly — and its long racemes of blue flowers are beautiful. 
Florists have discovered a process to make this plant grow in tree form so as 
to support itself. This is the plan : " A young plant is first trained to a stake 
six feet high. When it reaches the top it is headed off. The second year, or 
as soon as it is stiff enough, the stake may be taken away, and the young 
plant will support itself. It will never make running branches after this, as 
it expends itself in the effort to overcome gravitation. A beautiful umbrella 
head is formed, with hundreds of drooping fl.owers in spring." 



lairy aittr moch Separtment. 



Hogs—the Best Breed and their Treatment. 

Physiologists may say as much as they please about Trichina, and the books 
may illustrate their pages with hideous squirmy creatures, but the hog will 
retain his place among the lovers of bacon and greens. He is as much a 
despot in the kitchen as cotton is in the wardrobe, and smoked or fried, 
boiled or sausaged, he will always hold an important place in household 
economy. Company may come in unexpectedly, a big crowd or a little one, 
and the mater familias is never at a loss if there be a ham in the Lirder. 

The breeding of hogs has received very little systematic attention among 
our people. In truth, the only system "to the manor born " has been "root 
pig or die." Under this regime it is not to be wondered at that we produced 
razor backs, land pikes and long snouts. The planter, unfortunately, relying 
on cotton as the cure all for every ill, paid very little attention to the busi- 
ness, and when good breeds were introduced, they were taken care of only 
so long as the hobby was new and interesting to the family. Our first expe- 
rience was with the Suffolk. We were much pleased for a few years, but 
being a white hog we found him liable to mange and gave him up for the 
Irish Grazier — a better hog. 

The Berkshire now came into favor, and we tried this breed for a few 



84 " The Breeding of Domestic Animals" 

years successfully. The difficulty with the Berkshire was, being a highly bred 
animal he required careful treatment to keep him up to the standard. We 
next tried the Woburn with much the same luck. "We then tried the Essex, 
and found him, for all purposes, and under all manner of treatment, the best 
hog for the plantation. 

He is hardy, thrifty, quiet, and by ordinary treatment can be kept in good 
order, and brought to maturity at eighteen months at very little expense. 

He is not subject to cutaneous diseases unless bred '•' in and in " too much, 
or kept too close, and fed upon slops or rich food. He stands the winter 
and summer equally well, and is the hog for everj'body. Wo have nothing to 
say about the much lauded White Chester. We don't like them, other people 
may do as they like. Our plan of raising hogs is very simple. We never 
call up a hog to feed him. Our hogs will run from a "h-o-o-e-e" as fast as from 
a steam whistle. The sow and pigs are well cared for until the pigs are big 
enough to shift for themselves; they are then turned upon clover lots, barley 
patches or oat fields, according to season. When the harvest is over, they 
have the gleaning of the fields ; when the corn is gathered, they are turned 
on the peas; after the peas are eaten ofF, sometimes they have a short run 
on the acorns, when two or three weeks feeding on boiled corn fits them for 
slaughter. Care should be taken about over-feeding when first put up, and 
salt, lime, ashes and charcoal used occasionally to prevent acidity, and cor- 
rect a propensity to eat dirt, common to "fatten hogs." We have no Essex 
to sell, nor any of our kith or kin interested in the business. 



"The Breeding of Domestic Animals." 



" Snaffle " has given the readers of The Eural Carolinian an excellent 
article in the September number, in which the planter is reminded of self- 
dependence and the importance of looking well to the improvements of his 
domestic animals. 

As to the writer's disappointed expectations in the Morgan crossed on your 
native mares, perhaps it was, as it has been with some who live elsewhere, 
the fault in the animal and the lack of the Morgan blood in him, not on ac- 
count of his Morgan blood. 

As to the ^^magnificent heavy draft animals, once so common in Pennsyl- 
vania, ai'c now rarely seen. The breed has run out by injudicious ci'ossing.'^ 
This is not the true cause. When the National Eoad, the Northern Pike, 
and other Northern McAdamiscd roads were in good condition, and many 
lines of heavy stage coaches were used to convey travellers, and the wonder- 
ful numbers of road teams conveyed the heavy freight from one point to 
another, then heavy horses were sought after, teamsters tried to have six 
large and powerful horses to look at, and draw a heavier load than the others; 
stage drivers caught the same idea, and this spirit becoming, (if I may so 
term it) contagious, the farmers' boys were in the contest, and all worked 
with the current, Jiaili*oads superseded all this ; another era in which young 



The Gueldrcs or Breda Fowls. 



85 



America looked after the iron horso, and decided that his team was van- 
quished. Then ho changed front : " Hero is a frxst horse, and I will have a 
faster," he said. Then it was that those heavy draft horses were abandoned ; 
then came more speed; then size was not sought after; and what a chano-e ! 
And wh}- ? Breeders look to the wants of their customers, and do not want 
to raise animals no longer wanted. 

As the writer referred to says, " it is the true policy of every farmer to 
procure a good mare or two by careful selection, raise a colt or two every 
year." Five to ten planters could each contribute from $300 to S700 each, 
(I do not include fancy prices and fancy sums,) and send one of their number 
to some breeder, and let him purchase from five to ten mares, and two or 
three colts, take them home and make a public sale, allowing the members and 
outsiders to bid equally, and every animal to be sold to the highest bidder ; 
and that will bo tried more than once. 

I do not advocate a company raising $2,000 to $20,000 and investing a sin- 
gle horso. I know that some of the best brood mares, mares one to three 
years old, mare colts and stud colts, of mixed ages, part large draft animals, 
part medium, or all work animals, and part light roadsters, can be collected 
and delivered in the South for less than 6300 each, in a lot, and yet from this 
number some men would sell a single animal for more than the cost of the 
^liole. JOHN S. GOE. 

Near Brownsville, Fayette Co., Pa. 



The Gueldres or Breda Fovv^l. 




A Pair of Slack Breda Fowls. 

Though little spoken of at present, on account of the prevailing furore for 



86 Stock Miscellany. 

new breeds, the Breda fowl is con&idered by many superior to the now popu- 
lar Houdan, and particularly suited to a Southern climate. 

The black Breda fowl is a showy bird. Its plumage is of a beautiful deep 
l)lack — rich in tone, with a bronze lustre. The flesh of these fowls is excel- 
lent; they are good layers, their eggs being large in size and resemble those 
of the Black Spanish in richness. The hens prove like other French fowls — 
non-setters. The cocks frequently weigh, when in fair condition, from eight 
to nine pounds. 

Wright gives the following as the "points" of excellence in the Gueldres 
or Breda fowls : 

The breast prominent ; head carries a small top-knot, and surmounts a 
rather short, thick neck; comb is very peculiar, being hollowed or depressed 
instead of projecting, which gives to the head a most singular expression ; 
cheeks and ear-lobes red ; wattles also red, and in the cock very long and pen- 
dulous. The thiglis are well furnished and vulture-hocked, and the shanks of 
the legs feathered to the toes, though not very heavily. The plumage varies, 
black, white and cuckoo or mottled; the cuckoo-colored are known exclu- 
sively by the name of " Gueldres," and the black bear chiefly the name of 
Bredas ; but it is much to be desired that one name should be given to the 
whole class, with simply a prefix to denote the color. 



Stock Miscellany. 



rOWLS — FEEDING FOR FATTENING AND FEEDING FOR LAYING. 

Don't keep food always by your poultry, because, if laying fowls, they are 
made too fat, and if fattening ones, not fat enough. To fatten poultry, feed 
three times in twenty-four hours all they will eat, and they will eat more 
than when cloyed and disgusted by the constant presence of food. To keep 
layers in proper condition, feed twice or thrice daily a regular ration, but not 
as much as they will eat. Some say feed as long as they will run for what 
you throw to them and eat greedily, but that is not right; for they will get 
too fat, unless they are laying freely. They will show eagerness about as 
long as they can swallow, and will scramble for what you give them until 
in their rivalry they stuff and cram themselves week after week, and become 
a mass of fat, and yet they will still act at feeding times as if they were 
half starved. Feed your regular laying stock moderately, and be governed 
by their state of flesh rather than by their greed. 

A REMEDY FOR BONE SPAVIN. 

I have found, (a correspondent of the Rural New Yorker says,) the following 
remedy entirely successful, applied to a mare I have. She was spavined three 
years ago, and had been lame about two months when 1 began to use this 
remedy. I applied it about three weeks, and cured it so that she has not 
been lame since. The enlargement of the joint remains the same as when 
using the remedy : Take cantharides 1 oz. ; mercurial ointment, 2 oz. ; tinc- 
ture iodide, IJ oz. ; turpentine, 2 oz. ; corrosive sublimate, IJ dr. Mix the 
above with one pound lard. Clip the hair on the enlargement and apply for 



A Word About " Cotton Caterpillars.'^ 



87 



three daj's. Then wash clean with soap suds and grease it for two days; 
then ajipl}- the remedy again as before. 

CARE OP STOCK IN WINTER. 

The farmer who stints the feed of his stock, or fails to provide proper shelter 
during the winter months, in order to have something to carry to market, is 
foolish; the farmer who feeds his stock well through the winter months, is 
wise. One makes his stock bring a price far more than the cost of the extra 
feed given ; the other has the pleasure of seeing his neighbor's stock sell 
readily at the highest market, while his own is slow of sale, and at a reduced 
price. 

SALT AND ASHES FOR HORSES. 

Those keeping horses should, twice a week, throw in a handful of salt and 
ashes. Mix them by putting in three parts of salt to one of ashes. Horses 
relish this, and it will keep their hair soft and fine. It will prevent bots, 
colic, etc. A little ground sulphur mixed with salt and ashes, and given once 
in two or three weeks, is also beneficial. All domestic animals will be thus 
benefitted. 

CAMPHOR FOR GAPES IN FOWLS. 

A writer in the London Field says : " Some of my game chickens had the 
gapes. 1 gave them a small piece of camphor gum and sent them to roost, 
the camphor drenched down with camphor water ; next morning they were 
all well." Let our readers who are so unfortunate as to have birds alHicted 
with the gapes, try the remedy and report their experience. 



cpartmtnl of Patuntl fiistorg. 



Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Rural 
Carolinian, for October, 1870,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles R. Dodge, Washington, D. C. 



A Word about ''Cotton Caterpillars." 




Fig. 1. 



In an article published in our September number 
on the " Cotton Caterpillars and their Habits," the 
writer has evidently got beyond his depth, and a few 
corrections are, therefore, necessary as the tendency 
of the article would be to mislead many who are not 
familiar with the different species of insects there 
treated. We had intended to make full comments, 
but as an excellent article on the same subject, con- 
tributed by a well known entomologist is herewith 
presented, we will only show the difference in two 
very distinct species ot insects in a few words, and 
leave the writer in other hands. In the first place, 
Mr. Glover is misquoted where the statement is 



88 



Anomis Xylina. — A Review. 



made that "the grass worm {Locusta, which is a genus oT grasshoppers,^ makes 
its cocoon in the same way " as the cotton caterpillar. 

Here is what Mr. Glover says: "The cotton worm, when about to change, 
spins a very loose web or cocoon in or among the leaves or branches of the 
cotton plant, or weeds infesting the field, at some distance from the ground. 
The grass worm, on the contrary, comes down from the plant it has fed on 
and retires under stones, loose earth, or buries itself in the ground before 
forming its cocoon." By glancing at the accompanying figures, which were 
engraved directly from drawings on wood by Mr. Glover himself, and noting 
carefully the following points, the difference will be readily seen : The true 
cotton caterpillar has six pectoral (front) feet, eight ventral and two anal ; 
the first pair of ventral feet, however, are very abortive, (see arrow in Fig. 1,) 
and, consequently, are useless, so the caterpillar moves with a looping gait 
like the span worms. The grass worm is provided with six pectoral, eight 
perfect ventral (see arrow in Fig. 2.) and two anal feet, and crawls from place 
to place like an ordinary caterpillar. "The cotton worm has also a habit of 
doubling itself up suddenly when disturbed, and springing to a distance, but 
the grass worm merely rolls itself up somewhat like a snake when coiled." 

The differences in the cocoons are given above. The color of the moth or 
perfect insect of the cotton worm is a reddish grey, the hind wings being the 
darker; there is a small dark eye-like spot in the middle of the fore wings, 
with a white dot in the centre. The moth of the grass worm is smaller, the 
upper wings are grey, shaded with a darker color, 
and a light band or spot is faintly seen in the centre ; 
the under wings are whitish, clouded with grey 
along the upper margin. 

In conclusion, how any one who has pretended to 
"observe" these two insects should confound them, 
and speak of cotton worms eating grass, and grass 
worms eating cotton, making both "of the same 
parentage, etc.," is more than we can understand ? 
In regard to the proposed remedy, which is the pith 
of the article, we have seen so much swindling in 
this line that we have learned to look with suspicion 
on anything of the sort, where remuneration is 
the first object, although it would only be simple justice, if the remedy should 
prove .of value, to give the discoverer a suitable reward. 




Anomis Xylina. — A Review. 



A number of communications have, of late, appeared in our public journals, 
relating to the habits and natural history of Anoinis xylina, an insect belong- 
ing to the Lcpidopterous family nocfuicfte, and popularly known as the cotton 
worm. In certain seasons propitious for its increase, and over many locali- 
ties throughout the cotton-growing States, this insect multiplies its numbers 
through successive broods, which, in their larval state, devour the leaves of 
the cotton plant, leaving it finally naked and bare, and inflicting a heavy loss 
on the planter, through the more or less partial curtailment of the crop. 



Anomis Xylina. — A Revieio. 89 

These well known facts suffice to show the importance of a knowledge of 
the habits of this insect depredator; consequently, such communications as 
are alluded to above must have been welcome to readoi'S whose pursuits had 
naturally interested them in the subject. Those communications have been 
more commonly put forth by persons engaged in the cultivation of cotton, 
and whose observations as to facts have carried with them the force of origi- 
nality. At the same time, these writers have approached their subject with- 
out that preparation which the scientific entomologist has on hand from his 
course of study. They often fail to understand what they see; what they 
really know they as often fail to record intolligibl}^ If they, then, are not 
always to be trusted as to their facts, much more are deductions which they 
rashly draw to be distrusted! Indifferent translators of nature's works, 
they are assuming in proportion as they are wanting in knowledge of their 
subject, and hasty in their conclusions as they are defective in their 
premises. 

In No. XII, Yol. II, of The Eural Carolinian (for September, 1871) has 
appeared an article entitled, " The Cotton Caterpillars and their Habits," 
that to error has added mystery, and in which the cotton worm is treated as 
a conundrum, the answer to which the writer is ready to give when he is 
properly paid for it. 

Let us hear our author, premising that he often commits both the charac- 
teristic failures mentioned above, and that in his brief article he is refresh- 
ingly free from the restraint imposed by the rules of English Grammar. 
Speaking of the boll-worm {Heliothis umbrosus) first, our author says, allud- 
ing to Mr. T. Glover's illustrations : 

"I have taken them from the corn and from the cotton boll, and compared 
them under a magnifying glass, and find them identical except as to color. 
He (i. e. Mr. Glover) also speaks of the cut-worm, and gives a plate of the same, 
but omits to give the moth. I have made a comparative examination of these 
(sic) likewise with the boll-worm, and find them identical except as to dorsal 
spiracles. His (whose f) burrowing propensities would account for this 

(ichat ry 

Aside from the interesting information that corn has bolls as well as 
cotton, it may suffice to state that the boll-worm, (Heliothis umbrosus,') feeds, in 
its worm-like stage, on Indian corn, on the green fruit of the tomato, etc. 
This worm, like the rest of its genus, has a habit of feeding on bolls or fruit 
in preference to leaves. It bores its way into such " fruit " as it feeds on. 
The "cut- worm" mentioned, and the " cut-worms " of agricultural writers 
generally, are totally distinct, specifically and generically from the boll- 
worm. They belong to the genera Agrotis and Hadena, and the natural 
history of no less than twelve or fifteen of our United States species has been 
fully studied and published. The interesting observations as to the " dorsal 
spiracles " would be valuable if any of these worms had " dorsal spiracles." 
Doreal tubercles, from each of which one or more hairs usually emanate, are, 

No. 2, Yol. 3. 7 



90 Anomis Xylina. — A Review. 

perhaps, intended. "Spiracle" is a term often applied to the breathing 
apparatus, located on the sides of the segments. Except our author believes 
that if the " dorsal spiracles " were longer or shorter the " boll-worm " would 
be a " cut-worm," or vice versa, it is difficult to understand the conclusion of 
our quotation. It is clear, however, that "a magnifying glass" is quite 
superfluous with such an observer. Let us go on a little further : 

" The cotton caterpillar (Noctua xylina) described by Mr. Glover, and 
commonly called the army-worm, he makes the great ravager of the cotton, 
as it indeed is ; and this is the caterpillar that first attracted my attention. 
This he makes to differ from the boll-worm in all its stages, and yet differ 
among themselves. The moths, however, are of the Lepidoptera family, 
nochia or owlet, and xylina or pertaining to cotton. * * * * ^g Juring 
the summer months they pass into chrysilis or pupa in a bare case, suspended 
to a twig or leaf, sometimes partially enveloped in a leaf, loosely webbed, 
and only (?) thus when numerous, it is presumable that instinct guides them ; 
but on the approach of cold weather they seek a warmer covering, and go 
into cocoon." 

In the first place, what we have usually seen recorded as the "army- 
worm" is Leucania unipuncta, a different species, found more commonly 
northward, and never damaging to cotton. It is probably what our author 
further on styles the " grass worm," (^Locusta.) Locusta is, " however," a 
genus of grasshoppers. Our author is surprised that Mr. Glover "makes" 
cotton worms differ among themselves, and differ from the boll-worm also. 
There is such a thing as individual variation in a species as well as specific 
differences between individuals. " However," we have definitions and trans- 
lations to follow, as clear and correct as can be. And after these we have the 
statement that in the pupa state our Anomis xylina is loosely webbed, and 
"only thus when numerous; but on the approach of cold weather they go 
into cocoon." So that when not "numerous" the pupae are not loosely 
webbed ? But in reality, they always are. Varying the object to which they 
attach themselves, these worms never alter their style of pupation. They 
never " go into cocoon," if by this expression is intended a thick pupal 
envelop. 

Further on our author says : " The grass-worm and cotton caterpillar are 
of the same parentage, and are each developed from the same causes." In 
reality, their " parentage " is as distinct as is that of a bull and a deer, 
though, of course, " developed from the same causes." 

And then our author goes on to say : 

" When appearing in great numbers, as the army-worm, they would as 
naturally (?) differ from a boll-worm, hatched out singly in the calyx of a 
flower, or young boll, as a civilized hermit from a sjvvage Hottentot. A 
single worm hatched out in a young boll or terminal shoot, would then com- 
mence its life, and similar food being abundant would select that in prefer- 
ence • but when numerously hatched out, as it is under favorable circum- 
stances, would take the nearest vegetation and become omnivorous." (?) 

This is error in its absurd form. No quantity of Heliothis umhrosus, fruit- 



Anomis Xylina. — A Review. 91 

eating boll-worms, could become, by force of numbers or by any other cause, 
Anoynis xylina, or leaf-eating cotton worms. 

Where is our author's magnifying glass ? Alas ! where is there any truth- 
ful observation or deduction in all his confused article that is at the same 
time original? 

A short list of the scientific and English terms of several different worms is 
, hero appended. They are all totally distinct species, some belonging to 
different genera, though all to one fiimily of moths: 

Sub-order Lepidoptera (Butter/lies and Moths)— Family Noctuidce. 

Leucania unipuncta — The army or grass-worm. 

Agrotis inermis — The variegated cut-worm. 

Agrotis dandestina— The W marked cut-worm. 

Agrotis telifera — The greasy cut-worm. 

Agrotis subgothica — The striped cut-worm. 

Agrotis jaculifera — The dingy cut- worm. 

Agrotis scandens — The climbing cut-worm. 

Mamestra devastator — The glassy cut-worm. 

Hadena subjuncta — The speckled cut-worm. 
' Seliothis umbrosus — The boll- worm. 

Anomis xylina — the cotton worm. 

These insects, in their larval stage of growth, are prejudicial to crops of 
various kinds throughout the country. 

In reference to the latter half of our author's remarks, we will briefly give 
our experience of the cotton worm in Central Alabama. In 1868 and 1869. 
cotton worms were very numerous. In 1869, they were first noticed at the 
end of June in the cotton fields in limited numbers. At the same time, a few 
of the moths were observed. The first generation brought on a second^ at the 
beginning of August, and a third in September, in regularly increasing num- 
bers. Food had now become scarce, and the limits of the fourth and fifth 
generations became confused, owing to the worms being retarded or accele- 
rated in their growth from their unequal supply of food. They crossed 
roads and paths in numbers, searching for fresher cotton fields. The worms 
were constantly seen during September and October. In oS^ovember, about 
the leafless cotton stalks, countless loosely webbed pupaj were seen. :^o 
worms were then in existence in those fields. A favorable season of" heat 
clouds and wet had protected the cotton worm. Their natural fecundity so 
fostered had been additionally nursed by an abundant supply of their natural 
food. Like the rest of their sub-order, they pass through four different 
states of growth. Anomis xylina is first a minute Qgg deposited by the parent 
moth on the leaf. It is then a worm-like caterpillar— the cotton worm. 
From its third stage of loosely webbed pupa, it emerges a perfect insect and 
moth. The question with us has been, where does the first brood come from? 
The November chrysalises all become moths during warmer days, or were 
finally destroyed by frost and the process of cultivation. On sunny winter 



92 Insect Life in the Mammoth Cave. 

days a few of the hybernating moths were seen about fodder stacks. But 
before the young cotton was large enough to furnish food in the next spring, 
our cotton worm had entirely disappeared, nor could we find it in any stage. 
We always bear of it first southwardly from us. "We know that the South- 
erly winds bring the moth. Indeed, Professor Packard writes us that he has 
found the moth as far north as the coast of 3Iassachusett8. Out of sight of 
land, off Charleston, we ourselves have seen numbers of cut-worm moths 
flying about the ship, blown from the shore. 

Having, in the course of his brief article, committed himself by statement 
and deduction, our author, in conclusion, asks remuneration, and that of no 
stinted nature, for a discovery in relation to the cotton worm. Wrong in all 
his published statements, the public is yet to trust his correctness in MS., 
and unhesitatingly to pay for the same 

We give his own words : 

*:■:*« There is an occult cause, which has thus far escaped observa- 
tion, that acts like the magician's wand in producing its millions, and which 
alone can evoke them for destruction ; (?) and this is entirely within the con- 
trol of any planter, and can be put in effectual operation without money or 
labor. * * * X am anxious to place this manuscript, in which is described 
a plan for the successful prevention (!) of the cotton worm before the public, 
and will do so as soon as I can make arrangements to secure to myself a just 
remuneration," etc. 

A belief in such a "plan " as here indicated must be the offspring of igno- 
rance of the subject. An endeavor to sell such a "plan " must arise from an 
expectation of meeting the same ignorance of the subject in the purchaser. 

AUG. R GKOTE, 
Member of the American Entomological Society, etc. 



Insect Life in the Mammoth Cave. 



The unscientific reader may query where are not insects found ? But here, 
in an atmosphere of perpetual darkness, are colonies of insects, some of them 
entirely without eyes, that live, reproduce their species generation after gen- 
eration, and pass away, little realizing, that is if insects were endowed with 
mental faculties, what a beautiful world there is above them. What they 
find to feed upon is a mystery, unless it be the remains of lunches carried in 
by visitors, or decaying wood and mould, for in many places the floors are 
wet and the walls damp or dripping with moisture. During our recent visit 
to this wonderful place we collected a goodly number of these strange insects, 
and, perhaps, a short description of them would interest the general reader. 

Hadenoecus subterraneus is a wingless cricket, an inch in length, with long 
legs and yqt\ long antennae, which it probably uses in feeling its way. Its 



A Trip to the Rocky Mountains — IV. 93 

eyes are very small, and, doubtless, imperfect. The iusccts are very light 
colored, almost translucent, and are found most abundant on the damp walls 
at Echo Eiver. 

A beetle, Anopthalmus Tellcampfil , measuring nearly half an inch in length, 
resembling the cricket in point of color, is found under stones, in damp but 
not wet places. Like all beetles found here it is destitute of eyes, though 
supplied with verj'- good antenme or feelers. Another smaller species, A. 
angulatiis, is found in similar situations. They both belong to the same family 
of ground beetles, many of which have the same habit of hiding under 
stones. 

A little oval beetle hardly a tenth of an inch long, Adelops hirtus, was 
found very abundantly near " Martha's Vineyard," under half rotten wood, 
and in bones. 

In Washington Hall, which is said to be seven miles, from the entrance of 
the cave, numbers of minute flies were found, which were easily caught, not- 
withstanding the fact that they were provided with ample wings. They 
were dark colored, almost black, and were very soft and easily crushed. 

It may seem a little singular that these insects have never been found else- 
where, but such is the case. 

Insects are found in many caves, and although oftentimes belonging to the 
same ftimilies, and even genera with these we have just described, they are 
different species. 



A Trip to the Rocky Mountains— IV. 



On the afternoon of our arrival in Denver from the mountains, we received 
an invitation to ride over a few miles, then completed, of the Denver and 
Eio Grande (narrow guage) Railroad. This kind of railroad is a new thing 
in this country, and seems admirably adapted for mountain districts. The 
rails are three feet apart, and are not so heavy as the usual T rail. The 
engines are small and the cars are small, and altogether there is a great 
saving, not only in cost of building the road, and in rolling stock, but in 
power; that is, a proportionately greater amount of freight can be drawn 
than on the usual guage, where the cars are so heavy. It is claimed that 
they can turn sharper curves, and overcome steeper grades in a narrow 
guage road, and, therefore, are enabled to build raih'oads where wiH\ the 
ordinary guage it would be an impossibility. We felt ourselves hij^iily 
honored, as we were the first passengers on the first passenger train on the 
first narrow guage railroad on this Continent. 

The next morning, August 15th, we started for the new colony of Greeley, 
which was then only sixteen months old. Arriving about noon, we had little 



94 A Trip to the Rocky Mountains — IV. 

opportunity to view the town before dinner, but in the afternoon carriages 
were provided, and we were shown bow farming is conducted in a country 
where there is less than twelve inches of rainfall in a year. Greeley is built 
on the Cache a la Poudre, from which the supply of water is taken that is 
used in irrigation. The water is bi'ought to the town by means of two large 
ditches, and is then distributed by smaller ditches over all the land culti^vated, 
and so finely that we saw, in many gardens, tin}' streams running between 
the rows of vegetables which were planted in beds. Of course the earth is 
not kept flooded all the time, though certain crops require more water than 
others. Wheat is only irrigated at times. Potatoes, I understand, require a 
great deal of water. Irrigation has its advantages and its disadvantages ; 
it ensures freedom from drouth, or the other extreme, too much moisture, but 
should the mountain streams become very low from any cause, where there 
are large communitieis depending, for their very life almost, upon the supply 
of water they may bring, there will be suffering. The supply of water is the 
great question in the problem of settling up the Western plains. In the 
evening the whole town turned out to meet the "agricultural editors" at 
the Tabernacle, and they " Farmers " clubbed it till a late hour. A great 
deal of talking was done on both sides, and which party made the most of it 
I am unable to say. 

Next morning we again took possession of the " Australia," which we had 
not seen for over two weeks, and with the directors' car of the Union Pacific 
Kailroad (kindly furnished us by that road) for parlor and drawing-room, 
we were whirled away towards Cheyenne in the most luxurious style imag- 
inable. The very ne plus ultra of railroad travelling. 

Passing Cheyenne about noon, we struck the Union Pacific, and our course 
was then due West, over the mountains. Sherman, the highest point — about 
8,242 feet elevation — is made up of a few railroad shanties, (perhaps a hotel 
or two,) the inevitable saloon, and several very rough looking houses. 

Laramie was reached about nightfall, and here we were " switched off" for 
the night. About nine o'clock we were given a very pleasant surprise, in 
the shape of a serenade by the Laramie Brass Band, and a very pleasant 
half hour's chat with a deputation of ladies and gentlemen who called to wel- 
come us to their little city. 

The Laramie plains are one hundred and twenty miles long and thirty to 
forty wide, with an average elevation of 7,000 feet. The grazing is about as 
good as can be found in the Territories, better than at lower elevations, and 
sufficient at all seasons of the year for hundreds of thousands of cattle. The 
rainfall here is about fifteen inches. The plains can, in part, be irrigated, 
but for grazing purposes it is unnecessary. 

Doctor Latham, who has four thousand head of cattle hero, in charge 
of four herders, stated that the cost of producing beeves is only two 
dollars per annum, while sheep can be kept and sheared for twenty- 
five cents each. Good milch cows ai-e worth from thirty to thirty-five 



A Trip to the Hochy ^fountains — IV. 95 

dollars, and eighteeu to twenty dollars for Texan. Beef is worth six cents 
per pound. 

After a splendid night's rest in our Pullman we retraced our course to 
Cheyenne, and from there we were homeward bound. 

Through Nebraska for the greater part of the way we had a special train, 
which was very enjoyable, especially as we could stop at tbe " twenty min- 
tes for refreshments" places, as long as was desirable for the promotion of a 
htaltby digestion, for this cramming system, to me, is the bugbear of rail- 
road travel. Then, too, \ye travelled at almost twice the rate of speed allow- 
able on the regular trains. 

A very pleasant feature of this dash through Nebraska was a sixty- 
mile ride on the cow-catcher of the locomotive in pursuit of grass- 
hoppers under diflSculties. We made a very fine collection though, 
notwithstanding. 

At one point the train was stopped by some generous farmers, who 
loaded our caboose with melons, and for a time we interested ourselves 
in the facts of Nebraska agriculture. Now for the figures. Land is 
worth from three to five dollars per acre for railroad lands, outside of rail- 
road villages, while five to ten dollars are paid for lands within two or 
three miles of stations. Alternate sections of government lands, where they 
can be found, can be bought at two dollars and fifty cents. Outside of rail- 
road belts, government lands can be had for one dollar and twenty -five cents. 
With railways and other improvements within ten miles, there is very little 
land in Nebraska that is not richly worth five dollars per acre. 

Omaha is as completely defunct a city as I was ever in ; yes, dead is just 
the word to express it. We were much disappointed to find it so, for it is 
delightfully located, and has grown considerably since the completion of the 
Union Pacific Eailroad. I fear it will never be one of the great cities of the 
West, for enterprise and public spirit seem lacking. We remained over 
night at Omaha, and resumed our journey the next morning by way of the 
Council Bluff's and St. Jo. Eailroad. Passing through but a corner of Iowa, 
I can hardly pretend to speak of her agriculture, though the country re- 
minded us more of the East than any portion through which we had previ- 
ously travelled. 

Kansas City, Missouri, was reached about four o'clock. This is a live and 
growing place of nearly 40,000 inhabitants. A great many fine buildings are 
being erected, streets and sidewalks laid out and paved, and everywhere we 
saw evidences of progress. We were met at the dejsot by the Mayor, and in 
our two hours' stay we saw enough to convince us that the good people are 
proud of their city. 

We arrived at St. Louis again Sunday morning, August 20th, and here the 
party virtually broke up, as some wished to remain in the West for a longer 
time, and others to go home by diflFerent routes. Monday night, however, the 
remnant, about a dozen persons, your correspondent among the number, 



96 



Ayiswers to Correspondents. 



started for ITew York by the route they came, arriving Wednesday night, 
August 23d, having been absent thirty-seven days. 

Thus closed a delightful and profitable excursion, in which recreation and 
information wore perpetually intermingling, with remarkable facilities for 
obtaining varied and accurate impression of the social and business life, and 
material resources of the great plains and sky-piei'cing mountains of Westei-n 
America. C. R. D. 

Washington, J). C, September 1st, 1871. 



Answers to Correspondents. 



Stikging Caterpillar.— C, Charleston. 
The hairy, or rather woolly caterpillar, sent 
by you as having stung a member of your 
family, is the Lagoa opercularis, or waved 
tussock moth. It feeds on oak and plum 
foliage as well as on that of the rose. The 
cocoon is remarkable for the manner in 
which it is made, the flat end opening and 
shutting on a sort of hinge made of webbed 
silk. In regard to its stinging habits, we 
have never heard of its harming any one in 
that way. A similar caterpillar, however, 
called the saddle-back, likewise found on rose 
foliage, is known to produce unpleasant sen- 
sations when handled carelessly, the stinging, 
however, is accomplished by means of the 
spines or stitf hairs that project from differ- 
ent parts of its body. Since the receipt of 
your specimen we have had an opportunity 
of examining the spines of this species under 
the microscope ; they are very sharp, hollow, 
and seem filled with a pinkish fluid, which is 
extracted by pressure, doubtless the poison 
which causes the smarting or burning sensa- 
tion experienced when the insects are han- 
dled. May not this have been the unseen cause 
of the injury in your case ? There are a num- 
ber of these stinging caterpillars, and as the 
subject is an interesting one, we propose to 
enumerate, in a short article, at some future 
time, the different insects that are provided 
with this means of defence. 

Inskcts on Figs. — D. H. J., Charleston. 
1. The minute insects which covered so 



thickly the stem of the fig, and sent by you 
for identification, are a species of woolly 
aphis allied to the genus Eriosoma, one of the 
distinguishing characteristics of which is the 
absence of tubercles for the secretion of honey 
dew. There are a number of species in this 
genus, the woolly apple aphis, E. lanigera, 
being the best known. The mature insects 
are about one-tenth of an inch long, yellow- 
ish in color, and are covered with a delicate 
white down secreted from their bodies. They 
derive their nourishment from the juices of 
the tree or plant, which they extract by 
means of piercers or sucking tubes. The 
best remedy is to syringe with soap-suds ; 
tobacco water may likewise be used, but con- 
siderable force is necessary to cause the water 
to penetrate the woolly covering of the in- 
sect. 2. The larger specimens which were 
sent in the same box with the above, are not 
true insects, but belong to the Crustacea, 
which includes the lobsters, crabs, etc., and 
are called "sow-bugs," (Porcellio ?) They 
are perfectly harmless, subsisting only upon 
decayed animal and vegetable substances. 
They are always found in dark, cool and 
damp places, and are common under pieces 
of chips, sticks of wood, logs, stones, about 
roots of trees, and, in fact, they are common 
everywhere. 

Chickens are very fond of them, and as 
they are abundant they might form quite an 
article of diet if any one was disposed to 
gather them. 



THE RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] 



CnARLESTON,.S. C, NOVEMBER, 1871. 



[No. II. 



^^ Progress wUh Prudence, Practice with Science." 



D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 



HAVE YOU A GOOD GARDEN? 

If you have, wo congratulate you, and will 
not a.sk you to read further. This article is 
for those who have not good gardens, and 
are willing to accept a few well meant hints 
for their improvement. 

Good gardens, we are sorry to say, are the 
exception, instead of the rule, among plant- 
ers and farmers everywhere, and especially 
here in the South. Perhaps Southern gar- 
dens are so generally the poorest in the 
world, partly because our climate is so genial 
and favorable to vegetable growth that na- 
ture is expected to do everything ! The 
farmer fences in a small patch near his house ; 
breaks it up to a depth of three or four 
inches, perhaps ; scatters over it a little coarse 
manure ; plants a few collards, a row or two 
of "English peas," some onions, snap beans, 
okra and Irish potatoes, and then gives his 
attention to his cotton and his corn. In 
most cases, in fact, gardening is too small a 
business for a full grown cotton planter, and 
it is given over entirely to the wife or 
daughters. This might do very well if the 
ladies were allowed the necessary help to cul- 
tivate it ; but the plantation work presses, 
and no hands can be spared to look after 
such trifling crops as garden peas and snap 
beans. As can readily be inferred, the vege- 
tables are scanty and indifferent — a large 
portion of the year none at all — and the 
opinion that " it don't pay to bother with the 
garden," is confirmed. Well, it does not pay, 
and ought not to pay. There is nothing to 
pay for — no manure, (to speak of,) no labor, 
no skill, no attention 1 

But a good garden, well prepared, well and 
judiciously planted and properly cultivated, 



does pay, and pay well. It pays, in fact, a 
three-fold profit. In the first place it pays 
pecuniarily — there is money or its equivalent 
in it ; secondly, it pays in the satisfaction 
which the owner and his family enjoy in 
partaking of its wholesome and delicious 
products ; and last, but not least, it pays 
over and over again in the increased health- 
fulness ensured by the constant and abundant 
supply of vegetables and fruits it furnishes 
for the table. These facts, we have been con- 
stantly trying to impress upon the minds of 
our readers. Try good gardening and you 
will need no further argument. We will tell 
you, in brief, 

HOW TO HAVE A GOOD GARDEX. 

Begin now. We will suppose you have a 
garden, in name at least, properly fenced in. 
It must be near the house, so that there is 
not much room for choice in the location of 
a garden. If your house site has been judi- 
ciouslj' chosen, the grounds about it will have 
good natural drainage ; but if your garden 
is not well drained, the first thing to do is to 
underdrain it. 

The drainage being all right, you next 
want an immense quantity of manure, — at least 
the quantity required to make a good garden 
will seem immense to the farmer who has 
been accustomed to use so little ; but without 
heavy manuring you can have no good gar- 
den. Spread on, then, this fall — now — or as 
soon as you can — at the rate of at least fifty 
two-horse loads of good stable manure to the 
acre. If you have carefully saved and com- 
posted your night soil, the droppings of the 
poultry, the wood ashes, etc., which have ac- 
cumulated on your premises, you have an ex- 
cellent fertilizer for your garden, of which a 



98 



The Rural Carolinian. 



smaller quantity will suffice ; but do not think 
to get along without manure, and a great 
deal of it. If your soil is clayey, coarse 
manure and trash can be turned under with 
advantage in the fall, and will improve its 
consistency. 

Having your manure spread as evenly as 
possible, the next thing is to turn it under 
and break up the ground deeply. This is 
another essential point. It is impossible to 
have a good garden with only three or four 
inches of soil, no matter how much manure 
you apply. There must be a deep stratum of 
loosened and fertilized earth, not merely for 
the plant roots to penetrate and feed in, but 
to absorb and retain moisture and the ferti- 
lizing gases which play so important a part 
in vegetable economy. One should not be 
satisfied, in the end, with less than two feet in 
depth of good soil in a garden. You will not 
find it practicable to get this at once, but 
should be satisfied with nothing less than 
from twelve to fifteen inches to begin with. 
Use a good turning plough and some sort of a 
subsoiler to break up with. For digging 
over afterwards, as you prepare to plant, the 
best implement is a spading fork. 

Lay off your ground into beds and borders 

to suit your own taste and convenience, but 

have some plan. A garden planted in a hap- 

hazzard sort of a way not only looks bad, but 

is inconvenient and cannot be worked eco- 
nomically. 

Having turned in the heavy coat of manure 
we have recommended, you will think, per- 
haps, that the work of fertilizing is done for 
the year ; but you should have at hand a 
large heap of fine, well-rotted compost, and 
give each bed and border a good top-dressing, 
when preparing to plant it, to be lightly dug 
in with the spading fork. The greater por- 
tion of the garden should produce at least two 
crops, and some parts three or more during 
the year ; and for each crop the ground 
should be manured, but fresh (or unrotted) 
stable manure should be applied only in the 
fall. If you have not well-rotted manure or 
compost for top-dressings and later applica- 
tions, u.se guano or superphosphate. 

Before planting, pulverize the soil thorough- 
ly, and rake the beds off smooth, removing 
all trash that would interfere with the care- 
ful cultivation which a garden must have. 



Do not neglect to do the manuring and 
breaking up this fall. You can spare the 
labor for it better now ; the manure will have 
time to become digested in the soil; and the 
crdde subsoil turned up will be greatly bene- 
fitted by exposure to the air, the frosts and 
the rains. 

Having a garden properly prepared, we 
hope you will not be content with growing 
merely the few kinds of vegetables generally 
found in our country gardens. It is a shame, 
and an insult to opulent Nature, in a climate 
in which the best productions of all climates 
flourish, to limit our culture to Irish potatoes, 
collards, peas and snap beans, thanklessly 
declining a hundred other vegetable luxuries 
placed within our reach. 

It is not our purpose, in this article, to tell 
you what to plant or how to plant. We 
have, from time to time, had much to say on 
these points, and hope to say more in future 
numbers. This is enough for the present ; 
and if our readers do not take the first steps 
this fall toward having a good garden, it will 
not be our fault. 



THE STATE FAIR. 

Planters, farmers and mechanics of South 
Carolina, da not forget that the State Fair 
opens at Columbia on the sixth of the present 
month, (November,) and that it is intended 
for your benefit, and to promote agriculture 
and the industrial arts in the State. Make it 
a point to attend and learn sometJmig from it. 
Make it pay you back your money and time 
(and more) in the knowledge you get. Do 
not go there merely to " see the sights " and 
"have a good time," though you may do 
both, but have an eye to improvements — 
to new implements, crops, modes of working 
and plans for saving. If you do not get some 
valuable hints, it will certainly be your own 
fault. The Fair must be made a grand suc- 
cess, and each one who is able to attend can 
help to make it so. 

THE COTTON CROP. 
Little credence should bo given to newspa- 
per reports of the general result of this year's 
operations in cotton planting. They are gen- 
erally originated by speculators for the fur- 
therance of their own purposes. Those pur- 
porting to be obtained from the Department 



Editorial Department. 



99 



of Agricultuvo, in advance of its regular 
monthly Kcports, are not genuine. The latest 
published estimate of the statistician of the 
Department, sets down the probable yield at 
from three millions to three and a third mil- 
lions of bales. Our own opinion is that the 
lower of these numbers will prove to be near 
the truth. 

THANKS. 
We have received complimentary tickets 
for most of the Fairs to be held in the South- 
ern States tlii? fall, for each and all of which 
we return our sincere thanks. We wish we 
could attend them all, but as that. is impossi- 
ble we can only express here our hearty good 
wishes for their success and usefulness. 

The Rural South-Land credits our corres- 
pondent " Snafile's " article on " The Breed- 
ing of Domestic Animals " to the American 
Stock Journal. " Snaflae," we venture to say, 
does not write for that " special puffer." See 
EuRAL Cakolinian for September. 

FAKM AND GARDEN NOTES. 
Cotton Trees Again. 

A planter writes to the Planters' Journal 
from Alabama an interesting letter relative 
to an effort being made to render the cotton 
plant perennial in this country. Remarking 
on this The Plantation adds ; 

The writer of this paragraph once knew 
a Mississippi cotton planter, a man of thought 
and enlightenmout, whom he has often heard 
remark that the day would come when cotton 
boils would be gathered from the plant like 
fruit from the orchard trees. That the cotton 
plant could be cultivated in the States in 
which it grew to become a tree, as hardy and 
perennial as the peach or apple tree, and that 
the freezes of winters could not kill it. That 
if a system was followed to develop the char- 
acter of the plant until it became a perennial 
and a tree, and the seed then taken from it 
was planted and tended as carefully as now, 
the offshoot would be as hardy as that from 
the peach kernel. 

Cabbage Worms. 
Has any one found a practicable remedy 
for the green cabbage worm, [Plusia brussi- 
cce,) so troublesome in our gardens and on 
our truck farms? They are uncommonly 
numerous this fall, and we have tried all the 
remedies we could think of, and have found 
no means of getting rid of them, except by 



the i^low process of picking them off and kill- 
ing them with the thumb and finger. With- 
out this our cabbages would have been utterly 
destroyed. We find the process facilitated 
by breaking off a leaf and laying it on the 
top of the cabbage at night. Many of the 
worms will take shelter under this, and can 
readily be destroyed in the morning. 
Keeping Beans from the Weevil. 
Mr. Robert Chisolm writes: "I always 
let my seeds ripen thoroughly, then shell and 
expo.se them on a black waiter to the hottest 
summer sun, for two or three days. There 
will be no weevil or bug in seeds thus treated ; 
and no ordinary heat of the sun will destroy 
the vitality of well ripened seeds." Our own 
experience confirms this. Beans gathered 
last May and put up in paper bags, without 
preparation, were full of weevils in July, 
while a portion of the same crop exposed for 
several days to the sun were entirely free 
from them, as were some in a loosely corked 
bottle which had been used for holding spirits 
of turpentine, but which retained, at the 
time, only the odor of it. 

Rice Chaff as Mulch. 

Our friend Berckmans, of the Farmer and 
Gardener, finds rice chaff not liable to be 
blown off by winds, contrary to our experi- 
ence. This is another hint to us all to 
avoid hasty generalizations. Twice we have 
tried the chaff with the same result. The 
first high wind swept most of it from the 
strawberry patch and distributed it over the 
whole garden. Possibly a good rain, pre- 
ceding the wind and compacting the chaff, 
or a less exposed situation, would have given 
a different result. It is certainly a most de- 
sirable material if it will stay where it is put. 
We shall be glad to find that our experience 
is exceptional. 

Another Insect Destroyer. 

F. G. H. Taylor announces through the 
Southern Cultivator that he has found a solu- 
tion of arsenic in -svater, or rather a mixture 
of arsenic with water, an effectual remedy 
for the cotton caterpillar. Two pounds of 
arsenic in three barrels of water, kept con- 
stantly stirred, as it is being used, is to be 
applied to an acre. Mr. Taylor used a com- 
mon garden watering pot, for want of any 
better means of applying the mixture. As 



100 



The Rural Carolinian. 



arsenic is a deadly poison, it must be used j 
with care. It is not an expensive drug, and ; 
the cost would be a mere trifle. Don't try it 
on your cabbages ! 

Esparto Grass. 

An average of one hundred thousand tons 
of Esparto Grass are annually imported into 
England from Spain, to be used in paper 
making. Large quantities also come from 
Algeria and Morocco. We have hoped, and 
still hope that this plant can be introduced 
into the South and made profitable on our 
waste lands and sandy old fields. Some ex- 
periments, however, which we have made 
with it here, have not encouraged us in re- 
gard to its adaptation to this region of coun- 
try. Our plants have made but a feeble 
growth, and seem likely to die out altogether. 
It should be tried on the " sand hills " of the 
middle country, where it may succeed. 
Analysis by Plant Growth. 

Professor Ville says : " Plant in close 
proximity peas and wheat. If both give 
an abundant harvest, be sure that the soil 
is rich in both mineral and nitrogenous 
matter. If the crop of wheat is middling 
and that of the peas large, it indicates that 
the soil lacks nitrogen, but contains the 
necessary mineral elements. If the peas are 
poor but the wheat middling, the soil con- 
tains nitrogenous matter, and lacks the min- 
eral ingredients. In this way, the plants 
themselves are made to give an analysis of 
the soil, more reliable and more practical in 
its results than the most elaborate analysis 
of the f^hemist, which is often without prac- 
tical value, notwithstanding the learned array 
of chemical names, and figures to fractions 
of a grain." 

Fresh Seed vs. Rust in Wheat. 

Hon. David W. Lewis, Secretary of the 
Georgia State Agricultural Society, inclines 
strongly to the opinion that reproducing 
from the same seed causes rust, and his 
experience of many years seems to justify it. 
"While he sowed seed raised on his own plan- 
tation, his wheat was constantly injured by 
rust. When he imported his seed from Mary- 
land or Virginia, he never suffered from it 
in the least, although all his neighbors' crops 
were attacked by it. Have any of our read- 
ers any experience bearing on this point, 



which is one of great importance to the 
planter ? 

The Good Night Flower. 
One of the most interesting of the annual 
climbers is fpomoea bona nox, (good night — 
Ipomea,) introduced from the "West Indies. 
It is an immense grower, in this climate, 
though its height is put down in the cata- 
logues at ten feet. Vines on our premises 
have grown more than thirty feet this sea- 
son. The flower resembles somewhat the 
morning glory, but opens at night or late in 
the afternoon. It is a great bloomer. There 
are white and purple varieties, and perhaps 
other colors. 

INDUSTRIAL ITEMS. 

Mr. Upham S. Treat, of Eastport, Me., 
has invented the following process for mak- 
ing fertilizers from sea weed, upon which he 
has obtained a patent. The sea weed is sub- 
jected to the action of steam under pressure 
until it is reduced to a pulp. It is then 
passed through a mill, where it is thoroughly 
mixed with ten per cent., more or less, of 
finely powdered quicklime. After being thus 
mixed, it is elevated or placed in some suita- 
ble place to be thoroughly aired and dried, 
when it is ready for packing in barrels and 
for market. 

Mr. John Eocchi, a native of Milan, 

Italy, has, the South-Land says, resided for 
years in New Orleans, and has been engaged 
in the production of silk worm eggs for the 
Italian feeders for two years. He has found 
this production profitable, and that every 
card, containing about 40,000 eggs, is worth 
$10 in gold in New Orleans. He says the 
Louisiana cocoons are the admiration of 
Milan, and are eagerly sought for. He 
thinks Louisiana is destined to produce silk 
as successfully as California. It is a subject 
worthy of attention by the people of the 
South. 

Richard H. Purnello, Beulah, Miss., 

has invented a cultivator consisting in the 
combination, in one mechanism, of a barring 
oflT mechanism, a scraping mechanism, a cut- 
ting-out njechanism for bringing the plants 
to stands, and a throwing on mechanism for 
heaping soil upon the stands. 

A convenient method of preparing 

desiccated vegetable, as practised largely in 



Editorial Department. 



101 



some countries, consists in drying thorn for a 
short time, and then exposing them to a slow 
heat in oveni?. When soaked for cooking, 
peas, roots, potatoes, beets, corn and other 
substances, swell out and show very little 
change in their esculent properties. 

Hiram T. Harrell, of Roxobcl, N. C, 

has patented an attachment to cotton gins 
for crushing the cotton seed as it discharged 
from the breast of the gin. It consists in 
attaching rollers to the gin, arranged so as 
to receive the seed and crush it as it leaves 
the breast of the gia. 

Sassafras oil, used for flavoring to- 
bacco, confectionary, and in perfumery, has 
been, for the last two years, made at Rich- 
mond, Ya., and elsewhere in the same State. 
The herb only yields two per cent, of its 
weight as oil, and this small quantity is re- 
duced by the process of purification. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

Civilization and the Grasses. 

3Ir. Renas Davis, in a late paper on the 
"Ditference in the Mental Capacity of 
Races," advances the doctrine that the pro- 
gress of a race is in proportion to the variety 
of its food, a variety of animal food being 
equivalent to a variety of vegetable material 
to whatever extent the animals used for food 
were fed on a variety of plants. Civilization, 
accordingly, keeps to the line of the grasses 
upon the earth's surface, and its development 
is largely aided by beef and mutton. It 
might have begun in a fruit-bearing locality — 
a Garden of Eden — but it would come to a 
standstill in a forest, in a desert, or on a 
South Sea Island. 

One Should not Mari'v his Cousin. 

Prof. Richard Owen, LL. D., A. M., of the 
Indiana State University, stated an impor- 
tant fact which cannot be too widely dissemi- 
nated, namely : That the intermarriage of 
blood relations is a physiological error, and 
he might almost say, with our knowledge of 
such matters, a crime. Speaking from a 
close observation of this subject for many 
years of 'all the families of his acquaintance 
where close intermarriage had been permit- 
ted, the children were either deaf, mutes or 
are afflicted by some deficiency. The inter- 
marriage with those connected by ties of con- 



sanguinity should be a thing never to bo 
even thought of. 

Asparagus Seeds as Coffee. 
From chemical analysis it appears, accord- 
ing to the Joural oj Health, that the seeds of 
the asparagus when dried, parched and 
ground, make a full flavored coflfec, but little 
inferior to Mocha, containing, in common 
with tea and coffee, the principal called 
theaine. Dry the asparagus berries well, 
after being thoroughly ripened, then rub 
them on a sieve, thus the seeds are readily 
separated. 

LITERARY NOTES. 

Joaquin Miller has won success. The chorus 
which greeted the appearance of Miller's 
poems in England had the effect of making 
the American public critical as well as cu- 
rious. We are no admirers of the " Pike 
school of poetry," represented by Brete Harte 
and John Hayes, nor of the ''barbaric 
yaups " of Walt Whitman, and we regret 
that our new poet — for poet he is — who be- 
longs to no school but Nature's, has some of 
the faults of these apostles of slang and pro- 
fanity; but we trust he will correct them in 
future effusions, and give us the pure gold of 
his genius without the base alloy which 
mars its brightness in some of his " Songs of 
the Sierras." 

The readers of agricultural papers are 

familiar with the pretty nam de plume 
of " Daisy Eyebright," whose charming 
" Diary " was, for a long time, one of the 
attractions of that excellent journal, the 
Country Gentleman, and will be glad to learn 
that she has written a book on floriculture, 
entitled " Every Woman her own Flower 
Gardener," which has been issued in handsome 
style by Henry T. Williams, of the Horti- 
culturist, New York. Mrs. Johnson (for 
that is the lady's prosaic name,) has given 
us a capital book, which we commend to the 
ladies, reminding them, however, that like 
all other works of the kind, written at the 
North, it contains many recommendations 
and instructions which will require modifica- 
tion, if nothing more, in their application in 
our climate. (Price 50 cents.) 

. The South is the name of a large and 

handsome paper lately established in New 



102 



The Rural Carolinian. 



York by Tar drew & Co., No. 21 Park Row. 
It is devoted to the promotion of Southern 
interests, and the development of the re- 
sources of the South. It is well edited, and 
will do great good if adequately sustained — 
far more good, in its way, than if published 
here. We wish it success. (Terms, $3 a 
year.) 

The Herald of Health (Wood and Hot- 
brook, 15 Leight street, New York) is well 
filled with instructive matter relating to 
hygiene and physical culture. (Terms, §2 a 
year.) 

" Le Jardinier Economique et Pro- 

ductif de la Louisiane, par Ulger Vicknair, 
de la Paroisse St. Jean-Baptiste," is a con- 
cise and excellent little treatise on Garden- 
ing in Louisiana in the French language, 
printed and for sale at the Renaissance office, 
No. 48 Conti street. New Orleans. (Price, 
50 cents.) 

Mrs. S. W. Lawrence Hunt, of Louis- 
ville, {nee Miss Sallie Ward, the noted Ken- 
tucky belle,) is said to be writing The His- 
tory of a Belle. 

A book printed by Cromberger, in 

Mexico, in 1544, is supposed to be the first 
one printed on this continent. The Bay 
Psalm Book printed 1640, at Cambridge, by 
Stephen Daye, was the first book printed in 
the United States. 

A pamphlet entitled " The Alderney 

and Guernsey Cow," published by J. M. 
Stoddard & Co., Philadelphia, gives full in- 
formation in regard to this popular animal. 
(Price, 25 cents.) 

Home and Health adds another to the 

many excellent periodicals of its class, and 
promises to be one of the bt^st on the list. 
The numbers we have seen arc capital both 
in manner and matter. (W. R. De Puy & 
Bro., No. 805 Broadway, New York; $1 50 
a year.) 

Alice Gary's unpublished poems were 

collected after her death by Phabe Gary, 
since deceased, and they, together with the 
later poems of the latter, are to be issued in 
December. 

Miss Warner, the authoress of the 

" Wide, Wide World," has a new book in 
the press, entitled "The House in Town." 
It forms a sequel to " Opportunities," and will 



be published by Messrs. Carter Bros., New 
York. 

GLEANINGS. 

A correspondent of the Department of 
Agriculture reports the lotus of Asia, {Ne- 
lumbium luieum,) as spreading rapidly and 
increasing in vigor and proportion in the 
marshes and bayous of Michigan, their being 
now hundreds of acres occupied by it in solid 
masses, overriding and displacing all other 
water vegetation in its way. They turn out 
corollas twelve inches long, toruses six inches, 
and leaves thirty inches in diameter, as a 
common thing. Some toruses mature thirty 
to thirty-five nuts, large and sweet as filberts, 
indicating an extraordinar}- mildness of cli- 
mate for so high a latitude. 

According to the Nashville papers, 

opium is successfully and profitably culti- 
vated in the neighborhood of Nashville, and 
it is thought the State will soon be indepen- 
dent of foreign supply. Dr. J. W. Monroe, 
it is said, will realize from the present year's 
crop fifty to seventj'-five pounds per acre. 
He obtained his seed from Calcutta. Rev. F. 
Pitts, Nashville, obtained seed from Smyrna, 
planted on good land, cultivates much like 
cotton, and has an excellent crop this year. 

The camphor-tree, which is a native of 

China, is a magnificent product of the vegeta- 
ble kingdom, sometimes attaining the height 
of three hundred feet, and a circumference 
greater than the extended arms of twenty 
men could embrace. Camphor gum is ob- 
tained from the branches by steeping them 
when fresh cut. Besides yielding this valua- 
ble ingredient, the camphor-tree is one of the 
principal timber trees of China. It is be- 
lieved that the camphor-troe could be grown 
in these Southern States. 

Hon. James Brooks, of the New York 

Express, writes from Japan : " I thought, 
when on the Nile, that the Egyptians, who 
could turn sands into gardens, were the great 
farmers of the world ; but the Egyptians 
could make no such farming gardens as these. 
Proud as I am of the arts, sciences, and mar- 
vellous doings of my own country, I blush 
when I compare American farming with this I 
Here are the rice fields artificially created, 
luxuriant in beauty now, terraced from hill 
side, up and down, and watered as the bus- 



EditoHal Department. 



103 



bandman wills. There are barley field? and I 
fields of all sorts of Japan agricultural pro- | 
ductions. Forests cap all the hill-tops. Two 
crops are raised in one year, even on the rice 

fields. 

As an absorbent, dry coal ashes are 

equal to dry earth and much more conven- 
ient. Every family that has ft patch of land 
big enough to swing a cat in should make it 
rich by having a hogshead where a bushel or 
two of coal ashes are thrown as a basis. Into 
it pour all the foul water of the family, and 
throw in the dry ashes of each day. Twice a 
year upset this receptacle and spread the con- 
tents over the garden, and spade it in before 
the ammonia escapes. 

The oldest tree on record in Europe, is 

asserted to be the cypress of Somma, in Lom- 
bardy, Italy. This tree is believed to have 
been in existence at the time of Julius Osssar, 
forty-two years before Christ, and is, there- 
fore, 1911 years old. It is lOG feet in height, 
20 feet in circumference at one foot from the 
ground. 

The Louisiana Sugar Planter says, that 

from actual experiment, Mr. G. L. Fuselier, 
of St. Mary, has found that by simply rub- 
bing with grease, the bark of the orange trees, 
when troubled with insects, will effectually 
kill these pests, and restore the tree to a 
healthy condition. 

MERE MENTION. 

The Crown Prince of Prussia has a farm 
near Brandenburg, and agriculture is his 
hobby. It is said that his farming opera- 
tions cost him fifty thousand dollars a year ; 
but he has the satisfaction of telling his 
guests at the dinner table that he himself 
raised all the vegetables there served. 

An improvement of ten per cent, only 

in the corn crop from judicious selection of 
seed, would add a value of fifty millions of 
dollars to the agricultural incpme of the 
country. 

The Mexican sweet corn is the juciest 

and sweetest variety we have ever grown. 
Its color when ripe is black. 

Professor John Darby, widely known 

throughout the South as a botanist, has ac- 
cepted the Professorship of Natural Science 
in the "Wesleyan University at Millersburg, 
Ky., and removed to that place. 



A Northern firm has recently leased 

a largo grazing farm in Powhattan Co., Va., 
and is stocking it with goats, to the raising 
of which it will be entirely devoted. 

The heavy gales of August did great 

damage to the orange crop in Florida and 
Louisiana. Bananas also suffered severely. 

A correspondent of the Department of 

Agriculture, writing from Victoria Co., 
Texas, says that the prospect of the pecan 
crop is worth five times as much as that of 
the cotton crop. 

W. W. Hollister, of Santa Barbara. 

California, has received fifteen to twenty 
bushels of tea-seed, from Japan, to plant on 
his farm near Santa Barbara. 

The cultivation of the olive was com- 
menced on Cumberland Island, Georgia, in 
1793, by Mrs. Greene, the widow of General 
Nathaniel Greene. The trees planted by her 
are still vigorous, and likely to live a century 
longer. 

The Kangaroo hedge-plant is about to 

be tried in California. It is a native of 
Australia, where it is largely used for fen- 
cing purposes, is a rapid grower, and peculi- 
arly adapted to dry soils. The Californians 
show great enterprise in introducing new 
plants from abroad. 

We hardly know which is the bigger 

fool, the farmer who undertakes to farm en- 
tirely by his books and papers, or the one 
who don't take any papers or read agricul- 
tural books at all. 

A correspondent of the Prairie Farmer, 

who tasted the Scuppernong grape at the 
Richmond exhibition of the American Pomo- 
logical Society, confesses that it is a much 
finer fruit than he expected to find it. 

During the present season, some twenty- 
five families from thefar-oflT, ice-girt, volcanic 
Island of Iceland, have removed to Wiscon- 
sin, and have fixed upon Washington Island, 
at the entrance of Green Bay, as their place 
of residence. 

The largest watermelon brought to the 

Mobile ^Ala.) market this season, weighed 
fifty-seven and three-quarters pounds. 

Henry Clay's old home, Ashland, has 

been purchased by the University of Ken- 
tucky for $90,000. 



lot 



The Rural Carolinian. 



CATALOGUES. 

Nanz and Neuner, Louisville, Ky. Hardy- 
Bulbs and Winter Flowering Plants. 

Wm. K. Nelson, "Georgia Nursery," 

Augusta, Ga. Fruit Trees, Grape Vines, 
Strawberry Plants, etc. 

A. J. Butner and D. P. High, White- 

ville, Columbus Co., N. C. Scuppernong 
and other Native Grape Vines. 

W. F. Heikes, Dayton, Ohio. Heikes' 

Nurseries, and " How to Start a Nursery." 

Wm. Summer, Pomaria, S. C. South- 
ern and Acclimated Fruit Trees, Ornamental 
Tree.s, Shrubs, etc. 

W. P. Kobinson, " Downing Hill 



Nursery," Atlanta, Ga. Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, etc. 

Elwanger and Barry, " Mount Hope 

Nurseries," Rochester, N. Y. Various cata- 
logues of Trees, Plants, Bulbs, etc. 

Hoopes, Brother and Thomas, West 

Chester, Pa. "Cherry Hill Nurseries." Orna- 
mental Department. 

Phelps and Reynolds, Rochester, N. Y. 

Hardy Bulbs. 

James Fleming, 67 Nassau street. New 

York. Hyacinths and other Flowering 
Roots. 

R. H. Allen & Co., New York. Agri- 
cultural Implements and Machines. 



DEPARTMENT OF CORRESPONDENCE AND INQUIRY, 



THE CHUFA OR EARTH ALMOND. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

" J. R. L.," in your October number, de- 
sires information upon the chufa. I enclose 
an article copied from my note book, which 
was transcribed from an old Agricultural 
Journal, name not now remembered, or the 
proper credit would be given. 

Last spring a lady friend gave me one pint 
of tubers, these I planted on live square yards 
of ground, and last month I harvested one 
peck and a half of tubers ; they were planted 
in a very light sandy soil, and went through, 
uninjured, a drouth of nearly two months 
duration. J. T. G. 

Muscogee Co., Ga., October 5th, 1871. 

An analysis of this plant and its practical 
use for a series of years, establishes conclu- 
sively its value as a field crop, and none other 
can surpass it as an auxiliary to the grain 
crop of this country. It is largely used by 
the Spaniards as food for man and animals, 
and will be as profitably employed in this 
country when its value becomes known and 
appreciated. The cultivation of the chufa 
is the same as that of corn, and may be 
planted at the same time, and in the same 
way, as field peas are. The largest yield, 
however, is realized by planting the crop 
upon three feet beds, as for cotton, putting 
one or two tubers in the drill, twentj* inches 
apart, covering with a hoe or foot. One 
bushel of tubers will plant about seven acres 
of ground. The harvesting is easy and ex- 
peditious; a thrust with a three or /our tine 
spading fork, on both sides of the hill, and 
thrown up, presents a quart to a half gallon 
of tubers ; an expert hand will gather two 
bushels per day. When harvested for market, 
they must be well washed and dried by 



spreading ; they must not be bulked, for fer- 
mentation will injure them. They are better 
for planting taken fresh from the field in the 
spring, after remaining in the ground all 
winter. 

The chufa is a plant of great vitality, and 
can be transplanted at any stage of its growth, 
with more facility than any garden, or field 
crop to the missing spaces which are " few 
and far between," and is far more reliable 
and productive, requiring less labor in culti- 
vation, maturing in one half the time of the 
potato or ground pea, and yields three times 
as much per acre. It luxuriates upon all poor 
and silicious soils, endures the most intense 
drouth, never wilting under a burning sun, 
its deep green leaves resembling a luxuriant 
field of rice, always presenting a cheerful 
promise, and never failing to return a full 
fruition when the cultivation has been gener- 
ous and complete. The comparative value of 
the chufa, with other auxiliary crops for 
feeding and raising swine, is conclusive to all 
practical and experienced breeders, being 
ready for feeding in July and August, when 
other crops are struggling with most effort 
for maturity. 

CANNING PEACHES. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

According to promise, I send you my plan 
of canning peaches; and, as you have tried 
them yourself, you can bo the better judge 
whether they keep well or not, or whether 
they are fresh and palatable or not ; but to 
the plan. 

First pare the peaches, and as fast as you 
pare them, put them into a vessel of clean 
fresh water, so as to prevent the air from 
turning them dark, remembering to keep 



Department of Correspondence and Inquh'y. 



105 



them always under water until your vessel is 
full ; thi!n out thoin from the seed in as larfije 
pieces as you can, cutting them also in fresh 
water, that they may retain their natural 
color. "When cut up, put a layer of peaches 
into a brass kettle, adding sugar (crushed) at 
the rate of one-fourth pound to every pound 
of fruit, until the kettle is filled; then let it 
boil, and from the time it commences boiling 
let it boil from ten to fifteen minutes, accord- 
ing to the size of the pieces into which the 
peaches are cut. Then they are ready for 
the cans, which must be put previously into 
a vessel, upon a board, and the vessel and 
cans filled with water, and let it come to a 
boil, and when the cans are thus heated they 
are ready for the boiling fruit. 

Take a small pincers, wrap the bill with 
cloth so as they will not break the edges of 
the can's mouth, empty the hot water out of 
it, the last drop, and pour in the fruit, letting 
the top pieces of the fruit be covered with 
the hot syrup. Then put on the rubber 
band or washer, and screw the lids on as 
tight as can be done, always using folded 
newspapers (dry) to handle the hotjars with, 
instead of cloth. "When the jars become 
cool the lids should be tightened, as they will 
go still further down. 

The cans should bo kept in a cool place, 
and I guarantee that they will keep for 
years perfectly good and fresh. I have been 
putting up peaches, apples and strawberries 
now for four years, and have done so with 
perfect success, and hope to send you some of 
this year's canning in November next, when 
fresh peaches are rather rare. F. J. C. 

[Having tested our correspondent's canned 
peaches, we can fully endorse what be says of 
them. — Ed.] 



DOES SUBSOILING PAY? 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

It is probably true that many soils may be 
much improved by subsoiling, as that process 
brings nearer the surface the salts of potash, 
phosphate of lime, etc., and drains the sur- 
face during continued rains, thereby relieving 
the surface roots of the growing crop from 
drowning ; but that it serves a good purpose 
in our pale subsoil lands during the heat and 
drouth of summer, I am, from observation, 
not ready to admit. 

It is true that it was observed last year, 
that during the drouth of April and May, 
the cotton came up better in the subsoiled 
lands than those not so ploughed, but it was 
observed by many, also, that the subsequent 
drouth told much more upon the subsoiled 
land than it did upon the land not so deeply 
ploughed, and the conclusion is that subsoil- 
ing does tend or allow the reservoir of mois- 
ture below to be expended more steadily. 

No. 2, Vol. 3. 8 



It must bo admitted though that in many 
stiff soils, subsoiling adds greatly to its fer- 
tility, nuiinly though, perhaps, by bringing 
the .salts below nearer the surface. It is 
known that our stiff soils will run together, 
and become as hard after heavy rains as they 
wore before subsoiling, and if the work is 
done when the soil is a little too wot it be- 
comes harder than before. 

Allowing these observations to be true, let 
us examine the paying qualities of this busi- 
ness. In the first place subsoiling is exceed- 
ingly hard for the team, and requires about 
double the time for the operation that it does 
for the ordinary way, and if it runs together 
and becomes as hard as before, there cannot be 
much pay in it, for the small amount of salts 
brought to the surface could be easier, and, at 
less cost, be supplied by a little good fertil- 
izer, either commercial or home-made. 

"Well, then, if the looser soils with palo 
subsoil, do lose their moisture much more 
readily after being subsoiled, and we have 
many more dry summers than wet ones, the 
advantages on the side of deep ploughing are 
doubtful, and the calculation is that subsoil- 
ing may be generally a losing business. There 
are, no doubt, many exceptional cases, but in 
the long run, money and time may be lost. 

These are not hasty conclusions, for the 
writer was a strong advocate for subsoiling, 
but observations by himself and others led 
to doubts, and the above are c&nclusions 
arrived at. Examiner. 



EXPERIENCE WITH THE CHUFA. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

In answer to your inquiry in the October 
number of Thk Rural Caroliniak in re- 
gard to the cbufa, or earth almond, I would 
say that we have experimented with it for 
three years, and find it a desirable crop. 
The nut grows in the ground like the pea- 
nut, and is much sweeter and richer, having 
the flavor of the chestnut. It is very pro- 
lific, one seed producing from one hundred to 
five hundred nuts in a single season. Again, 
it is valuable as forage, as it can be mown or 
grazed two or three times without injury to 
the nut, and at last when gathered the tops 
can be cured for hay. 

Some people fear to plant it as it so strongly 
resembles the much to be dreaded nut grass 
in appearance, but it is not at all similar in 
character, being as easily exterminated as 
the Irish potato. You have only to turn 
your swine or even fowls in the patch, and 
not a plant will appear the ensuing spring. 

Professor Jackson recommends the chufa 
very highlv in an article as published in the 
Patent OflSce Reports of (I think) 18-37. 

The tanyah also flourishes finely with us, 
being desirable even as an ornament, as the 
leaves, also the flower, greatly resemble the 



106 



The Rural Carolinian. 



magnificent calla. Any one wishing seed of 
either of the above plants, by enclosing to 
my address a trifle to pay necessary expenses, 
will receive them by return mail. 

Mrs. a. M. Salter. 
Hamburg, S. C. 

TUKNING UNDER PEA VINES. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

In your September number " A Beginner 
in Farming " asks if it is possible to turn 
under pea vines. I answer that it is not only 
possible, but it is very easy to do. I cannot 
better advise him than by recapitulating 
what I saw a friend of mine do with pea 
vines last August. He broadcasted a small 
field with peas in June ; by the middle of 
August they were from hip to waist high — 
a solid mass of vines over the whole field. 
To turn that mass of vines under for green 
manure was his object. He secured a large 
cast iron roller, weighing five hundred 
pounds, to this he attached his team and 
rolled them down level with the ground, 
rolling them by lands. Following immedi- 
ately after the roller came oneof Watts' 
large turning ploughs, running about five 
inches deep, and completely enveloping every 
vine. After it was (Rone you could scarcely 
see a leaf above ground. The roller used 
was the common roller, used for rolling 
gravelled walks and lawns. If a cast iron 
roller is not to be had, select a large round 
pine or oak tree, saw ofi" a cut three feet long, 
drive iron spindles in each end, fix an attach- 
ment in front to hook your gear to, put on 
your handles, and then drive up your team. 

J. T. G. 



DR. "WYLIE AND HIS HYBRIDS. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I paid a short visit to Dr. Wylie last week, 
and had the opportunity of seeing his hy- 
brids. The fruit was mostly over, only a few 
small bunches protected by paper bags being 
left. I v/as much pleased with the healthy 
condition of his vines, and took full notes of 
about a dozen or more of what he considers 
his most promising varieties. Some of these 
are certainly very remarkable, the quality of 
fruit being, so far as they have been tested, 
all that we could desire — certainly superior 
to any American grapes hitherto known. 
Will they continue healthj' and free from 
disease ? And will they be well adapted for 
general cultivation ? These are questions 
which time and further trials must solve. 
Dr. Wylie is taking steps to have them tested 
in various localities. Some of his earlier va- 
rieties, which have preserved their healthy 
condition for six or eight years, and of the 
best quality, he proposes to bring into the 
market, if proper arrangements can bo ef- 
fected. The Doctor took with him to the 



meeting of the American Pomological Con- 
vention, at Richmond, some thirtj' or forty 
varieties of his hybrids. They were much 
admired, and produced quite a sensation 
among the Northern Pomologists. I trust 
he may reap the reward which he so justly 
deserves, for his patient and unwearied ef- 
forts in improving the quality of American 
grapes. H. W. Ravknel. 



EXCELSIOR GRAIN DRILL. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

In an Essay on " The Oat Crop," by D. D. 
Evans, Esq., published in the October num- 
ber of your valuable magazine, an allusion 
is made to " Bickford & Haj'man's Excelsior 
Grain Drill," as the best one in use for drill- 
ing either small grain or guano. 

As we are the general agents for this State, 
for this very important and valuable imple- 
ment, you will please allow us to correct an 
error that is made in the name of the Drill, 
in the article referred to above. 

The correct name is " Bickford and Hufl- 
man's Farmer's Favorite." 

It really deserves all that Mr. Evans has 
said of it, as it is the only perfect double 
distributor Grain Drill in the world. 

It is always perfectly reliable with the 
cereals, commercial manures and grass seeds. 

It will seed course or fine grains equally 
well, with the greatest possible accuracy, 
upon side-hill or level, and has improved fer- 
tilizer and grass-seed attachments. 

J. E. Adger & Co., 

No. 62 East Bay street, Charleston, S. C. 



INFORMATION WANTED. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I want to know if anybody has succeeded 
in making anything but a failure of the 
Lespedeza striata. J 

I want to know if any person in the South 
has tried the ostrich as a domestic fowl. 

I want some one who has tried tanyah 
long enough to know, to give their opinion 
of the utility of it. 

I want those who are interested in sweet 
potato culture to send to this magazine lists, 
with brief descriptions of all known varieties. 

B. W. J. 

The question in regard to tanyah will as- 
tonish the good people of our Southern coast 
region, where tanyah has been grown as a 
garden vegetable from time immemorial, 
and where its utilitj' is as unquestioned as 
that of the sweet potato. We esteem it one 
of the most valuable of our vegetables, but 
whether it can be grown to perfection and 
with advantage, except as an ornamental 



Department of Correspondence and Inquiry. 



107 



plant, so far north a8 our correspondent's 
locality, (Virginia,) wo cannot say, but think 
it doubtful. 



MINERAL WELL WATER. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

My well has now been dug about six 
weeks. At first the water was soft and sweet, 
but lately it has changed and smells like sul- 
phurated hydrogen, and dally grows worse, 
having a thin nietalic scum after standing 
six or eight hours. I know of two other such 
wells in this vicinity. Now, will you be 
kind enough to suggest some remedy, or ask 
your subscribers to do so through your 
journal. W. 11. M. 

Ridgevaay, S. C, September 1£, 1871. 

Can any of our readers suggest a remedy ? 



INQUIRIES AND ANSWERS. 

H. E., Greenville, S. C. 1. A light loamy 
soil is best for onions. If to be planted in 
the spring, as you propose, spread on your 
manure this fall — from fifty to sixty two- 
horse loads per acre, according to the present 
condition of the land — and turn it under five 
or six inches deep, with a good turning 
plough. In the spring, plough again to the 
same depth with the turning plough, followed 
by a subsoil plough ; harrow thoroughly ; 
pass a roller over the ground to crush any 
remaining clods, and then use the rake, if 
necessary, to make the ground sufficiently 
smooth. 2. To be worked by hand with the 
hoe, which is best, we think, the rows may 
be twelve inches apart, and the sets three 
inches apart in the row. 3. Onions have 
been too little grown in the South to furnish 
data for determining the average yield ; but 
we have no doubt but that from three 
to four hundred bushels per acre can be 
grown on suitable land, heavily manured and 
well cultivated. We have heard of six hun- 
dred bushels being grown on an acre. 4. 
The sets can be procured of any seedsman. 
The price varies from ten to twelve dollars 
per bushel ; the white onions being higher 
priced than the yellow. 5. It will require 
from eight to ten bushels of sets to the acre, 
depending upon the size of the sets. Moder- 
ate sized ones are best. It is better to grow 
one's own sets, planting the seeds in Septem- 
ber. (J. Northern onions command, here. 



from $1 to$l 50 per bushel— sometimes more- 
Of Southern grown, (except "green onions,") 
there are seldom any in market. 

J. W. T., Aiken, S. C. 1. Oil cake 

is generally fed to cattle mixed with meal, 
though it may bo used by itself. Two quarts 
a day to cows in pasture, in summer, or from 
three to four quarts of the cake with from 
one to two of corn meal in winter, will have 
a wonderful eti'ect on the milking capacity of 
the animals. To fatten cattle for beef, for 
which it is excellent, larger quantities can be 
given. 2. We have no experience in feeding 
it to horses. 3. The manure from stock fed 
with oil cake, according to an analysis made 
in England, is more valuable than that made 
from any other kind of feed. 4. It is more 
valuable as food for stock than linseed oil 
cake. 5. Cotton seed oil cake can, we pre- 
sume, can be procured at the Columbia oil 
mills. Address Gen. E. P. Alexander, Co- 
lumbia, S. C. 

MissA.E.W. 1. The plant, seeds which 

were given you as those of the tea plant, is 
sida rhombifolia, in no way related to the 
genus Thea, but akin to the hibiscus, okra, 
cotton, etc. It is we believe of foreign origin. 
2. The present address of Prof. John Darby is 
Millersburg. Ky. H. W. Ravcnel, our own 
distinguished botanist, resides at Aiken, S. C. 

G. S. W., Concordia Parish, La., 

wishes information in reference to the best 
mode of applying fertilizers. A brief article 
on this subject, from an experienced planter, 
would be very acceptable. He also wishes to 
know which is the best fertilizer. Here he is 
too hard for any of us, we "reckon." We 
give it up. No one person has tried all the 
fertilizers in market, and if he had, he could 
not tell G. S. W. which is best for his soil and 
crops, knowing nothing of either. 

"Subscriber," Gadsden, S. C. Your 

queries in regard to acids, lime, etc., will be 
referred to our consulting chemist, who is 
now absent, on his return to town. We prefer 
that our reply should have his endorsement. 

J. L. I. desires to know if any one 

has grown clover successfully in Florida. He 
wants also general information on the best 
mode of cultivating and improving the poor, 
piney, sandy soils of Florida. Will some of 



108 



The Mural Carolinian. 



our correspondents in the Land of Flowers 
give him light on these subjects ? 

G. S. W. "We have no reports of trials 

of Mr. Kenny's plan for eradicating coco or 
nut grass. We received from Mr. Kenny a 
description of the process, but have not been 
so situated that we could give it a fair trial. 
We believe shade will be found the best 
remedy, of which more anon. 

In reply to L. D. C, W. E. F. says : 

"As a remedy for 'crib-biting' in horses^ 
apply a collar similar to a bell collar around 
the neck. It should be made long enough 
so that it can be tightened or loosened at 
pleasure." 

J. W. T., Aiken, S. C. Tea plants 

can be procured from P. J. Berckmans, Au- 



gusta, Ga., or the seeds from Wm. & W. L. 
Jones, Athens, Ga. The seeds should be 
planted in the fall. 

S. W. N., Kingstree, S. C. The "pip" 

in fowls is another name for " the gapes." 
A remedy was published in The Rural 
Carolinian, for November, 1870. A little 
spirits of turpentine, or diluted carbolic acid, 
mixed with the food given to fowls, are 
preventives. The disease is thought to bo 
caused by drinking filthy or unwholesome 
water. 

W. K. D. The plant you describe as 

taking possession of the old fields, and rel- 
ished by stock, is Japan clover, {Lespedeza 
striata.) It is considered by some a great 
boon to the South, while others look upon it 
as a pest. 



LITERARY AND HOME DEPARTMENT. 



LABOR. 

Toil swings the ax and forests bow ; 

The seeds break out in radiant bloom ; 
Rich harvests smile behind the plough, 

And cities cluster round the loom. 
Where towering domes and tapering spires 

Adorn the vale and crown the hill. 
Stout labor lights his beacon fires 

And plumes with smoke the forge and mill. 
The monarch oiik, the woodland's pride. 
Whose trunk is seamed with lightning's 
scars. 
Toil launches on the restless tide 

And there unrolls the flag of stars ; 
The engine, with its lungs of flame, 

And ribs of brass and joints of steel. 
From labor's plastic finger's came ; 

With sobbing valve and whirling wheel. 
Here sun-browned toil with shining spade, 

Links lake to lake with silver ties, 
Strung thick witli palaces of trade 

And temples towering to the skies. 
'Tis labor works the magic press 

And turns the cranks in hives of toil, 
And beckons angels down to bless. 
Industrious hands on sea and soil. 



THE IMPROVED AMERICAN. 

Those Americans who have travelled over 
Europe during the past three or four years, 
expecting to be shocked by the vulgar display 
of their countrymen and countrywomen, and 
shamed by their gaucheries, have been plea- 



santly surprised to find their expectations 
unrealized. The American in Europe is now 
a quiet person, who minds his own business, 
takes quickly to the best habits of the coun- 
try in which he finds himself, pays his bills, 
and commands universal respect. The vulgar 
displays on the continent are now made 
mainly by men who were born there, and 
who, having made money in America, have 
returned to their early homes to show them- 
selves and their wealth. These people do 
more to bring America into disrepute in 
Germany than all the native Americans have 
ever done ; and many of them, we regret to 
say, have been sent there by the American 
government as consuls and other govern- 
mental agents, whose end in securing such 
appointment was simply that of commanding 
respect and position in communities in which 
neither they nor their friends had ever had 
the slightest consideration. In railway car- 
riages, and diligences and steamers, the Amer- 
ican is always a courteous and well-behaved 
person, who bears with good nature his full 
share of inconveniences, is heartily polite to 
ladies of all nationalities, is kind to children, 
and helpful to all. He and his wife and 
daughters arc invariably more tastefullj' and 
appropriately dressed than their English fel- 
low-travellers, and at the table d'hote their 
manners are irreproachable, while very little 
that is pleasant can be said of the "table 
manners " of the subjects of the Kaiser Wil- 
liam. In brief, the travelling American is 



Litei'ai'y and Home Department. 



109 



greatly improved, and it is time that he wore 
relieved of the lampoons of ill-natured cor- 
respondents and jienny-a-liners, and placed 
where he belontjs — among the best bred of all 
those who are afloat U})on the tide of travel. 

Again, those who have visited the various 
American watering-places during the past 
season, have not failed to remark that a great 
change has occurred among the summer pleas- 
ure-seekers. At Newport and Saratoga, the 
efforts at vulgar display, which were frequent 
during the last years of the war and the first 
of peace, have been entirely wanting. A 
"stunning toilet" was never trailed through 
the halls and parlor of the Ocean House but 
once, by the same person, during the past 
season. The eminent respectability and quiet- 
ness of the surroundings were such a rebuke 
that the wearer disappeared the next morn- 
ing, or subsided into the universal tone. The 
vulgar love of the dance and the display 
which it involves, in all the popular places 
of resort, have almost entirely disappeared. 
"With the most inspiring bands of music there 
has been no dancing during the season, ex- 
cept at the small family hotels in out-of-the 
way places. Bathing, driving, walking, row- 
ing, sailing, bowling, and croquet, and pic- 
nic, have given a healthful tone to the sea- 
side and inland places of recreation, and dress 
and dancing have been at a discount. People 
speak of this change as if it were a fashion of 
the year, but in truth it is the evidence of an 
improvement in the national character and 
life. We arc less children, and more men 
and women than we were — finer and higher 
in our thoughts and tastes. 

J. G. Holland, i?t Scribner' s Magazine. 

SUNSHINE AS A MEDICINE. 
Sleepless people — and they are many in 
America — should court the sun. The very 
worst soporific is laudanum, and the very 
best, sunshine. Therefore, it is very plain 
that poor sleepers should pass as many hours 
as possible in sunshine, and as few as possible 
in the shade. Many women are martyrs, and 
yet they do not know it. They shut the sun- 
shine out of their houses and their hearts, 
they wear veils, they carry parasols, they do 
all possible to keep off the subtlest and yet 
most potent influence which is intended to 
give them strength and beauty and cheerful- 
ness. Is it not time to change all this, and 
so get color and roses in our pale cheeks, 
strength in our weak backs, and courage in 
our timid souls ? The women of America 
are pale and delicate ; they may be bloom- 
ing and strong, and the sunlight will be a 
potent aid in this transformation. 

HEALTH AND BEAUTY. 
Dr. Die Lewis, in his admirable volume 
entitled "Our Girls," tells his readers what 
to eat and how to live to secure a clear, fresh 



complexion, bright eyes, active limbs, a quick 
brain and a cheerful temper. Here are his 
rules of diet : 

BRKAKFAST. 

Oat meal porridge, with milk and sugar. 

Or, Graham mush, with a little good syrup. 

Or, cracked wheat, with milk and sugar. 

Or, baked potatoes, with bread and butter. 

Or, beef steak or mutton chop, with baked 
potatoes and bread and butter. 

If you are thin, and need fat, use the first 
three; if you are too fat, use the last named 
two. 

Drink cold water, or a little weak coffee. 



Beef or mutton, roasted or stewed, with 
any vegetables you may like, (though 
tomatoes should be used very sparingly,) 
good bread and butter, and close the meal 
with a glass of weak lemonade. Eat no des- 
sert, unless it be a little fruit, and eat nothing 
more till the next morning. 

There is no rule in regard to diet about 
which I am so fixed in my convictions, as 
that nothing should be eaten after dinner, 
and I think that the dinner should be taken 
early in the day ; not later, if it can be so 
managed, than two o'clock. In regard to 
the precise hour for the dinner, I am not so 
clear, though for myself one o'clock is the 
best hour ; but in reference to the omission 
of the third meal, I have, after long observa- 
tion, no doubt whatever. 

Hundreds of persons have come to me with 
indigestion in some of its many forms, and 
have experienced such relief in a single week 
from omitting the supper, that I have, for a 
number of years, depended upon this point in 
the diet as the best item in my prescriptions 
for indigestion. I have never met one per- 
son suffering from indigestion, who was not 
greatly relieved at once, by omitting the 
third meal. 

Eat nothing between meals, not even an 
apple or peach. If you eat fruit, let it be 
with the breakfast and dinner. 

Cooked fruit is best for persons of weak 
digestion. I have met hundreds of people 
who would digest a large beef steak without 
a pang, but could not manage a single un- 
cooked apple. 

I think certain dietetic reformers have 
somewhat overrated the value of fruit. 

Avoid cake, pie, all sweet meats, nuts, 
raisins and candies. 

Manage your stomach as above, and at the 
end of ten years you will look back upon 
these table habits as the source of great ad- 
vantages and happiness. 

For thirty years I have been a constant 
and careful observer, (I have no hobbies 
about diet,) and in the light of my own ex- 
perience and these long observations, I assure 



no 



The Rural Carolinian. 



you that the table habits I have advised, are 
vital to your health and happiness. 

Pimples, blotches, yellow spots, nasal 
catarrh, biliousness, liver torpidity, constipa- 
tion, sleepiness, dullness, low spirits, and 
many other common affections would gen- 
erally disappear with the adoption of these 
rules. 



LETTER OP INVITATION. 

TO A FRIEND NORTH. 

A " tempest?" aye I there are signs on high 

That a Prophet would stand from under, 
A " cyclone " nursed in the North, to burst 

Old Babylon asunder ! 
Come South! my friend I with naught to 
rend 

Within the reach of thunder, 
We are much too sore for hurting ; more 

Than much too poor for — plunder. 

They have left us, yes ! a Wilderness ! 

Peace! — in a jungle-cover I 
That the storm would spare in its blindest 
glare ! 

And the hurricane — leap over 1 
Come South 1 my Fred I We'll make our bed 

AVith Jacques and the wild- wood Dreamers, 
And find a use for the wild Wolf's juice, 

With Eomulus and Kemus ! 

Oh ! golden days I when our bald Highways 

Are all up-grown in Clover I 
When the Deer comes dead to our Wigwam, 
Fred, 
At the cost of knocking over I 
Oh ! Happy Peace 1 Oh ! sweet release 

From the World with its warring — drum- 
ming. 
Fly South! my Bird! for your clouds are 
stirred 
With the blast of a whirlwind coming ! 
Far better, rest, in the humblest nest 

In the desolate desert's core, 
Than cross the path of the "Winds," in 
wrath. 
Returning upon the — " Sower." 
The gods are wroth with your cruel North — 

Sealed " mad " — for swift damnation 
Bring South the seed of a better breed, 
And a wiser Generation. 

Torch Hill. 
Georgia, January 10, 1868. 



ABOUT PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

Our puddings, pies, cakes and other auxili- 
ary dishes are, as generally made, exceeding- 
ly objectionable a.s articles of diet; but it is 
necessary, the good mistress of the house 
argues, to have such things upon our tables, 
" because everybody else does ;" and there is 
no use in attempting to controvert this posi- 
tion. Let u« see, then, if there be not some 



way to satisfy the demands of custom and 
please the palate, without abusing the stom- 
ach and deranging the whole vital system. 
It viay be that wo can eat puddings and pies 
with absolute impunity, and place them 
before our friends without fear of being held 
responsible for a fit of indigestion. We hold 
that the most wholesome dishes are the most 
palatable to the unperverted taste. Is it not 
so ? Try the following recipes by way of 
illustration : 

A Plain Rice Pudding. — Take three 
tabiespoonsful of rice, one quart of milk, and 
sugar enough to sweeten to j'our taste ; set to 
soak two hours, and then bake three hours. 
Raisins may be added, if desired, but should 
always be boiled until they swell and become 
soft before putting into a pudding. 

"Mrs. Lou's" Rick Pudding. — Slowly 
simmer the rice in good rich milk for three 
or four hours, or till the grains burst and 
absorb the milk ; add a little sugar; put the 
whole into a wide dish, and bake till the 
surface becomes slightly brown. Serve with 
milk or cream sauce. 

Mrs. Mann's Rice Pudding — Swell a 
large cupful of rice in milk or water, (milk 
being preferable,) add to it, when swelled, a 
quart of milk, five eggs, two tabiespoonsful 
of brown sugar, a little mace or cinnamon, a 
teaspoonful of salt, and a cupful of rich 
cream ; and bake an hour and a half Raisins 
may be added if desired. [This makes a rich 
pudding. We should consider it rather more 
Wholesome with the eggs omitted.] 

Bread Pudding. — Pour a quart of boiling 
milk, on as much light bread, (either brown 
or white,) cut or broken into small pieces as 
will absorb it, cover it, and let it remain till 
quite cool, then add two eggs and sugar 
enough to sweeten to the taste, and bake an 
hour and a half. The eggs may be omitted. 
Biscuit or crackers may be used in place of 
the bread. 

Corn Meal Pudding. — Boil one quart of 
milk, and pour it, scalding hot, upon half a 
pint of corn meal ; and after it hiis cooled a 
little, beat four eggs thoroughly with two 
cupsful of brown sugar and a cupful of cream ; 
add the mixture and bake three hours. 

Whortleberry Pudding. — One pint of 
milk, three eggs, flour enough for a stiff 
batter. When these are well mixed, add 
three pints berries, tie the whole pretty tight- 
ly in a floured cloth, and boil two hours and 
a half. Serve with cream sauce. 

Tapioca Pudding. — Pour a pint of warm 
milk upon half the quantity of Tapioca ; let 
it soak till dissolved; then add another pint 
of milk ; sweeten, and bake about an hour in 
a moderate oven. 

Ohio Pudding. — To one part of baked and 
mashed sweet potatoes add one part of strain- 
ed squash or carrot, two parts of fine grated 



Publishers' Department. 



HI 



bread, one quart of milk or cream, four table- 
spoonsful of brown sugar, four eggs, a tea- 
spoonful of suit, and llavoring to the taste; 
and bake three hours in a modorato oven. 
Serve it with cream sauce. 

An Apple Pudding. — Boil one pound 
and a half of good apples with a gill of water 
and half a pound of brown sugar till reduced 
to a smooth pulp ; stir in one gill of sweet 
cream, a tablespoonful of flour or grated 
bread ; flavor with a little lemon juice, and 
bake forty minutes. 



1. Cream Sauce. — Into half a pint of 
cream beat a cupful of finely powdered sugar, 
and flavor with a little lemon juice. 



2. Hot Pudding Sauce. — Boil half a pint 
of cream and turn it upon half a pound of 
powdered sugar ; boil it again and flavor 
with lemon or salt. 

3. Fruit Sauce. — Stew a dozen plums or 
cherries, boil a pint of cream and pour it 
over a pound of powdered sugar; add the 
fruit to the sugar and cream mixture, and 
flavor with lemon or rose water. 

4. Sugar Sauce. — Boil a pint of sifted 
brown sugar, and add a cu[)ful of sweet 
cream. 

5. Apple Cream. — Beat up six baked ap- 
ples (having taken off the skin after baking) 
with the yolk of an egg and a tablespoonful 
of cream ; then beat up the white of the egg 
separately and pour upon the top. 



PUBLISHERS' DEPARTMENT. 



RATES OF ADVERTISING. 



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Bills of regular advertisers payable quar- 
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Payable monthly if inserted for le.«s than 
three months. Transient advertisers, cash in 
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To insure insertion, we should receive 
advertisements by the 15th day of the 
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No deductions allowed. 

Advertisements which are to be discon- 
tinued by the advertiser must be ordered out 
by the 5th of the month on which they ap- 
pear for the last time. 

We never, under any circumstances, 
give paid-for " notices " in our editorial 
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Address all business communications to 
the Publishers, all contributions to the Editor. 
"Where both are embraced, address the Pub- 
lishers. 

Subscriptions payable invariably in ad- 



"We ofler, as special inducements to new 
subscribers, the following club rates : 
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10 " " " IG. 

20 " " " 30. 

Subscriptions may begin at any time. 
Moneys must be sent by Draft, Postoffice 
Order, Registered Letter, or Express, at our 
risk, but at the sender's expense. 

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zine following the date of the reception of 
the remittance by us. 

BIND YOUR VOLUME OF THE RUKAL 
CAROLINIAN. 

To enable our subscribers to preserve The 
Rural Carolinian , we will bind in full cloth , 
gilt back and sides, so as to make a handsome 
volume for $1, or we will forward the cases 
for 75 cents. Or, we will bird in half leather, 
library style, for $1 2-3 per volume. These 
prices exclusive of cost of transportation. 
Postage cost 48 cents, and express freight to 
any point on South Carolina Railroad, North- 
eastern Railroad, or Savannah and Charles- 
ton Railroad, 25 cents. 

In ordering, please to specify whether cloth 
or leather binding is wanted, (the " eloih " is 
much the handsomest and strong enough^ but 
the 'Heather" is the strongest,) and give 
plain directions how we caa return the vol- 
ume to you, which must be at your expense. 
Walker, Evans & Coitswell. 



112 The Rural Carolinian. 

FARM AND GARDEN CALENDAR FOR NOVEMBER. 



It should be understood that the following directions are given with special reference to the latitude of 
Charleston, and persons residing any considerable distance North or South of this place must make 
the necessary allowances for difference in the seasons— about five days for each degree of latitude. 



AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

Cotton picking should be finished up this 
month. Let the ginning and baling be done 
with great care. It will pay to give extra 
attention to these operations. 

If your Wheat is not alrecdy in, it 

should now be sown without delay. Rye, 
Winter Oats and Barley must also be got in 
at once. Have your ground well manured 
and prepared, and sow as evenly as possible. 
Turn back and read again the articles on the 
small grains, clover, etc., which have appeared 
from time to time in this magazine. 

Drill in Rye on well manured land for 

feeding green during winter and early spring ; 
or sow broadcast for a winter pasture. 

Ditching, draining, stump-pulling and 

farm improvements generally should be made 
the order of the day whenever no more ur- 
gent work presses. 



GARDEN WORK. 

If disposed to take a little risk from frost, 
plant from the tenth to the fifteenth of this 
month, in the latitude of Charleston, and 
southward, your first crop of Peas. Brown's 
Dwarf Marrowfat, or some other medium 
grower will be most likely to give you a crop. 
The smaller dwarfs, like Tom Thumb and Mc- 
Lean's Little Gem, will come into blossom too 
soon, and be more likely to be cut off". Toward 
the end of the month, or the first week in De- 
cember, plant your quick growing dwarfs, of 
which the Little Gem is the best. Select, if 
possible, for your peas, ground that is rich 
from previous manuring, so as to require little 
if any additional manure. Manuring at the 
time of planting, gives too rank a growth of 
vino with proportionally less poda. Peas 
should be planted thicker than is customary 
with most persons. We plant in double rows, 
setting sticks between them. The rows may 
be two feet apart for the dwarfcst kinds and 
from three to four for the larger growing 
varijctiog. 



You may continue to transplant cab- 
bages for an early spring crop. Hoe fre- 
quently, and keep free from weeds those 
planted last month. Sow seeds for a later 
crop. The plants will, however, need some 
protection during the winter. A cold-frame, 
as described in February number of Vol. I, 
(page 287,) is a very useful garden fixture for 
this and other purposes. 

Turnips may be planted, with some risk 

that they will get killed out by the freezes 
that are liable to occur in December and 
January, but if they live through, they will 
come in in good time in the spring. A little 
straw, leaves or dry grass strewn over them 
may save the crop. 

Onion Sets and plants from seed, if not 

already planted , should now be put out at once. 

Carrots and Beets may be sown, but the 

same remarks apply to them as to turnips. 
Sow Spinach if required for a succession. 

Lettuce and Radishes may be sown in a 

warm border. Continue to transplant Lettuce. 

Those who like the English Broad 

Windsor and Mazagan Beans may plant 
during this month, and they will give good 
crops in early spring. Plant in rows two 
feet apart and six inches apart in the row. 

In the fruit garden, you may prune 

your trees and vines and prepare for (and 
pknt if convenient) an additional number as 
needed. Strawberries may still bo planted, 
and will, perhaps, do quite as well as thoseset 
out earlier. Raspberries may be transplanted 
any time during this and the next month. 
The Black Cap varieties, and the Philadel- 
phia are sure to succeed. 

In the flower garden, your beds should 

be worked over and tender plants removed 
to the green-house or the parlor. Plant tube- 
rose, tulip, amaryllis, hyacinth, lily, and 
other hardy bulbs. Divide dahlia roots. 
Sweet peas, China asters and other hardy 
annuals, as directed in previous numbers, 
may still be sown. 




ft^ 



f^ 



TBCE 



RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] DECEMBER, 1871. [No. III. 



Labor Contracts. 



No question has so perplexed the Southern planter for the past six years 
as that of labor. It is not that phase of the question which represents labor 
as something antagonistic to capital that has troubled us, for the propor- 
tion of labor to capital has been and is very large. Our capital is almost 
nominal ; our investments have had but little market value ; our labor though 
abundant, has practically been scarce because inefficient, and, like our capi- 
tal, of no real marketable value. But the difficulty is that neither capital, 
nor any other power has been able to control labor in the South. Usually 
where these two sources of income have come in conflict, a liberal expendi- 
ture of money (use of capital) wins the contest, for though the demand of 
labor be acceded to, improved labor is the consequence. A "strike" is 
quieted by an increase of wages, and the quality of the labor improved by 
the enhanced price. 

Not 80 at the South. Money cannot always buy labor, and when bought 
it is not always of better quality because of higher price. Many reasons 
may be assigned for this, not the least of which is the want of intelligence 
in the race from which we get our labor. They, however, furnish the labor 
with which we are best acquainted, and which we can most economically 
utilize, if we as planters would only exorcise the sagacity acceded to that 
inferior race. They have demonstrated to us the power of concert and the 
eflFect of union. Are we too blunt to learn ? If not, we should at once set 
about profiting by their example. This can most etfectually be done by 
adopting throughout the cotton States the same general system of labor 
contracts. 

Impractical ? Perhaps so, but not impossible. At present, therefore, no 
community in the South, perhaps, has proven the efficacy of such a policy. 
One planter pays wages, another gives a portion of the crop, a third depends 
upon migratory laborers, and so on through a regular catalogue of devices 
by which crops may be cultivated, and in the aggregate neither employer or 
employee has grown richer, nor the South made more prosperous and happy. 
No. 3, Vol. 3. 9 



11-4 Labor Contracts. 

An experience of six years has increased our wisiiom but little, though many 
of us may think "we have cut our eye teeth." I think I have learned some 
valuable practical lessons, and give them for what they are worth. 

All contracts are or should be reciprocal interests, and the one most advan- 
tageous to the employer should be most remunerative to the employee, and 
vice versa. This idea, however, is very often practically Utopian, for the 
innate laziness of the negro, as a general rule, induces him to expend just so 
much of his muscle as in his judgment repays his employer. If paid five or 
twenty dollars per month, he is satisfied if his work returns just that much 
for the investment, never dreaming that increased wages should improve the 
quality as well as the quantity of his labor. Hence the energetic planter who 
anticipates a competency from his planting interests, where moneyed wages 
are paid, must be daily and hourly on his plantation and amongst his laborers. 

The share system was one so obnoxious to me, I tried it but a single year, 
and would have sacrificed my plantation rather than continue it. I could not 
appreciate the equity of a copartnership between capital and intelligence on 
the one hand, and labor and brute force on the other. 

For the past two years I have adopted the policy of leasing my fields to 
those freedmen proving themselves most worthy, and my favor of this system 
increases. I allot so many acres to the mule, and dictate what crops shall 
be planted, taking care to plant cotton enough to secure me my rent, even 
though a half crop be harvested. No broken-down horse or blind mule is 
allowed on the plantation, and where the laborer is unable to furnish his own 
mule, he is supplied, and the rent accordingly increased. For the first year 
I apportioned off twenty acres of good land to the mule, and required a rent 
of sixteen hundred pounds of lint cotton if the laborer owned the mule; If 
I furnished it, another bale was added of four hundred pounds of lint ; the 
laborer received the mule 1st day of February, and returned him to me Ist 
day of August, meantime he was fed and stood in my stable every night. 
The remaining months of the year this mule assisted me in breaking up 
land, sowing small grain and hauling. Each employee was required to tear 
down, rebuild, and put in at least one new rail to each panuel of one-third of 
the fencing that enclosed the field he cultivated. Extra wages were paid for 
all work done outside of each of their respective crops, such as mauling rails, 
chopping, hauling, sowing, ploughing in or reaping small grain. 

The rents were taken from the first cotton ginned. A general supervision 
of the various crops was given by myself, and though I reserved the right to 
direct the mode of culture, and hire extra help at their expense if their crops 
were not well worked, I had no occasion during the year to interfere with 
the crop of a single employee. They have all worked well and made money, 
and paid me a handsome rental. 

One industrious old man, his wife and daughter, upon an isolated tract of 
eighty acres, (thirty in forests, thirty in old fields, and twenty under cultiva- 
tion,) paid me 2,000 pounds of lint cotton, (I furnished the mule,) and made 
for himself eighty bushels of corn, and 1,200 pounds of lint cotton. The 



How I Came to be a Patron. 115 

extra work the family did for me fed and elothed them the current year. 
This was less than an average crop made on my own and an adjoining plan- 
tation this year. 

What better investment conld a capitalist desire than lands in South Caro- 
lina and thus cultivated? And yet when I asked $800 for this eighty acre 
tract from a would-be-purchaser he laughed at me, 

Freedmen believe as their number of stock increases so do their riches, 
even though they have not a shuck to the head to subsist upon, I attempt 
to control this matter, and discourage tbe raising of hogs. Every negroe's 
hog eats his head off and seldom gets fat. My lands are enclosed, and I forbid 
pasturage to hogs. With sheep the}' have no business. Each family should 
bo encouraged to keep a cow. Heretofore, I have granted pasturage for 
cows to that extent. Hereafter, as each has an abundance of winter feed, no 
pasturage will be allowed outside of their respective fields. Their cows must 
be broken to the halter during the winter, and when the grass begins 
to grow in the spring, each cow will during the day be picketed in the uncul- 
tivated spots of the field, and penned at night. This, I think, would be feasi- 
ble. It will teach system, save a quantity of manure, and utilize much vege- 
table matter that would otherwise be lost. 

D. WYATT AIKEN. 



How I Came to be a Patron. 



Xot quite a year ago, I called one day to see a friend on some business ; 
this was soon arranged to our mutual satisfaction, and, after chatting a while, 
I got up to leave. As we shook hands my friend handed me a small pamph- 
let, at the same time requesting me to read it. " What is this?" I asked. 
" Read it and judge for yourself," he replied. By reference to the title page 
I was informed that this mysterious little book was the " Constitution of the 
Patrons of Husbandry." " Who are the Patrons of Husbandry ? I never 
heai'd of them," I soliloquised. Upon reading a little further I found that 
this was the name applied to a secret organization for the promotion and pro- 
tection of agricultural interests, which existed throughout various portions of 
tbe United States, in the form of clubs, or, according to the Patrons' nomen- 
clature, " Granges." I also discovered that there was a head centre or 
" National Grange," located at Washington, to which all other Granges were 
subservient, and from which emanated all authority, information and plans 
of work of any importance. Now, the idea of applj-ing for authority to or- 
ganize a club of farmers in South Carolina, to a body of men nearly five hun- 
dred miles away, and of submitting to them, for their sanction, every plan of 
work that we devise down here, for the benefit of our immediate neighbor- 
hood, seemed to me to imply a degi*ee of subjection to the will of others alto- 
gether at variance with my conception of republican free principles. This, 
however, was only my side of the question, and being unwilling to incur the 



116 How I Came to be a Patron. 

odium attached to the two knights of olden time, who, having regarded a 
shield from different stand-points, and seen different colors, contended, each, 
that the color he had seen was that of the whole shield, and neither having 
the candor to go over to the other side and see for himself, both preferred to 
settle the question at the point of the sword. I, therefore, determined just 
to step over and see how things looked from the opposite stand-point. And I 
must say that a good deal of the one-sided coloring I had at first seen, was 
lost b}'- this little manoeuvre. For instance, being subject to the will of the 
National Grange, which had, at first, seemed to be so great an objection, 
began now to look somewhat like an advantage, certainly like a necessity. 
For any body of men to be effective must be organized, and every organiza- 
tion to be perfect must have a head, with an able corps of subaltern officers. 
Just in proportion as an organization is deficient in these respects will it be 
deficient in strength, and, vice versa, the same is equally true. The Patrons 
of Husbandry is simply a grand combination of societies, of which the Subor- 
dinate Granges are the individual members, the State Granges the corps of 
subaltern oflicers, and the National Grange, composed of none but those who 
are distinguished for preeminent merit and ability, the gi-eat head. Now, 
each Suborninate Grange, being only one of a thousand, like individual mem- 
bers of one great body, it is necessary for the good of the whole that their 
several workings be in harmony with each other, and consistent with the 
objects of the Order. Therefore, to secure this general harmony and consis- 
tency, it is necessary that each Subordinate and State Grange should submit 
its plan of work to the approval of the National Grange, otherwise it might 
enter upon a field of work totally foreign to either of the foregoing princi- 
ples. Again, the exaction by the National Grange, from other Granges, of an 
annual due for each of their members, and each degree conferred on members 
during the year, seemed to me to be an imposition — a well planned scheme for 
extracting money from the unsuspecting farmer. Why are we not allowed 
to keep all of our money in our own Grange ? Surely we can use it to better 
advantage than any other body of men ! When, however, I began to think 
of the functions of this Grange, its portion of the work of this immense body 
of societies, of the vast amount of information, covering every subject of 
interest to the Order, daily being collected by it all over the country, to be 
handed over to the printer and afterwards re-distributed, in a printed form, 
to the Granges in every section, it occurred to me that to do all this requires 
at least one office, and one or more secretaries and correspondents. How is 
the rental of that office to be paid ? Those secretaries and correspondents 
must bo paid for their time. How, also, are their salaries to be paid ? And 
more important than all, how can it pay for this large amount of printing? 
Besides, the postage on all this material must foot up handsomely at the end 
of the year. A new member of a Subordinate Grange, after having taken 
four degrees has paid into the treasury of the Grange five dollars, besides his 
regular monthly dues. Of this sum, the Treasurer of bis Grange pays the 
Secretary of the State Grange twenty-five cents for each degree the new 



How I Came to he a Patron. 117 

member has taken ; also, an annual duo of twenty-five cents for said member, 
making a total of one dollar and twenty-five cents for the year. The Treas- 
urer of the State Grange then pays to the Secretary of the National Grange 
ten cents for each degree conferred upon this member, together with an 
additional ten cents, as an annual due for him, or a total of fifty cents for the 
year. Thus of five dollars and over, paid by a new member into the treasur}'- 
of his Grange during the first year of his membership, only fifty cents is 
claimed by the National Grange, and after he has taken all the degrees, it 
claims onl}- ten cents as bis annual due. 

The woman membership feature, likewise, appeared to be a very objection- 
able one. "Woman's proper sphere of action," I repeated, "is the fireside; 
when she leaves that to join societies, etc., she takes the first step towards 
woman's rights." But there is no more danger of her becoming a woman's 
rights woman at the Grange than there is of her becoming one at the fireside, 
for at each place she is in company with her husband and brother. More- 
over, the Avoman's rights movement is a political abortion, (conceived in the 
diseased brains of a few dissolute women, the mere suspicion of any connec- 
tion with which would bring the blush of shame to every pure woman's 
cheek,) while at the Grange all political discussions are rigorously prohibited. 
As to the importance of woman's aid, I thought of the numerous instances 
afforded by history of the powerful influence she has always exercised over 
the destines of mankind, but a stronger proof of that importance exists in the 
mind of every man in the United States, who is blessed with a faithful and 
intelligent wife. But where is the necessity for secrecy? Why cannot the 
workings of the Order be open to the gaze of all men ? Men who do good 
only, are never afraid to have their actions scrutinized. Certainly not. But 
wise men keep their own counsel, and of what they do the world knows 
nothing until it is done. The general who conceives a great stragetic move- 
ment, confides his plans only to a few trusty followers, and when any busi- 
ness of great moment comes before Congress, it sits in secret session. The 
general does not conceal his plans, nor Congress its deliberations, through 
fear of the world's scrutiny, but because the safety of the interests involved 
demands that secrecy be observed. In like manner, then, the Patrons con- 
ceal their deliberations, because by so doing they insure greater security and 
efficiency in their workings. Thus, also, are bad men prevented availing 
themselves of the advantages of the Order to impose upon the credulity of 
mankind. Secret societies, too, have always been more permanent than 
others, and will flourish where the latter die out. When, however, I had got 
this far, I suddenly remembered that we had an agricultural society in our 
County, and I began asking myself why it would not answer all the purposes 
of this secret Order of farmers ? After a little reflection upon the objects of 
such organizations, I found that agricultural societies are limited in their 
application to furnishing information on the practice of agriculture, horticul- 
ture, etc., on the nature of soils and manures, to the establishment of shows 
for produce, stock, etc., and to the promotion of agricultural education. 



118 Agriculture in Egypt. 

Here, then, were the most important objects of agricultural societies ; unless 
the Patrons proposed to do more, it was useless to think further on the sub- 
ject of joining them. But on turning my attention to the objects of the 
Patrons it soon became evident that not only did they propose to do all ot 
the above, but also a great deal more. Besides teaching the farmer how to 
practice agriculture after the most improved methods, they, likewise, protect 
him in the act. They are ever on the watch to detect and warn him of im- 
positions, to prevent his intrusting his produce to fraudulent agents, and to 
bring about a reduction of high freights for his benefit. They enable him to 
purchase his supplies cheaper, and his tools and machinery at from ten to 
twenty-five per cent, less than he can by any other means. They prevent 
cruelty to animals, nurse the sick, assist the poor, instruct the youth, estab- 
lish libraries and reading-rooms, and aim at elevating all classes both socially 
and morally. And while agricultural societies in general possess no common 
bond of union, each being wholly independent of the other, the Granges are 
but so many " parts of one stupendous whole," which whole is a body firmly 
united in substance and intent, guided by one head, striving for the achieve- 
ment of one end, namely: the general good of the agriculturist at 
LARGE. And this is how I came to be A PATRON. 



Agriculture in Egypt. 



A paper was recently read before the Ayrshire (Scotland) Farmers' Club, 
on the condition of agriculture in Egypt, from which we glean some interest- 
ing facts. Although the methods of agriculture are yet primitive, the tenure 
of lands uncertain, and a system of forced labor obtaining to a considerable 
extent, Egypt produces considerable crops of grain, cotton, sugar, corn and 
clover. Thousands of tons of sugar are yearly exported from Alexandria; 
while it is stated that the cereals and clover return crops as heavy as those 
of Scotland, even under what is called in that country high farming. As is 
well known, this great fertility is promoted bj' the rich deposits of the Xile 
in its annual overflows. The water of this stream is brownish in color, and 
leaves a sediment on the land in the shape of a crust, which prevents evapo- 
ration and consequent drought. When it is necessary to overflow lands on a 
higher than ordinary level, or still further to enrich them, three modes of 
raising the water are practiced. The first is by manual labor, the second by 
animal labor, and the third by steam-power. A very common mode of 
manual labor is to use a leathern basin slung from a pole, which is mounted 
on pivots and balanced by a large stone as a counterpoise at the other end. 
The basin end is depressed by the laborer until it dips into the water below ; 
on being freed it is raised by the counterpoise until the leathern basin comes 
to the level. The animal labor is sometimes done by donkeys, but generally 
by oxen, in connection with pumps. The apparatus consists of a wheel turn- 
ing on a horizontal axis and carrying an endless rope, upon which arc placed 



mil-Side Hedging Again. 119 

earthen pots or jars. As the wheel is turned the pots and jars are carried 
round and fill themselves with water at the bottom, and empty themselves at 
the top. Steam-power is used in connection with hydraulic pumps. 

In the system of rotation of crops, cotton planted in March is cleared from 
the ground in November ; clover follows and matures in February ; wheat, 
beans, or barley are then sown, and reaped in May or Juno; Indian corn 
follows, and is reaped in September. Sometimes two crops of clover can be 
raised up to February, when cotton may follow in rotation. The land is only 
stirred up by a wooden implement somewhat similar to a plough, but without 
mold-board. Eeaping is done by pulling, or cutting with small hooks; carry- 
ing is all done on the backs of camels or donkeys; thrashing, by the treading 
of oxen ; winnowing, by casting the grain into the air to be cleansed of chaff 
by the wind. 

The most serious hinderances to progress in methods of agricultural pro- 
duction lie in the matter of land tenure, and arbitrary and oppressive taxa- 
tion. If an owner of land is unable to pay a tax levied his property is con- 
fiscated, and the tax is discretionary with the Viceroy or with local governors. 
It is stated that the Viceroy holds about one-third of all the lands of Egypt, 
the profits of which accrue to him. But this ruler encourages Europeans 
engaged in commerce, relieving them of taxation and the operation of the 
laws of the country, every nationality being allowed to set up its own legal 
tribunal. 

The paper concludes with the hopeful statement that there are indications 
of an important change, and if it would bi'ing about security in the tenure of 
land, combined with moderate taxation, the agriculture of Egypt might yet 
become a field for British capital and enterprise. 



Hill-Side Hedging Again. 



About thirty years ago, in this District, some few of the best planters, in 
clearing land, laid the brush in rows across ravines and gullies and along the 
hill-sides and poor spots. They preferred the gradual decomposition of the 
vegetable matter to the ashes of the burnt brush, because it remained where 
it was placed, made the stiff clay friable, and was more durable as a fertilizer. 
After a year or two they moved the brush and logs not rotted a little lower 
down, to enrich other spots, and so on till it was incorporated in the soil and 
entirely disappeared. 

The same system is practiced now by some good farmers in this County. 
It answers the temporary purpose designed by these planters, and that 
is all. 

If, thirty years ago, those brush rows had been laid on a dead level, at 
proper distances apart, according to the declivity, the steeper the hill the 
nearer together across the ravines and along the hill-sides, always preserving 
the level, and the shrubbery cut down every few years and let lie on the 



120 Hill-Side Hedging Again. 

hedge rows, that land (a hundred acre field I know of) would be worth 
to-day thirty dollars per acre, hedges and all. Now, I suppose it can be 
bought for three dollars per acre, ditches, gullies and all. 

If the hedges are laid on an exact level they cannot possibly be washed 
away. If the soil is moved at all, it is caught and distributed all along the 
hedge, the water finding its way hei'e and there through the brush and in a 
different place at every rain, breaking up the currents continually at each snc- 
cessive hedge to the foot of the hill, and retaining the moisture in the soil. This 
result has been practically demonstrated on this farm this year. 

The Turk who expects any day to be dislodged and driven across the 
Bosphorus, is not more given to temporary expedients than many of our 
Southern planters. I know a plantation in an adjoining County, beditehed 
and begullied and bereft of everything pleasing to a purchaser, but a costly 
and elegant residence and garden and yard on the top of a red bill, which 
happened to be protected by a fence on a level around the crest, looking like 
a digger Indian with nothing to cover his nakedness but a Moslem turban 
studded with brilliants. 

Such is the result of short-lived expedients to make a fortune out of the 
land in a year or two. Failure and bankruptcy are the inevitable results I 
There are, also, some successful planters who attend personally to their busi- 
ness, who plan their ditches with precision, and lay off their cotton rows with 
a spirit level, subsoil and use fertilizers judiciously, and reflect, by their general 
intelligence, credit on the country. But let such a planter absent himself 
six months from bis plantation, and if a heavy rain falls what is the result? 

Can any planter among these hills say that his land has been renovated or 
materially improved in market value by what is called nice culture, or by the 
use of commercial fertilizei-s within the last twenty years? He may make 
good crops, but unless he holds an insurance policy vt^hat estate will he leave 
his representatives? Can he leave his skill and industry? He will leave a 
plantation, which, in his hands, may be worth twenty dollars per acre, but, 
put on the market, wouldn't sell for five dollars per acre. 

Thus much in reply to your courteous contributor from St. Matthews. It 
is pleasing to read his fair view of this (to my mind) the most important 
point in the agricultural department of this middle country, viz: the perma- 
nent restoration and preservation of the land. Temporary expedients will not 
do. Neither hill-side ditching, subsoiling or commercial fertilizers will do. 

The system of hill-side hedging, proposed in the June number of The 
IluRAL Carolinian does not involve the necessity much less the expense of 
terracing. The hills would, after a few years, be partially terraced in some 
places ; but it is better to keep the soil, on new ground especially, just where 
it is, which can only bo done hy preventing the rain water from accumulating in 
currents ! 

To keep the rain water out of the field, ditches may be used, but they are 
worse than useless on cultivated ground. . 

Fairfield County, November 3d, 1871. 



The Ystle and Maguey. 121 

The Ystle and Maguey. 



The enclosed communication on the Ystle and Maguey was written by Mr. 
Hastings, an intelligent American gentleman of Tamaulipas, Mexico, for the 
Brownsville Sentinel, of Texas. Last summer I saw Col. Ford, of the Senti- 
nel, and requested him to send me some of the Ystle, and all the information 
he 'could about the plant, and here you have the result: The large Maguey 
(Agave Americana^i is hardy in the open air at Austin, and I think it would 
thrive in all of the warmer portions of the Atlantic and Gulf cotton States. 

S. B. BUCKLEY. 

Austin, Texas, October 15, 187 L 

1 see by some of the Northern periodicals that the Ystle plant is attract- 
ino- some attention, or it may be but curiosity as regards the source from 
whence is derived the fibre called Ystle, that is being shipped, to some extent, 
to the United States from Northern Mexico. The plant from which this 
fibre is extracted is of the Agave Americana family, and is called here where 
it grows, lechuguia. It is an evergreen, the leaves are broad at the base, 
o-radually narrowing to the point, which is armed with a strong or sharp 
thorn or spike ; they are slightly concave on the upper side, and armed among 
the edc^es with cat's claw thorns. It grows in bunches without trunk or 
stem but while it flowers it sends tip from the centre of the spreading leave^ 
a stalk of some ten or twelve feet in height, on the top of which comes lorth 
the flower. It flowers but once and then dies. New plants spring forth Irom 
the roots of the old one, and thus the supply is continuous. 

The above description would answer in every respect for the " Maguey 
(Agave A7nerica7ia) plant. The only difference perceptible are, that the^latter 
plant has leaves four or five times as long as the former, are much thicker, 
of a darker green, and is a larger plant. Ystle is extracted from both of these 
species, although the "lechujuia" is the legitimate Ystle plant. _ 1 he fibre 
of the Maguey is superior to the other, being longer, finer and whiter, and ot 
course commands a higher price. , ... 

The manner of extracting the fibre of these plants here is quite primitive, 
no machine having as yet been found that will give satisfactory results. The 
work is most all done by band, the only instrument used being a wooden 
knife, which serves to scrape off the fleshy parts from the leaf, the fibre is 
then separated by whipping it around a post, then dried in the sun, and the 
process is complete. ,. 

There are thousands of acres of lechuguia in the State of Tamaulipas. it 
literally covers the ground where it abounds, rendering it entirely useless for 
anything, except a secure refuge for snakes and armadillos. 

The Maguey is a much more useful plant, and is also a beautiful one. At 
present the chief use of it is to distill an alcoholic liquor from it called 
" Vina Mescal," by the natives. The leaves (pencas) are trimmed off from 
the lower part and thrown away, being most undoubtedly the most valuable 
part of the plant. The head, or as it is called the pina, is then roasted 
pressed, and the juice thus obtained is allowed to ferment ; it is then distilled 
and mescal is the result. A small portion of the leaves are utilized by the 
mescaleros in thatching their houses, but nine-tenths of them are left in the 
woods to rot. This plant also yields a sap or juice while standing, from 
which is made the great Mexican drink known as pulque. To obtain this 



122 The Castor Bean — An Experiment. 

the centre of the plant is cut away, and a saucer shaped cavity is made in 
the solid part that remains below, into which there filters a whitish sap of 
rather a disagreeable taste to one who is unaccustomed to its use. This sap 
is called agua mid, (honey water,) and is highly medicinal in its crude stnte. 
When allowed to ferment it becomes jmlque. It is also subjected to another 
process, that of slow" evaporation over fire, until it becomes of a syrup}' con- 
sistence. This syrup is very sweet, and is an excellent substitute for molasses. 

A good-sized Maguey is very productive. The agua miel is drawn off from 
the cavity above mentioned twice a day, and it continues to yield for several 
months. From the fibre ropes, bagging, matting, and a variety of useful arti- 
cles are made; i\\Q pina. after being roasted is eaten with relish by the work- 
men at the distilleries, and is very nutritious, sweet, and has not an unpleasant 
flavor. The flower stalk is used for rafters for the houses, being from twenty 
to twenty-five feet in length, and of great strength and durability. 

Thus it will be seen that the Maguey is a useful plant, as it gives food and 
drink of different kinds, and houses to live in, besides other useful articles. 

The time may come when these plants will be more protected than they 
are at present, and, perhaps, cultivated for the fibre which thej^ yield. 

I have heard that most of the Ystle shipped to the United States is con- 
verted into an imitation of horse hay, and mattresses, sofas, chairs, etc., 
stuffed with it, and sold as the genuine article. 



The Castor Bean — An Experiment. 



"Neither the castor plant nor the bene are troubled by stock of any kind, 
and they may, therefore, be planted on land not under fence." 

We take the foregoing from the March number of Rural Caroliniax, for 
1870, for the purpose of correcting an error into which the writer has inad- 
vertently fallen. A nephew of ours planted, in May last, one and a quarter 
acres of the castor bean for the purpose of ascertaining their adaptability to 
our soil and climate, and their comparative value with other crops. The 
land selected would have made about one thousand pounds of seed cotton to 
the acre. They were left six feet each way, one stalk in the hill. The pros- 
pect was indeed cheering until the cattle made their first raid upon them, 
and began eating the leaves. After the leaves were all off, having a desire to 
test this new departure more fully, they began on the spikes, and were not 
long in sweeping the deck clear of all prospects of success, and with them 
Ben's hopes of successfully introducing them to supercede the necessity of 
relying entirely upon cotton as a money crop. We think, however, that 
though some of the bovine species hereabout will have a hard time this 
winter from the effects of their indiscretion, the experiment has proven that 
the}'- can be raised here successfully, and at a profit. This patch would have 
made about fifty bushels to the acre, and if, as stated in the number of the 
Rural referred to above, the falling leaves are as beneficial to the land as a 
crop of clover turned under, we think it is a departure in the right direction. 
The cultivation would not have made a crop of corn much less a crop of 



Suggestions on Premiums. 123 

cotton. Now this land would have produced about twent-five bushels of corn 
per acre, and if we estimate the corn at one dollar and twenty-five cents per 
bushel, and the beans at six cents per pound, the cultivation of each being 
the same, wo have a balance in favor of the beans of over one hundred 
dollars. In the article referred to above, the writer estimates the yield at 
double that of corn ; and if this be correct, (and we are disposed to think it 
is,) this plant is soon destined to enter lai'gely into our crop calculations. 
Instead of these beans being largely imported into this country, it will 
become an article of export along with cotton. "When the good time comes 
that all of our available water power is put to spinning, and with mills to 
grind our castor beans, and sheep to furnish wool and mutton, (not the sheep 
that John Randolph would go a mile out of his way to kick,) but the pure, 
genuine Merino, a pound of whose fleece is worth from thirty-five to forty 
cents, and raised at one-third of the expense of a pound of cotton. Then, 
indeed, will we be able to clothe the world and oil its machinery. The 
writer of this hopes to warn all experimenters with this bean against plant- 
ing them where they can be destroyed by stock, as well as to draw out those 
who have tried them the present year. W. B. R. 

Bamherg, S. C. 



Suggestions on Premiums. 



I accept the offer of The Rural Carolinian for a premium marked three 
dollars from the Orangeburg Agricultural Society. An exchange of trum- 
pery for brains, or the product of brains. I would not be understood to 
speak with the least disrespect of the Society which honored me with the 
award. On the contrary, I value the four inches of ribbon from the same 
source as much as though it were a sheepskin diploma. 

Had my premium proved to be a pocket knife, I should have whittled 
away with a great deal of complacency. But it is, they tell me, a napkin, 
ring, value three dollars ; and I don't believe there was ever an article made 
of that description of the value of three cents, not counting the value of the 
material, whether it is for babies, and thought expressly applicable by the 
Committee, (for we have one,) or for big dinners, I am not informed, and I 
doubt if any of ray neighbors can solve the question. 

I suggest to agricultural societies, which are supposed to be intimately con- 
nected with hard working men, that the premiums be a little more in accord- 
ance with the importance of the matter in hand, and that articles of utility 
be preferred to articles of luxury and superfluity, more especially when the 
latter have no connection with agriculture. In explanation : where a farmer 
with very limited means, but some brains, goes into the woods and in half an 
hour makes his plough-stock, and his neighbor, the blacksmith, in the same 
half hour forges the subsoil that will compete in all respects with the five 
and ten dollar ones, or, as has happened, perhaps, often, that costly plate, 



124 The Jute Plant and Fibre. 

beautifully chased and ornamented, should be thought worthy of a very high 
premium, when the home-made plough is thought, by a committee which 
have no time to look into the future, to be but small potatoes in comparison. 

But the matter is all in a nut shell, and that not difficult to see into. The 
plough, or any other farming instrument,, that will make an ear of corn grow 
to twelve inches when ordinarily it would grow to but six, would soon buy 
your casket of, I had almost written trumpery, chased silver or gold a dozen 
times over. 

In conclusion, and with all respect and honor to the agricultural societies, 
let me say that awarding toothpicks, egg-spoons, napkin-rings, etc., for useful 
improvements in farming is very like offering a pinch of snuff to the rescuer 
of a drowning child. M. L. BALDWIN. 

Orangeburg, October 29th, 1871. 



The Jute Plant and Fibre. 



Mr, E. H. Derby, of Boston, Massachusetts, who has taken much interest 
in the introduction of the jute plant into the United States, forwards to the 
Department of Agriculture for publication the following letter from Mr. R. 
Macallister, Calcutta, India, "in reference to the cultivation and gathering of 
the plant and the separation and curing of the fibre : 

The seeds are sown in the months of March and April, broadcast, on 
ploughed land, preference being given to moist high ground ; situated if pos- 
sible on the bank of a river, and somewhat sandy. As a general rule manure 
is not used, but animal dung has been employed to advantage; nor is it neces- 
saiy to irrigate the ground, as no more water is required than is sufficient to 
keep the roots moist, for which the ordinary showers of this countrv generally 
suffice. It is allowed to grow three or four months, and is cut in the months 
of June, July and August, when it has attained a height of 7 J to 12 feet, the 
size depending of course on the fertility of the soil and the season. 

The time chosen for cutting is just after the flowers have turned to seed and 
before the seeds begin to ripen, for it is found when cut thus early to be of 
better color and to have less root. When the seeds are allowed to ripen it 
appears that the fibre becomes stiff and hard, and the inferior portion of the 
stem changes color, becoming blackish or reddish. 

When cut the stalks arc tied in bundles and thrown into tanks of dirty 
water and allowed to remain there five to eight days to rot, (the dirtier the 
water the faster, I believe, the rotting process takes place,) at the ex])iration 
of which time they are taken out and the fibre falls from the stick. The fibre 
is then hung up to dry, and when dry is assorted, packed in round bundles 
called drums, and sent off. 

The finer qualities of jute sometimes attain a height of 15 feet. The smaller 
the plant the lower the quality. The seeds are used for cultivation only. 
They contain very little oil, and no one has ever thought it worth while to 
crush them, neither have they ever been tried for feeding poultry or cattle. 
Small plants yield more seeds than the larger one», and supposing all the 
plants on an acre to be allowed to ripen, the yield of seed would be about one 
hundred and twenty pounds, as I am informed. 



A Lesson for Cotton Planters. 125 

To encourage the general cultivation of this valuable fibre-plant in the 
Southern States, the .Commissioner of Agriculture has oi'dered a large 
quantity of the seetl for distribution. The seed heretofore distributed by the 
Department is reported to have succeeded admirably. It is stated that on 
the banks of the Lower Mississippi, with little or no cultivation, in the course 
of three months it grew 8 to 12 feet high, maturing an abundance of seed. It 
can probably be raised as easily as hemp throughout the South, and in a large 
part of the Mississippi Valley, and possibly as far north as Virginia and 
Tennessee. 



A Lesson for Cotton Planters. 



Our excellent cotemporary, the Plantation, lately published the following 
"story with a moral," which is too good to be monopolized by the readers of 
that paper, and we take pleasure in passing it along to our subscribers : 

A leading cotton factor from Macon, stated to us the other day the follow- 
ing striking circumstance: A cotton planter, whose crop was more than two 
hundred bales of cotton, came to him (tlie factor) and asked if he could put 
him in the way of borrowing one thousand dollars of which he stood in 
urgent need. "Yes," said the factor. He went out and procured the money 
for his friend, and it was from a man who always had a surjjlus of money, 
and who made, usually, fifteen bales of cotton, but he always made a large 
amount of provisions for sale. The large cotton planters were his chief cus- 
tomers. This man is steadii}'^ growing rich — the large cotton planters are 
growing steadily poor. Planters, think of it! Here is a case of a two or 
three hundred bale planter borrowing from one who makes fifteen bales. 
This is not a solitary case! Do you not know of more than one large cotton 
planter, who would bo very glad to borrow 81,000 at this moment from some 
of the " hog and hominy men " in your neighborhood ? 

We asked the factor referred to, if the debt of the large cotton planters to 
the banks and factors was heavy. "Yes," was the reply, "it is fearfully 
heav3^" We then asked if there was much indebtedness on the part of those 
who made small crops of cotton and large crops of pi'ovisions? "No," said 
he, "on the contrary, these men, usually, as a class, have some money to 
lend." 

The lesson to be learned is obvious. The crop arrangements for another 
year should be made in view of the results we have considered. It should 
be the first object to raise all the food necessary for man or beast on the 
plantation. We know that it is a favorite tlieory with some, that it is cheaper 
to buy bread and meat than it is to make it. But how does the theory work? 
It ends in the three hundred borrowing money from the fifteen bale man. 
This is the practical result. 

But then pride comes in : "I should be ashamed to say I made only fifteen 
bales of cotton," says the planter. But would you not be more ashamed to 
have to go to the fifteen bale man and beg him to lend you $1,000 ? We 
must get out of some of our old notions. We must learn to measure our 
success, not by the number of bales of cotton we make, for, perhaps, when it 
is made, it does not belong to us, but to the factor or bank. We must make 
something else beside cotton, not only to eat and to wear, but a surplus to 



126 Wool and Cotton may be Mixed. 

sell. We must measure our success by the amount of clear money saved at 
the end of the year, provided it be not at the expense of the soil. You buy 
mules, prepare to raise enough for your purposes. You bu}' corn, have some 
hereafter to sell. You buy bacon, raise your own pork, beef and mutton. 
You buy fertilizers, hereafter let the fertilizers only supplement the amount 
you are able to procure from the plantation. Let your cotton he dear. That 
this may be done, there can be no doubt. Formerly, the object was to have 
as little bread and meat consumed on the plantation as possible. Now, it 
should be as much as possible. Provisions raised on the place should pay a 
large proportion of wages. There is now a provision market on every plan- 
tation. 

Changes in established practices are, we know, made slowly. While the 
planters'are in debt, it must be remembered that this debt, first and fore- 
most, must be paid. How this indebtedness is to be extinguished, it requires 
o-reater wisdom than we possess. But by degrees we can fall into the system 
here advocated. If it does not lead to rapid, it will, undoubtedly, lead to 
certain fortune. 



Wool and Cotton may be Mixed. 



The address of C. W. Howard, Esq., on " The Changes in our Mental and 
Material Pursuits, which are Eequired by the Change in our Labor System," 
delivered before the Georgia State Agricultural Convention, at Rome, Ga., 
August 10th, 1871, is replete with timely hints and important practical sug- 
o-cstions and advice. " We must diversify our industry," is the burden of the 
author's remarks, and it is a truth that cannot be too often repeated. One of 
the ways in which we may diversify our industry is in wool-growing, and to 
this Mr. Howard gives prominence. He says: 

Prominently in this diversification I place wool-growing. Upon this sub- 
ject, my time will allow mc to make but two leading remarks, each of which 
may produce a smile among cotton planters. But I am as confident of their 
truth as I am that I have at this moment the honor to address you. 

First. It is cheaper to raise a pound of Merino wool, worth forty to fifty 
cents, than it is to raise a pound of cotton, worth fifteen to twenty cents. 
The increase of a flock of good sheep, well cared for and managed, will coyer 
all expenses by sale and consumption of mutton. No one at all Jamiliar with 
the subject can doubt this. This being true, the wool is clear gain. But 
there is no way by which a pound of cotton can be made clear. Is not the 
wool, then, far'less costly than the cotton ? Is there a flaw in this short pro- 
cess of reasoning ? If so, where is it? The subject is commended to the 
thoughtful reflection of cotton planters. 

The other remark is this : The man who owns a thousand acres of land 
and, also, a flock of a thousand sheep, gives them good pasture and pens 
them regularly at night, in less than five years from the time of starting, his 
flock will be able to make more cotton than if he did not have a sheep upon 
his place. The statement cannot now be developed, but it is undoubtedly 
true. 

I repeat the remark— we must forget the past, so far as it relates to our 
agricultural system. It was so easy to make money in the old way by plant- 
iiTo-, that we did not care to inquire what the rest of the world were doing. 



Sundry Suggestions. 127 

We have lost our slave labor. Wo are now employing more of the present 
unreliable, and vexatious, and inadequate labor in the cultivation of land 
yielding an annual return, than any other people in Christendom. We must 
now look about us and inquire how other people, in other lands, manage, who 
never owned a negro. We must not be positive where we are not informed. 
We must not reject that which is new to us because it is new, when it may 
have been approved by the experience of centuries elsewhere. 1 was once 
conversing with a largo rice planter of South Carolina on this subject. 
" Why," said he, "I work one hundi'cd and fifty hands, how could 1 use them 
in wool-growing?" My reply was, "Prince Esterhazy was the richest man 
in Europe — so rich that his annual income would have bought out the larg- 
est rice plantation, negroes and all, in South Carolina, yet nearly his whole 
income comes from the fleeces of his sheep. An English nobleman was once 
boasting to the same Prince of the number of his sheep. The Prince offered 
to bet him that he had more shepherds than the other had sheep. The 
Englishman accepted the wager and lost." 

Our ideas of wool-growing are based upon the few scattered ragged ani- 
mals that we see about our plantations ; not enough to deserve attention, but 
quite enough to make us loose our temper when our neighbor's dog kills 
them. It was to this class of ragged beasts, I suppose, that John Randolph 
referred when he said, " I would go a mile out of my way to kick a sheep." 



Sundry Suggestions. 



Though inclination prompts me to keep a close retirement, and learn of 
those better versed in that which constitutes true agricultural development, 
there are some matters which I regard of special importance, and I desire to 
promote their discussion. 

1. Fences. Cannot this burdensome tax be lifted from us? With such labor 
as we have at present to rely upon how many planters could afford to replace 
eveiy fence on bis place, provided some misfortune were to deprive him of 
them ? Accurate calculations state that, on an average, this is done every 
ten )'ears. This brings us, then, to the consideration of the remedies, viz: 

Hedges. I regard this question as of vital interest, and every one posted 
should give his experience, stating facts as to merits and demerits of those 
experimented with. 

Stock laws are now the prevailing laws regulating this branch of agricul- 
ture in Europe. And, judging from the material prosperity of its people, 
quantity of stock raised and sold in market, it would bespeak for it very 
grave consideration. 

With the best timber of our forests in Northern markets, turpentine in 
increasing demand, and Cuffee fond of rail fires, surely it would seem time for 
" thus far and no farther." 

Though moderately successful, I have concluded that hog-raising is un- 
profitable. Every one will see the advantage of keeping a few "zn sight;" 
these well attended to for famil}' requirements. The desideratum is a hog 



128 Plaster and its Uses. 

that will fatten at any age. With more attention to and better care of well 
selected cattle and sheep, "hog and hominy " will, in a great measure be sup- 
planted by a diet more suitable to our climate. 

Establishments for manufacture of agricultural tools and implements are 
sadly needed. MVe want them here, where a broken part can be quickly sup- 
plemented. 

I saw at work last spring a cotton planter which surpasses anything 
coming under my observation. Simple of construction, easily managed, draft 
light, excellent working capacity, so arranged that seed are all put to a regu- 
lar depth. The patentee, A. W. Ross, of Marr's Bluff, S. C, proposes having 
it at the State Fair in November. 

Having lost a number of hogs from disease, examined one, and found a 
bloody enlargement on thorax. Others had bloody water accumulated in the 
chest. A tablespoonful of turpentine or kerosene, or lump of tar, seemed to 
give relief A LEARNER. 

October 10th, 1871. 



Plaster and its Uses. 



Plaster in the different branches of science is known by different names. 
In the arts it is plaster; in mineralogy it is gypsum; in chemistry it is sul- 
phate of lime. Sulphuric acid has an affinity for ammonia, and when it finds 
ammonia its breaks up its partnership with the lime and combines with the 
ammonia, forming sulphate of ammonia; and this is non-volatile. The lime 
finds a companion when deserted by the acid, in carbonic acid, forming car- 
bonate of lime. 

Hence it will be seen that when the farmer has ammonia in his soil, put 
there b}' himself in manure, or in any other manner, liable to waste, the 
plaster will fix it there, and in all such cases it can be applied to the ground 
with profit. The odor about stables and manure heaps is escaping ammonia, 
and the farmer can judiciously use a little plaster in both places, saving the 
ammonia for his land. 

Plaster saves to the soil nitrogen, one of the chief mineral elements enter- 
ing into the growth of plants ; ammonia is three parts hydrogen and one 
part nitrogen. Ammonia escapes from decaying vegetation wherever it is 
lound, and is suspended in the air ; and when aftei' a long dry spell and con- 
siderable quantities of it has ascended, the first rain brings it to the earth, 
and if there is a little plaster in the clover field the ammonia never rises 
again. 

The very study into the uses of plaster shows that the farmer should be a 
student, and in some degree a man of science. Ho must learn that in doc- 
toring his soil something else than mineral substances may be needed. He 
may need organic substances as well, and to know this is the duty of the 
farmer. 



Experiments with Fertilizers, 1871. 129 

Experiments with Fertilizers, 1871. 

Fullj imbued with the importance of further experiments with fertilizers, 
I have this year continued to make ihom somewhat on tlie same plan as 
practiced last year. If through their publication any should be induced to 
experiment in the same, or some new direction, with the view of improving 
agriculture, b^^ publishing their results to the reading agriculturists of the 
country, I shall feel compensated for my trouble; I feel that scientific agri- 
culture is as yet in its infancy, and every experiment that develops a new 
fact, adds a round to the ladder upon which we would ascend to a sj^stematic 
knowledge of the art. 

The ground upon which the following experiments were conducted is a 
light grayish loam upon the surface, with course yellow clay subsoil at the 
depth of from three to five inches, very poor — selected on account of its 
poverty' and uniformity of appearance ; land very much worn, planted 
winter of 1869 and 1870 in oats, took off a very poor ci'op ; manured with 
superphosphate in 1869 and planted in corn — yield poor indeed. 

Preparation. — Broke ground by row, about five inches deep, 20th March ; 
reversed beds, (using turn plough both times,) applied fertilizers, and planted, 
April 24th; with a little replanting, secured a fair stand, and cultivated as 
the balance of my crop, with SAveeps, and hoes when necessary. 

The experiments were upon rows one acre long and three and a half feet 
apart, being one-sixtieth of an acre each. The articles employed and results 
obtained were, as the following table will show. Each article or compound 
employed was at the rate of ten dollars per acre. All the manures, with the 
exception of cotton seed and its compounds, were applied on top of the bed 
before planting. Cotton seed and compounds in centre, furrow underneath : 

Names. Product iper Acre Seed Cotton. 

]Sro. 1, Nothing.. 180 pounds. 

No. 2, Green Cotton Seed 495 " 

No. 3, Cotton Seed and Plaster 630 " 

No, 4, Cotton Seed and Acid Phosphate 495 " 

No. 5, Plaster 495 " 

No. 6, Peruvian Guano 525 " 

No. 7, Nothing 165 " 

No. 8, Gro. Bone, Ashes, Salt and Nit. Soda 270 " 

No. 9, Ground Bone 405 " 

No. lOJ Muriate Potash 105 " 

No. 11, Muriate Potash, Gro. Bone and Per. Guano 585 " 

No. 12, Nothing 135 " 

No. 13, Peruvian and Dissolved Bone 780 " 

No. 14, Nitrate Soda 180 " 

No. 15, Peruvian, Potash, Soda and Dissolved Bone 615 " 

No. 16, Potash, Soda and Dissolved Bone 525 " 

No. 17, Nit. Soda and Dissolved Bone 615 " 

No. 3, Vol. 3. 10 



130 Experiments icith Fo'tilizers, 1871. 

Names. Product per Acre Seed Cotion. 

No. 18, Nothing .- 75 pounds. 

No. 19, Dickson's Compound 690 

No. 20, Turner's Excelsior 570 

No. 21, Mur. Potash and Dissolved Bone 450 

No. 22. Soluble Pacific Guano 645 

No. 23', Nothing 120 

No. 24, Dissolved Bone 435 

No. 25, Etiwan No. 2 or Guano 585 

No. 26, Ashes 225 

No. 27, Carolina Fertilizer 570 

No. 28, Comp. Acid Phosphate 570 

No. 29, Nothing 90 

No. 30, Four Piows, nothing 60 

Notes. 

Rate of Comhination. 

No. 3, Cotton Seed 1 part, Plaster 1 part, moistened and composted eleven 
days. 

No. 4, Cotton Seed 1 pai't, Comp. Acid Phosphate 1 part. 

No. 8, Ground Bone 5 parts, Ashes 5 parts, Salt 1 part. Nit. Soda 1 part. 

No. 11, Ground Bone 6 parts, Muriate Potash 3 parts, Peruvian Guano 1 
part. 

The above four compounds moistened and composted eleven days. 

No. 13, Peruvian Guano 1 part, Dissolved Bone 14 parts. 

No. 15, Dissolved Bone 6 parts, Peruvian Guano 1 part. Nit. Soda, 1 part, 
and Mur. Potash 1 part. 

No. 16, Dissolved Bone 6 parts, Nit. Soda 2 parts, Mur. Potash 4 parts. 

No. 17, Dissolved Bone 10 parts, Nit. Soda 1 part. 

No. 19, Dissolved Bone 1 part. Salt 1 part. Plaster 1 part, Per. Guano 1 
part, Dickson's Formula. 

No. 21, Dissolved Bone 2 parts, Mur. Potash 1 part. 

The Compound Acid Phosphate employed was that manufactured by the 
Etiwan Company. 

The Ground Bone was the Charleston Phosphate finely ground. 

The Dissolved Bone was that formerly called Etiwan, No. 1, nosv known 
by the former name, and was the article used in preparing the Dickson Com- 
pound above spoken of. The Peruvian Guano employed had analyzed 15 
per cent. Ammonia. 

The above is a correct report of the experiments and results. Nobody 
being so familiar with them as myself, I may venture to direct attention to 
some points which might otherwise escape the attention I think them 
deserving : 

First. It will be observed that cotton seed alone is not by any means so 
profitable a fertilizer as many others employed in the above experiments ; as, 



Experiments with Fertilizers, 1S71. 131 

for instance, the very next manure on the list, cotton seed and plaster, which 
produced 135 pounds more per acre, or over twentj'-tivo per cent. advanla«i;e. 
I can't and don't pretend to explain the advantage of this combination ; but 
the facts are such as to recommend the employment of that or a similar com- 
bination of these articles. Cotton seed paid a better profit in this combina- 
tion than an}' other, but more experiments are needed to settle the manner 
of the most economical employment of cotton seed as a fertilizer for cotton, 

I was disappointed in the results obtained from compound acid phosphate 
and cotton seed. More experiments are needed to settle the best proportion 
of these two articles when used in combination. During the early part of the 
season the row manured with this compound was the most promising in the 
plat, but rust attacked it first and severely. I believe half the quantitj' of 
cotton seed employed would furnish sufiicient ammonia for the growth of the 
plant, and, unless broadcasted, a less amount of acid phosphate than I em- 
ployed I think, or rather believe from other opei-ations made during the 
current year, would be suiScient for ordinary lands. 

Another point which will appear new to many is the effect of land plaster. 
It will be obsei-ved that it has, in my experiments, proved itself equal in 
effects to cotton seed alone, to acid phosphate and cotton seed, and almost 
equal to Peruvian Guano, the latter exceeding it by only thirty pounds seed 
cotton per acre. I will not here discuss the manner in which it acts; but I 
do know it has the property of stimulating the growth of the cotton plant 
beyond anj^ point I had previously supposed. But the very fact that it has 
the power of stimulating the plant to its utmost capacity with the elements 
at its command, or in its reach, and, probably, also, of rendering other ele- 
ments assimilable by the plant, should caution us in the future emploj^ment 
of it to remember that chemically it is nothing but sulphuric acid and lime, 
and consequently leaves little if any permanent improvement behind it if em- 
ployed alone. The proportions of its elements contained in the ash of cotton 
seed are relatively small. 

It will also be observed that Peruvian Guano, (the standard by which we 
compound all commercial fertilizers,) falls behind several manures employed, 
though equal values of each were employed, and No. 13 indicates the very 
small amount of " standard " required for the greatest production of cotton in 
all my experiments. Only one pound of Peruvian in the mixture of fifteen 
pounds, yet the result is almost 100 pounds more per acre than was produced 
by any other manure, and 255 pounds more per acre than Avas produced by 
Peruvian alojie; an increase of almost fifty percent, over Peruvian. No rust 
mentionable presented itself on this row. 

No. 17 would seem to indicate that in nitrate of soda we have a partial 
substitute for the ammonia of Peruvian Guano, as the row manured with it, 
that is nitrate of soda and dissolved bone, ranks fourth on the list as to pro- 
ductiveness. The proportion in which the two articles may be most advan- 
tageously combined, may be much changed by further observation. 



132 Experiments with Fertilizers, 1871. 

No. 9 shows the benefit to be derived from the employment of the fine 
o-round Charleston phosphates, an increase of from 100 to 200 per cent, over 
the natural soil. As to permanency, I believe it would prove more so than 
any article employed. I would suggest that this form of the phosphates 
might be very profitably composted with coiton seed, plaster and mould, 
and allowed to remain in bulk some two or throe months before distri- 
bution. 

Muriate of potash, though in my experience a preventive of rust, does not 
perceptibly affect the amount of cotton produced ; at any rate, not favorably. 
Yet I would not recommend a discontinuance of its use even on clay lands, 
as it may prove of advantage after the first year, as it holds a first rank 
among the constituents of the ash of cotton seed. 

"Wood ashes alone and in combination were, with the exception of potash 
and soda alone, the least valuable manure employed. 

No. 19, Dickson's Compound, ranks second on the list in point of produc- 
tiveness, but rusted very badly ; I believe because too much was applied for 
the strength of the soil. This combination, based upon an extensive knowl- 
edge of the Avants of the cotton plant, is hard to improve upon. 

The results obtained from the Commercial Fertilizers, Pacific, Excelsior, 
Etiwan and Carolina, show them all to be valuable manures. The difference 
in yield from them should not be held to establish the superiority of one over 
another, as greater discrepancies exist in the i-esults obtained from the rows 
which were not manured at all, than among those obtained from these different 
fertilizers. They are all worthy of judicious employment, and will, doubtless, 
continue their hold as first class fertilizers. 

Eust attacked the rows manured with acid phosphate and cotton seed com- 
pound plaster alone, Peruvian Guano, Excelsior, Pacific, and Carolina Ferti- 
lizer in severity, much in the order in which they are named. 

It should be stated that, with the exception of a few weeks' drought last of 
June and first of July, the season was tolerably favorable. 

My experience indicates that we should be very careful how we draw con- 
clusions from a single expei'iment upon say two rows. It will be observed 
that a difference of more than 100 per cent, occurs between different rows 
unmanured in a half acre plat, notwithstanding the plat was selected because 
of its apparent uniformity of condition. ED. B. SMITH, M. D. 

Bonevinto, S. C, November 10th, 1871. 



Fish Manures. — These are available near the sea-coast only, where they 
furnish an important source of fertility, which should not be neglected. The 
flesh of fish acts with great energy in hastening the growth of plants. It 
decomposes rapidly, and should be at once ploughed under, or made into a 
well-covered compost heap. 



Garden Seeds — What to Plant. 



133 



^cpttdmcnt of Soitkultnre Jinb Surul 



Garden Seeds — What to Plant. 



It is well to supply ourselves with seeds in good time, and much depends 
upon getting good seeds and of the right kinds. "We cannot make a selection 
that will suit all persons and places, but, as has been our custom heretofore, 
will give a list of varieties such as w^e have tested and found suited to our 
own purposes. In general they are such as will prove generally adapted to 
the Southern gai'deu throughout our widely extended parish — from Virginia 
to Texas : 

ASPARAGUS. 

GirDit Dutch Purple Top. — The largest, and, 
we believe, the best sort in cultivation. 



DWARF SNAP BEANS. 

Eni-hj Fecjee. — The earliest kind we know. 
Hardy, prolific and excellent. 

Loriff Yellow Six Weeks. — Early and pro- 
ductive. 

Early Valentine. — Not quite so early as the 
preceding, but excelled by none in quality. 

Rcfufiee. — Not very early, but very pro- 
lific and excellent. 

White Marrov:. — Not good as a snap or 
string bean, but excellent as a shelled green 
bean. 

Dwarf Wax. — Very tender and rich. 

POLE BEANS. 

Carolina or Sieva. — This we think, on the 
whole, best of all butter beans, but some pre- 
fer — 

Large Lima — Good and fine flavored, but 
not productive. 

Indian Chief. — (German Wax Bean) — good 
either as a snap or as a shelled bean. 

BEET. 

Bastian's Exira Early. — Earliest and best. 

Early Egyptian. 

Extra Early or Bassano. — An old favorite, 
excellent. 

Early Blood Turnij). 

Vellow Turnip. 

Henderson's Pi7ieapple.—'Ne\y, beautiful, 
and good. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Richmond' s Compact. — An improved Eng- 
lish varietj'. 

BROCCOLI. 

Large White Early. — A Prench variety. 
Purple Cajie. — The most reliable in our 
climate. 

CARDOON. 

Large Spanish. 
Red Stemtne.d. 



Little Pixie. — Very small, but very early, 
tender and sweet. 

Eaj-ly Ulm Savoy. — Earliest of the savoys, 
and excellent. 

Early York. — Well known and trust- 
worthy. 

Early Winningstadt. — Heads solid. One 
of the best. 

Green Curled Savoy. — Best of all in flavor. 
Heads not so solid. 

Flat Dutch. — An excellent late kind. 

CARROT. 

Early Scarlet Horn. — The 
Excellent. 

Scarlet Altringham. — Handsome and 
ductive. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

Early Welcheren. — Very good. 

Early Asiatic. — Large. One of the best. 

CELERY. 



earliest kind, 
pro- 



-Popular and very 
-Smaller, but of ex- 



Large White Solid. - 
good, but we prefer — 

Licomparnhle Dioarf.- 
cellent qualitj'. 

SUGAR CORN. 

Crosby's Early Sweet. — Very early, and in 
every way excellent. 

Stoivell Evergreen. — Later and equally 
good. Kemains fit for the table much longer 
than any other kind. 

Mexican Sweet. — The best of all in quality, 
and suited to our climate. Very scarce. 

Old Colony. — Very productive. 

CUCUMBER. 

Early Russian. — The earliest kind we 
know. Small but productive. 

Early White Sjmied. — Earlj' and a great 
bearer. 

Long Green. — A standard late sort. Ex- 
cellent for pickles. 



134 



Garden Seeds — What to Plant. 



GUINEA SQUASH OR EGG PLANT. 

New York Improved. — An excellent and 
trustworthy kind. 

Black Pckin. — A new and distinct sort, 
very early. 

KALE OR BORECOLE. 

Dwarf Green Curled. — A very hardy va- 
riety. 

KOHL-RABI. 

Early W/rife Vienna. — Is the best kind for 
garden culture. 

LETTUCE. 

Broirn Duirh. — One of the hardiest and 
best sorts, but objectionable to some on ac- 
count of its color. 

Boston Curled. — An excellent sort for early 
sowing. 

Perpignan. — Very large. Stands the heat 
better than most varieties. 

MELON (musk.) 

Netted Citron. — Small, but fine flavored. 
White Japan. — Quality, the best. 

Beechwood. — Small, early and excellent. 

MELON (water.) 

Rattlesnake. — One of the best. 

Lawton. — Pure seed is scarce. 

Orange. — Pure seed is scarce. 

Mouniain Siocet. — Excellent where it will 
succeed, but not trustworthy in all localities. 
okra. 

Early Dwarf. — Early, but small. 

Long Grce7i. — Most productive. 
onion. 

Yellow Dutch or Strasbourg. 

White Portugal. — Milder than the yellow 
and red sorts. 

Wethersfield Red. — The best market va- 
riety. ' • 

Danver's Yellow. — Very productive. 

PARSLEY. 

Dwarf Curled. 

PARSNIP. 

Hollow Crowned. 

PEPPER. 

Large Sweet. — Good for pickling. 

Lo7ig Cayenne. — Most used for seasoning. 

Red Cherry. — Used green, for pickling. 

PEAS. 

McLean's Little Gem. — Dwarf, and very 
early. Grows only ten inches high. 

Early Dan O Ro^irk. — One of the earliest 
and be.«t. Two and a half feet. 

Bisliop's Dv-arf Long Pod. — Very produc- 
tive and excellent. Grows about one and a 
half feet high. 

Cham.pion of England. — Very rich flavored 
and productive. Late. 

Large White Marrow. — A standard late 
sort. 

PUMPKIN. 

Cashaw. — The best variety for table use. 



of 



RADISH. 

Early Scarlet Short Top. 

Early Rose Olive-Shajied. — Excellent and 
early. 

Erench Breakfast. — Very beautiful 
rapid growth and tender. Best of all. 

KHEUBARB. 

LinnoMs. — A large early sort. 

SPINACU. 

Rou7id Leaved Savoy. 

Large Flanders. — Largest and best. 

SQUASH. 

Early Bush Patty Pan. — The earliest and 
most productive. 

Summer Crooknecked. — Better than the pre- 
ceding, but later. 




Turhan S,ji 

Yokohama. — From Japan, excellent and a 
good keeper. 

Turhan. — A new and excellent sort. 

Hubbard. — A well known excellent squash. 

Boston Marrow. — It is difiicult to get this 
pure. "When pure it is not excelled by any 
variety. 

Canada Crooknecked. — Small, but excellent. 
It often escapes the squash magot when 
others get destroyed. 

TOMATO. 

Tropliy. — New ; very large, smooth and 
solid; the best for general use. 

Di.rie. — Yellow ; of a fine fruity flavor ; 
best in quality. 

Alger. — A distinct and excellent variety. 

Manpay's Suj>erior. — Very good. 

TURNIPS. 

Early Red or Purple Top. — The best for 
early spring and late fall sowing. 

Long White Maltese. — Very quick grow- 
ing, tender and sweet. 

Su-ect Grrntaii. — A white ruta-baga, very 
sweet and line flavored. 

Skirx-ing's Improved Swede. 



Ben Davis' Apple.— Home Decorations for Winter. 
Ben Davis' Apple. 



135 




4 




This fine apple is believed to have originated in Todd County, Kentucky. 
The tree is of vigorous growth, and a constant and abundant bearer. Fruit, 
large, roundish ; skin, beautifully striped, splashed and marbled with bright 
red'' on a yellowish ground; stalk, short, deeply inserted in a deep, narrow, 
uneven cavity ; calyx, closed in a deep basin ; flesh white, sometimes slightly 
tinged with red, tender, jucy, sub-acid, pleasant. It ripens in winter, and 
keeps well. 



Home Decorations for Winter. 



In our genial climate, where every month in the year brings its floral ofl'er- 
ings in the open air of our gardens, there is less inducement, perhaps, than 
in more northern countries, to give our attention to " Parlor Gardening ;" but 
there is no reason why we should not do all we can to make our rooms 
attractive as well as our out-door surroundings. Here are some hints on the 
subject, from the pen of a lady. They were intended for the cold climate of 
New England, but need but little modification to adapt them to our use in 
the " sunny South" : 

FOR SUNNY WINDOWS. 

If your window is sunny there is no limit to the flowers you may have 
from Christmas until the wild ones come again. With two maurandias, one 
white, the other purple, with a high colored dwarf nasturtium, or tropaeo- 
leura, as it is called, an English ivy, and a vigorous plant of German ivy, 
or Senecio scandens, you can make a screen for your window more beautiful 
than any Eaphael or Da Tinci ever.designed, for yours is the perfect origmal 



136 Home Decorations for Winter. 

of their defective representation. The vines should be at the ends of the 
box, so as to be trained on the sides and over the top of the window frame. 
Then close to the glass, for, true to its name, it loves the sun, put a heliotrope 
or two, a trailing winter blooming fuchsia, a scarlet geranium, and for the 
sake of contrast, a white one, whose flowers have a bright eye in the centre. 
Do not be afraid of crowding the plants, but sow mignonette and sweet 
alyssum seed, as well as the tiny ones of Linaria Cymbalraria or Coliseum 
ivy. If not intending to have but one box, do not forget a plant or two of 
the neat, handsomely marked petunias, for they will give you a mass of 
flowers from the first week of blooming until put out in the garden in the 
spring. Yellow myrtle, and the plants commonly called Wandering Jew, 
and ice plant, as well as a variety of saxifrage known as beefsteak geranium, 
may be made to droop over the front of 3'our box, and their graceful si)ray8 
will reach even to the floor if ^-ou wish. 

FOR SHADY WINDOWS. 

But you have no sunny window. Well, then, for a shady one. A box of 
the same kind must still be 3'our resort. In one end insert a healthy tuber 
of Madeira vine, and in the other a well started German ivy, for sun or shade 
it seems to like equally. Then, instead of the flowering plant I have enu- 
merated, go out into the woods, and take up before the frost}' nights have 
enfeebled them, clusters of fern roots, and put them in the centre. You will 
find so many varieties that you will be bewildered, but select over all others 
the lovely Dicksonia, so common by walls, the tiny spleen wort, the enchant- 
ing maiden hair, and the piquant polj'podiums or rock crosses. 

Under the shadow of these ferns you ma}' set rattlesnake plantain, both 
varieties of which ai-e common in our woods, mitchella vine, the odd pitcher 
plant, and hepaticas. The leaves of the latter arc pretty and interesting all 
winter, and very early in spring its lovely blue flowers will gladden you. If 
you shower this box of wild plants once a week, and do not keep your room 
too hot, or let them become too wet, they will tbrm a never-ending source of 
interest to you and your whole household. The manner in which the young 
ferfronds push their way to light, the singular hair}'' furze that envelops 
some, and the intricate folding of others, will afford food for thought and 
topics for conversation, when new books are scarce and the weather too bad 
for friends to visit you. The delicate, wonderful beautiful ferns from the 
tropics, will, with the same care, do nearly as well ; but they are of high cost, 
and 1 have sometimes thought vvhen I have succeeded in domesticating these 
shy people of our woods and swamps, that they put me more immediately in 
sympathy with nature. 

HANGING POTS. 

Besides these boxes, you may have one, two, or oven throe, hanging pots 
in every window, almost without reference to sun, for many plants, suitable 
for this situation, seem indifterent to his presence. The exquisite blue lobelia 
is very impatient of his beams. Smilax, too, popularly supposed to flourish 
only in hot-houses, does well in sunless situations, and is as valuable as beau- 
tiful ; for no daintier adornment to a lady's dress can possibly be desired, 
than its shining leaves and graceful sprays. Be careful and keep off its deadly 
enemy, the red spider ; for so certain as he touches those perfect leaves, their 
beauty is gone. Bemember that eternal vigilance is the price of handsome 
smilax, as well as liberiy, and shower early and late, whenever you can find 
the time. The freely flowering ])ink oxalis cannot be praised too highly for 
a hanging pot. I never knew the bonny, cheerful little creature to harbor 
insects ; and its way of falling asleep at night, and waking in the morning, 



liaising Fruit Trees from Seed. 137 

is irresistibly attractive. Its first cousin, the " oxalis flava," is very hand- 
some, and should bo cultivated at all costs ; but it is chary of its flowers, and 
demands far more care of its possessor. The less common varieties of oxalis, 
sold by florists, are many of them very desirable, both in size and color; hni 
they are comparatively delicate, and, perhaps, in unskilled hands might fail. 

ENGLISH IVY. 

The use of English ivies for the purpose of decorating living rooms, is more 
extensive every year, and can not be too highly commended. lieing very strong, 
they will live through almost any treatment ; but study their peculiarities, 
and manifest a willingness to gratify them and they will grow without stint. 
Most houses are too hot for them, as indeed they are for their owners. Neither 
plants nor people should have the average temperature over sixt^'^-five degrees 
Fahrenheit. Take care and not enfeeble j^our ivies by undue heat or excess- 
ive watering, and you will find that they will not seem to mind whether the 
sun shines on them or not, or in what position or direction you train them. 
Indeed, so much will they do of themselves to render a room charming, that 
I would rather have an unlimited number of them to draw upon, than any- 
thing else in nature or art. Do you wish the ugly plain doors that shut off 
your tiny entry from j^our parlor to be arched or curved, like those in the 
drawing rooms of your richer neighbor? Buy a couple of brackets, such as 
lamps for the burning of kerosene are sometimes placed in, and sci'ew them 
on the sides of the door. Put in each a plant of English ivy, the longer the 
better, then train the plants over the top, against the sides, indeed, any way 
your fancy dictates. You need not buy the beautiful but costly pots the 
flower dealer will advise; common glazed ones will answer every pui'pose, 
for by placing in each two or three sprays of Coliseum ivy, in a month's 
time no vestige of the pot itself can be discerned through their thick screen. 



Raising Fruit Trees from Seed. 

Mr. A. Czerny, of Austria, states, that as the result of long-continued 
observations and experiments, that the strongest and best fruit trees can be 
raised from seed, thus obviating a great deal of expense and disappointment 
to the pomologist. According to his observations, the extent and ramifica- 
tion of the roots of a healthy tree is to that of its crown in the ratio of three 
to two, so that the action of the roots is always prepondering. In this rela- 
tion he finds the reason why fruit seeds from trees, budded or grafted upon 
indifferent stocks, have always been found unreliable, and he endeavors, as 
the first stop, to obtain good trees grown upon their own stock, the seeds of 
which, he says, will reproduce their parents with certainty. To this end he 
layers a branch of a good tree, which, when well rooted, serves him as stock ; 
into which he introduces buds or scions of such varieties as promise to improve 
the original fruit. By judicious cross fertilization he obtains fruit, the seed 
of which will propagate, to a greater or less extent, the good qualities of the 
varieties as used in hybridizing, and thus a new fruit is originated, which, 
when suitable, can always be reproduced from its seed. Such trees, says Mr. 
Czerny, are more healthy and vigorous, (having never been wounded by the 
kuift;,) bear earlier, and when accidentally injured in the stem, throw out 
shoots identical with those of the oriirinal tree. 



138 Flemish Beauty Pear. — Sea Kale — {Cramba 3Iaratlma.) 

Flemish Beauty Pear. 




M'!:' I 



1 

' m 

■'' ('■; i'l'm 



i:l! 11/, !■:;■!"% 



Where soil and situation suit it, the Flemish Beauty is a magnificent pear, 
and fully worthy of its name. The tree is a luxuriant grower, and bears 
early and abundantly. The fruit requires to be gathered and ripened in the 
house. If allowed to remain on the tree, it becomes nearly worthless and 
soon decays. Fruit, large, obovate; skin, a little rough, pale yellow, with 
marblings of light russet, becoming reddish brown at maturity, on the sunny 
side ; stalk, rather short ; calyx, short, open, in a small round basin ; flesh 
yellowish white, not very fine grained, but juicy, melting, sweet, rich and 
slightly musky. 

Sea Kale — (Cramba Maratima.) 

This plant is closely related to the cabbage, and is called by the French le 
chou marin. It is easily cultivated, and we recommend our readers to try it. 

Sea kale flourishes best in a sandy soil, well enriched with decomposed 
vegetable manure, and a top-dressing of salt. Sow the seed in February, 
watering the bed freely if the weather be dr3^ Thin out the plants 



Pruning Grape- Vines. 139 

gradually to two or three inches apart, keeping the bed free from weeds by 
frequent hoeing. In November cover the crowns of the plants with a few 
inches of earth. In the spring, prepare beds as for asparagus, and remove 
your plants in a similar manner, setting them about two feet apart, and cov- 
ering the crown of the root about two inches deep. Water occasionally, if 
the season be dry, and hoe frequently. Allow no plants to go to seed. Early 
in November give the bed two inches of well-rotted manure, forking it over 
lightly at the same time. Now cover the crowns of the plants with three or 
four inches of light soil, or with pure sand if you can readily procure it. The 
bed being thus finished, cover the crowns of the plants with large pots or 
boxes, sinking them one or two inches in the ground, and carefully stopping 
any holes in them. Then procure a quantity of leaves from the woods, mix 
them with about the same quantity of warm stable manure, and cover the 
ground and boxes to the depth of twenty inches. In severe weather throw 
over this some dry litter or boards. The materials will come to a heat in 
two or three weeks ; and in tbi*ee or four weeks more it will be time to ex- 
amine a pot or two, and when the plants are found to have sprouts from six 
to eight inches long, they may be cut for use. Eemove a portion of the earth 
and cut close to the crown, and then replace the box or pot, and the other 
materials, and other shoots will soon appear. The plants will continue in a 
vigorous state of growth for two months, giving you a supply for the table 
nearly the whole winter; and, having your bed once formed, the forcing 
process just described may be repeated every year for fourteen or fifteen 
years. In the spring remove the covering gradually, digging in a few inches 
of the decayed material to strengthen the plant for a future crop. 

To have sea kale without forcing, cover the plants early in the spring with 
eight or ten inches of sand, or fine, light soil. They will produce strong 
shoots, which, on clearing the ground around them, will be found to be of a 
clear white color ; or they may be blanched by covering them deeply with 
oat straw. They are useless unless well blanched. The shoots are cooked 
in the same way as asparagus. 



Pruning Grape- Vines. 



As the grape is now one of the ruling horticultural topics of the times, a 
few brief notes on pruning may at this time be interesting. You might as 
well prescribe one kind of medicine for all diseases, as to lay down a fixed 
rule upon paper for the pruning of vines, as is too common in our books and 
papers represented. While some yield their best results by spurring back 
upon old wood, others do best where the long new canes, with several eyes 
left on every strong lateral, will give the finest fruit. 

I can grow larger bunches on Concord laterals than can possibly be done 
on the main canes. This I observed some years since, and called the atten- 
tion of some horticultural brethren to it. After pruning it a year or more, 
1 was just about making it public through the pres^s, when Mr. Hussman's 
work on the vine came out, wherein the same thing was named. 

The question then is, which kinds are to be treated this or that way? To 



140 Tree Planting — Glutting and Starving, 

this 1 can only say that experience alone must be a guide in different soils 
and climates. But so far as our observation has extended, we will name. I 
can do no better than quote in part from the November number of the Grape 
Culturist, by the editor : 

Concord, Cunningham, Goethe, Hartford, Herbemont, Ives, Louisiana, 
Martha, Maxatawney, Mary Ann, North Carolina Seedling, Telegraph, etc., 
will bear fruit best on laterals of last summer's growth, provided the main 
shoots were pinched at the proper time so as to make the laterals strong. 
Another class produces best on old bearing arms or canes, whose side shoots 
are spurred back. 

Clinton, Cynthiana, Herman, Huntington, Norton's Virginia, and Taylor, 
are of this class ; while a third class, such as Alvey, Cassady, Creveling, 
Catawba, Delaware, lona and Eebecca, will produce best on short canes of 
five to eight eyes, and the old renewal plan will be as good as any for them. 

As to the time of pruning, I never found any difference, from the time the 
leaves fall until near spring, when budding ma}'" be expected. It should never 
be done, however, when the wood is frozen ; and always cut an inch above 
the last eye, or it is liable to fail. 

For years I have advocated a new kind of pruning, which vintners seem 
very slow to adopt. It is simply to prune the bunches also ; that is to leave 
but two (the best of course) where three or four usually set. By this plan 
3'ou will have an equal weight of fruit, and much finer. 



Tree Planting — Glutting and Starving 



In ])lanting trees, the custom has been almost universal — and sanctioned, 
too, b}^ the highest authority — to, first, dig deep holes down into the stiff clay 
or barren sand subsoil, as the case may be, and then fill in with soil that has 
been highl}'- manured — sometimes with manure alone, and covered with soil — 
and then plant the tree in this highly enriched and thoroughly prepared soil, 
while the surrounding soil beyond the limits of these holes is left unmanured 
and uncultivated. Now, what is the consequence? If the subsoil be a stiff 
clay, the hole becomes a receptacle for water, which stands and stagnates at 
the bottom. The roots, at first, stimulated and nurtured bj' the rich soil, put 
forth fibres rapidly, and the tree starts into a sudden and rapid growth. But 
as the roots descend, they soon come in contact with the stagnant water 
which operates as a deadly poison to the roots. The poison is communicated, 
to the ti-ee, which soon sickens and dies. Nothing can be more certain than 
this result. A subsoil of poor barren sand is equally fatal, though from a 
different cause. So long as the roots can revel in the rich and highly pre- 
pared soil, the growth of the tree will be vigorous and healthy. But the 
roots are constantly extending in every direction after food. In their pro- 
gress, they soon pass through the manured soil, and strike the poor and 
unfertilized sand, and here they stop; they cannot penetrate a soil that is 
destitute of the elements necessary to their sustenance — they cannot travel 
without food. Food is what they are in search of; but reach which way they 
will in this barren soil, they find none. The tree, after having been highly 
fed and stimulated to an excessive growth, suddenly' finds itself reduced to a 
state of starvation. Its growth suddenly stops, the leaves turn yellow, the 
tree drags out a sickly existence for a few years, and then dies from starva- 
tion. — Aberdeen Examiner. 



Expense of Brmglng an Acre of Grapes into Bearing. 141 

Expense of Bringing an Acre of Grapes into Bearing. 

• A writer in an exchange, the name of which we have unfortunately lost, 
furnishes a few items from his own experience on this point : 

Averaj^e cost of land per acre ^100 00 

Avera'<)je cost of plants per acre 40 W) 

Eepairing ground, subsoiling, etc 10 UO 

Setting plants, and work, first year "» OU 

Interest _1!!_^_ 

Cost at the end of Brst year S185 00 

Work, second year 20 00 

Interest ___ 

Cost at the end of second year ^218 00 

Trellis, third year ^^ 00 

Work, third year 5^ "^ 

Interest _^__ 

$380 00 
Deduct one ton grapes, at 8 cents net 160 00 

Cost at the end of third year $220 00 

COST AFTER THIRD TEAR, PER ACRE, EACH YEAR. 

Tying up, seven days $ 1J[ ^[J 

Cultivating, man and horse, three days J ^^ 

Hoeing, six days ^ ^J[ 

Pinching, thinning, rubbing out, etc., five days ^ oU 

Picking, two tons, eight days 1- OU 

Pruning, five days ^^ "^ 

Twine, and willow, for tying J "^ 

Interest on $300 • ^} ^^ 

r> • ^ 5 00 

Kepairs 

Total expense per year ^ 8o 00 

Two tons marketable grapes, at 8 cents net ^-" "^ 

Net profit per acre $235 00 



Horticultural Miscellany. 



HORSE RADISH, (CocMearia Armor acia.) 
The horse radish grows best in a rich, moist soil, contiguous to water, but 
may be cultivated in almost any situation. It is propagated by sets from the 
root which may be dropped into holes made with a dibble fifteen inches deep, 
in soil previously trenched or deeply spaded. Fill up the holes with fine 
earth The plants should stand about ten inches apart. It may be planted 
either in spring or in November. In taking up the roots for use, JO" i^ay 
leave a small jDortion at the bottom to serve as a new set. In the tall, litt 
enough for winter use, and leave the rest in the ground. It is an excellent 



142 Sheep Pasturage in the South. 

condiment. The root is scraped into shreds, or grated fine, and eaten with 
vinegar. 

HOW DEEP TO PLANT BULBS. 

Hyacinths, large lilies, and pseonias should be set four inches from the 
crown ; crown imperials and polyanthus narcissus five inches; tulips, double 
narcissus, jonquils, and colchicums three inches; bulbous iris, crocus, small 
fritellarias, gladiolus, bj^zantiums and snowdrops two inches; rancunulus and 
anemones one inch. The bed should be protected in winter, where liable to 
hard freezes, with straw, hay, loose manure or spent tan, which, of course, is 
to be removed in the spring and the upper soil carefully stirred and pul- 
verized. Those who will not give due attention to their bulbs must not look 
for perfect flowers and plenty of them. 

ROTATION OF CROPS IN GARDENS. 

Why rotation of crops is beneficial has been shown in previous numbers, 
and if the reader has forgotten, let him turn back to them. The following 
is a good rotation for a given portion of a garden : 

First year, cabbages. 

Second year, onions. 

Third year, carrots, beets or parsnips. 

Fourth year, potatoes or turnips. 

Fifth year, celery, spinach, or lettuce. 



lakg anb §tock gcpartmcnt. 



Sheep Pasturage in the South. 



Stock-breeding must go in that direction where it can be most profitably 
pursued. The rigors of the winter season, requiring expensive preparations 
for shelter and a large accumulation of forage for a winter supply for stock, 
together with the shortness of the pasturing season, are a sad drawback upon 
the available sources of profit to the I^orthern farmer. The foddering season 
north of the Potomac cannot be regarded less than seven months, say from 
the middle of November to the middle of May. There is, therefore, compara- 
tivel}' small space of time that farmers are not compelled to be engaged in 
preparing and housing food, or in feeding it out to domestic animals. If we 
have to hire help in doing either, the expense is seriously enhanced. 

When the sheep is properly handled it pays for this outlay much more 
rapidly than the larger animals, unless they are more available in the dairy. 
Stall feeding is more or less expensive, and furnishes but a precarious return, 
by reason of the greater amount of food consumed in a cold than in a warm 
season to fatten the animal. 

It is, therefore, evident that the South and Southwest, with a more genial 
climate and increased facilities for cheap and rapid transit, must soon become 
the great stock-breeding centre of the Union. 

In no section can animals be kept so cheaply, and as the people begin to 
diversify their agriculture, and comprehend the great importance of more 



Sheep Pasturage in the South. 143 

domestic animals, they will find no competitors in that branch of husbandry. 
Even before the war, and with no particular thought of their importance, 
the numbers of cattle, sheep and swino bred in the Cotton States bore no insig- 
nificant proportion to the whole number bred in the Union. Beginning with 
a three or four months' winter in Virginia and Maryland, finding a month in 
Geor£ria, and even less in Alabama, and none in Florida and Louisiana and 
lower or tide-water Texas, the farmers had little trouble to increase their 
flocks and herds to any desirable extent. The only limit was in their 
unskilled and unreliable labor. The habits of the slave, and even the master, 
were averse to that patient, persistent care which is ever necessary to success- 
ful stock husbandry. Some idea maj' be formed of the wonderful resources 
which are possessed there, when it is known that thousands of head of cattle 
and hogs are wintered and even fattened in the cane-brakes which line the 
rivers and fill the swamps of the whole tide-water region of the South, clear 
to the Eio Grande. Sheep, with little care, can be kept nearly or quite as 
easily. 

But for the purposes of stall-feeding, no section of the country can begin to 
compare with the South. To a Northern man, its resources in the production 
of vegetable matter are perfectly amazing. Then, too, the manure made in 
the barn-yard has double the value there that it has here. The successful 
cultivation of cotton depends upon filling the light, quick soil of the South 
with carbonaceous matter, of which none is so valuable as barn-yard manure. 
There they require no expensive building as we do at the North, to practice 
this species of farming. They require shelter for their animals, it is true, but 
only such as will keep them out of the rain-storms, which are so troublesome 
during the winter. Roots can be grown to an unlimited extent, and carted at 
all seasons from the fields to the stalls, or fed off with great advantage by 
sheep, upon the hurdle plan adopted in England, and the ground prepared for 
corn or for cotton. Cheap cotton can only be grown by confining the culti- 
vation to smaller surface and adopting a system of high manuring with 
stable-dung and phosphates. 

But it may be objected to that the grasses cannot be found in the South to 
make it possible to graze the domestic animals. This is one of the most 
erroneous of the many erroneous opinions which Northern men have formed 
of the South. Nowhere can herbage fit for pasturage be produced in greater 
abundance. Their inevitable " cotton and nigger " system was opposed to 
encouraging grass. But let one examine a plantation which had been 
neglected during the planting season, and he would soon discover that there 
was nowhere such a growth of succulent vegetable animal food, and upon 
which animals could thrive so rapidly, as in the half-cultivated cotton or corn 
field. This very habit was condemned both by master and man, for it neces- 
sitated so much labor to keep the fields clean. 

The spread of some of their most valuable grasses, like the Bermuda grass, 
was fought with the utmost obstinacy. They preferred to see their fields 
washed and gullied into shapeless ravines to permitting nature to clothe 



144 Fish Culture in Alabama. 

them with valuable and protecting swards. If there were millions of acres, 
where only sedge and old field pine now is, covered with the indigenous 
grasses of the South, there would be good pasturage for thousands of sheep 
and cattle where there are none now. I think the propagation of the Ber- 
muda grass will be found a priceless boon to the whole South, and that much 
of its future prosperity will turn on the abundance of that grass as a pas- 
turage, especially for sheep. I know this would be called a heterodox opin- 
ion by many of the old-time farmers, but still they may change their minds 
with the changed condition of their agriculture. 

Hon. T. C. PETERS, in Hearth and Home. 



Fish Culture in Alabama. 



The following is the report of the Committee on Pisciculture of the East 
Alabama Agricultural Society, presented at a late meeting at Opelika: 

The Committee appointed by the East Alabama Agricultural Society, to 
visit the fish ponds of Wm. Penn Yonge, of Lee County, have the honor of 
reporting that we have fulfilled our mission with pleasure and profit to our- 
selves, and, we trust, instruction to the community in which we live. 

Your committee were well aware that Col. Yonge was successful in raising 
fish before this official visit. But as the object of the Society was to ascer- 
tain the cost, and practicability of grafting fish culture into the agricultural 
labors of the sunny South, we entered upon our duties coolly, calmly and dis- 
passionately. And from minute and careful examination, we are satisfied 
that fish can be raised in Alabama cheaper than poultry. 

Col. Yonge started his pond some twelve years ago, as a matter of orna- 
ment and recreation, without any regard to stocking it with any particular 
variety of fish. But nature in our favored clime is so bountiful, that almost 
before he was aware of it the waters were teeming with trout, perch and 
sucker. He assures your committee that he has never put a fish into the 
pond. Your committee are satisfied that any farmer who has a bold spring, 
or a never-failing branch running through his grounds, may have a fish pond 
filled with living fish at a very trifling cost. It is not important to the suc- 
cessful culture of fish that the pond should be laid out in islands, inlets and 
bays, or that the borders should be ornamented with flowers. 

Wherever a body of water can be controlled, there fish will breed and mul- 
tiply. Your committee have seen the almost stagnant water in the brick- 
yards of Columbus, Ga., swarming with the finest of perch. Should there 
be but one favorable locality in a community, township or county, for fish 
ponds on a largo scale, and an enterprising person will take hold and raise 
fish for the market, ho will enrich himself, become a benefactor; for whoever 
produces and cheapens human food is a benefactor to his race. The ease and 
facility with which fish can be raised at the South is much greater than at 
the North, our genial clirao producing so many more of the insect tribes, 
both in the water and in the air, which are the natural food of fish. Col. 
Yonge assured your committee that ho had never fed his fish, and yet his 
ponds were literally alive with trout, varying in size from half pound to ten 
pounds in weight, suckers or red-horse nearly as large, with all the varieties 
of perch, from minnow size up to the largest pan fish. And we are satisfied 
that had ho fed them, as practiced in the Northern market fish ponds, they 



Fish Culture in Alabama. 145 

would have increased in size with greater rapidity, doubling their weight, 
nnd that he might have made his fish ponds a greater source ot revenue than 
his lime works Yet with all the care and facility of fish raising, we learned 
that it had its drawbacks. These Col. Yonge had experienced and now has 
remedies The ditterent varieties of fish do not increase rapidly togethei as 
they are constantly preying upon each other A pond cannot be stocked 
with any of the fine fish where the jack or pike abounds 

Nor can the trout, perch and sucker be raised profitably together. That 
thov are often found in large nuoibers in the stream or pond, is no proof that 
it is profitable to grow them together. The sucker, with its hog-l.ke snout, 
roots on the sand-beds and destroys the eggs of any fish he may find depos- 
ited there It has been estimated by scientific men, that were the fish in the 
Atlantic ocean left to themselves, free to breed without preying upon each 
other in three years their numbers would be so great that a vessel could not 
sail upon its bosom. Now to make fish culture profitable, we niust stop this 
preyincr upon each other. This fish breeders have done. This Col. Yonge is 
doim>- "" The eggs or spawn of each variety are placed in separate hatching 
pond's and the young are fed until such times as they are able to take care ot 
themselves, when they are turned into large ponds together. 

In this manner a good portion of the eggs hatched are raised to mature 
fish The fish breeder understands the nature and manner of the fash in 
making their nests to deposit their eggs, as well as the poultry man has 
knowledge of his hens' nests. Col. Yonge pointed out to us numbers of beds 
in the sandy bottom of the pond, with the parent fish watching around with 
iealous care The eggs from these beds can be taken up, separated from the 
iands, enveloped in dSmp moss, and transported to any part of the country 
where there is an express agency with perfect safety, where those who would 
experiment in culture may bed them in their streams or ponds, and raise 
their own fish. Many of the New England States have appointed fish com- 
missioners, whose business is to propagate fish and distribute their spawn for 
others to propagate from. They have brought the spawn of fish from far 
distant waters, and naturalized them to the waters of New England, where 
fish culture has become a regular adjunct of rural life 

Now if fish can be raised with profit in the bleak climate of New England, 
where the ponds must be frozen one-third of the year, how much greater 
the profit in our sunny clime, where ice never obstructs, and insect life, the 
natural food of fish, swarms in and around the waters. From the observa- 
tions we have made, and the facts we have elicited, we deem it a legitimate 
business for our Agricultural Society to memorialize the Legislature to ap- 
point a suitable cSmmissioner, and we know of no one so proper as Wm 
Penn Yonge, who has had so many years experience, and is faniihar with all 
the methods practiced both in Europe and America, in the breeding and 
raising fish. In closing our report, we reiterate that we believe fish can be 
raised in Alabama, in private ponds, as cheap, or cheaper than poultry and 
we would recommend every farmer that owns a spring or sheet of watei, to 
prepare a breeding place, and stock the waters with fish. 

Eespectfully, ^^^^^-^g ^ PEABODY, ) Committee 
G. P. HARBISON, J ^«"^""^^^^- 



COUGU IN Horses.— Tar water sprinkled over their fodder and mixed with 
their grain, it is said, will cure the cough in horses. 
No. 3, Vol. 3. 11 



146 The Rouen Duck. 



The Rouen Duck. 



The following are the "points" in the Rouen breed of ducks, according to 
" The American Standard of Excellence :" 

Drake. — Bill, long, broad, and rather wider at the top than at the base ; 
when viewed sideways, nearly straight from the crown of the head to the 
tip of the bill J the longer the better; color, greenish yellow, without any 
other color except the black beau at the tip; head, long and fine, rich lusti'ous 
green ; eye, dark hazel ; neck, long, slender and neatly curved ; color, the 
same lustrous green as the head, with a distinct white ring on the lower part 
not quite meeting at the back ; breast, broad and deep ; the front part very 
rich purplish brown or claret color, free from any feathers; the claret color 
extending as far back as possible towards the legs; back, long; higher part 
ashy gray, mixed with green, becoming rich lustrous green on the lower part 
and rump ; shoulders coverts, gray, finely streaked with waving brown lines ; 
wings, grayish brown, mixed with green, with a broad ribbon mark of rich 
purple, with metallic reflections of blue and green and edged with white ; 
the two colors quite distinct; flight feathers, dark, dusky brown, quite fi"ee 
from white; under part of body and sides beautiful gray, becoming lighter 
gray near the vent and ending in solid black under the tail ; tail feathers 
hard and stiff, dark ashy brown ; the outer web in old- birds edged with white; 
tail coverts, curled feathers hard and well curled ; black with very rich pur- 
ple reflections ; legs and feet, orange with a tinge of brown. 

Duck. — Bill, broad, long, and sometimes flat, brownish orange with a dark 
blotch on the upper part; head, long and fine; deep brown, with two light 
pale brown stripes on each side from the bill past the eye ; neck, long, slender 
and neatly curved; light brown penciled with darker brown, and quite free 
from the least appearance of a white ring ; breast, underpart of body and 
sides, grayish brown, each feather marked distinctly with a rich dark brown 
penciling; back, long, light brown, richly marked with green; wings, gray- 
ish brown mixed with green, with a broad ribbon mark of rich purple edged 
with white, the two colors distinct ; flight feathers, brown, perfectly free 
from white; tail coverts, brown, beautifully penciled with broad distinct pen- 
ciling of dark greenish brown ; tail, light brown with distinct broad wavy- 
penciling of dark greenish brown ; legs, orange or brown and orange. — [_See 
Frontispiece.'] 



The Remedy for Cabbage "Worm. — Insert a small bunch of pennyroyal in 
the bud of the cabbage about once a week, commencing on or before the first 
appearance of the worms. It is a sure preventive. This is no mere hearsay, 
but my own experience. — D. B. H., in Nashville Union and American. 



How to Prepare Palmetto Leaves for Shipment. 147 

lepartmcnt of fflining miH l^c ^wljanic |i'ls. 



How to Prepare Palmetto Leaves for Shipment. 

Alexander McKae, commercial agent, Liverpool, England, gives the follow- 
ing directions for gathering, curing, packing and shipping these leaves. Mr. 
McRae states that they should be cut and gathered when fully grown, with 
six or eight inches of the leafstalk left on. They should then be dried in 
the shade, where the air circulates freely, and be prevented from warping or 
twisting too much by being occasionally piled one upon another, and pressed 
by a moderately heavy piece of plank or other weight. When fully dried 
they should be tied, compactly, in bundles of forty to fifty leaves, and these 
bundles afterwards made up into bales like cotton, of suitable size and weight 
for handling and shipping. A long, open, airy shed, with a tight roof, should 
be provided for drying and baling the leaves ; and this shed should be fitted 
up with tiers of open racks, from floor to roof, constructed after the manner 
of houses for drying the brush of broom-corn. These racks, of open slats, one 
above the other, may be six or eight inches apart and three feet wide, with 
passages between. In gathering the leaves, handle carefully, piling the fans 
one upon the other in the cart or wagon, taking care not to split or " fray " 
the webs. The largest and most perfect leaves are, of course, most valuable, 
and they should be sized and sorted before baling. The drying process must 
not be carried forward too fast ; nor should the leaves be allowed to get wet 
while drying, as this will render them brittle and impair their value. 

Gin Gearing. 

One of the heaviest items in plantation economy is the threshing of the 
grain and the ginning of the cotton crop. " I would rather make a cotton 
crop than gin it," is a common remark among planters. This is all owing to 
the defective machinery used in ginning. We have very few mechanics who 
understand the principles of construction. A makes his wheels according to 
the rule he learned from B, and B, probably, laid off his wheel by the rule of 
guess, a very common rule among mechanics. Unfortunately, our intelligent 
planters have never put themselves to the trouble to look into this matter, 
and people have been going on in the same old ruts lo ! these many years ! 
Since the war the necessity for a better and more economical way of getting 
on has forced itself upon them, and the best evidence of their ignorance of 
the subject may be found in the furor with which they have run after every 
new fangled invention. The advertising columns of our papers are filled 
with all manner of captivating " horse powers." Presses and other machin- 
ery which are not adapted to our wants, and soon will be consigned to the 
ffreat lumber room of failures. 



148 . Cotton Seed Oil. 

The great secret is proportion. The cog wheel, the trundle head, the 
band wheel, and the gin whirl should all bear a just proportion. Speed can 
only be increased by a sacrifice of power, and the more complex your ma- 
chinery the more friction to be overcome, and the greater difficulty of keep- 
ing it in ordei'. We know some two or three gin gearing that have been in 
constant use for forty years and have required very little repairs, running all 
the while like a top, and we know scores that have thumped and bumped their 
time out in a few years, a constant annoyance and strain upon man and 
beast. We used to send for a mechanic when we started our gin. It was a 
source of enjoyment to watch his operations. He would move the gin for- 
ward, then backward, then sideways, then he would raise one side, then the 
other, now he would wedge up this corner then that, now he would tighten 
the band, then he would go below and thump around generally at cog wheel, 
band wheel, and trundle ; at last, by some lucky lick in the right place, the 
whole thing would go off in a whirr, and ho would pronounce it all right, and 
all would be wrong again maybe before he was out of sight. Now we do our 
own thumping, and generally begin below stairs. If the gearing is true 
below it will not be found difficult to run the machine. We would like to 
draw some of our experts out on this subject. 

PEO BONO PTJBLICO. 



Cotton Seed Oil. 



The uses to which Cotton Seed Oil is applied are constantly increasing, and 
the demand has already become so general that as an article of commerce it 
is receiving great attention. It can be used for most purposes for which 
other oils are used, and also for many other purposes for which they cannot 
be made available to advantage. 

Cotton Seed Oil is sweet and palatable, and a very large proportion of the 
olive oil now consumed in this country is either pure cotton seed oil, or else 
a mixture of the two. The most shameless adulterations, however, are prac- 
ticed, and a mixture of lard oil and cotton seed oil are palmed off upon buy- 
ers ibr genuine sweet oil. Many of these preparations are put up in this 
country, with counterfeit foreign labels. Large quanties are also exported to 
Marseilles, to return to this country in bottles, or one-half of the contents of 
the invoices are genuine olive oil, and the balance an imitation, or spurious 
compound. 

Cotton Seed Oil can be used for mixing paints, and answers a very good 
purpose as a substitute for Linseed. As a lubricator it is objectionable, for 
the reason that it gums up badly; but when some inventor shall extract from 
the liquid its superfluous gum, it will answer all the purposes that may be 
required. When refined, it is a superior illuminating oil, and is said to be 
superior to the best strained lard oil. 

Cotton Seed Oil is also used to great advantage for cutting bolts, for tobacco 
manufacturers' use, for making soap, as a mixture for toilet preparations for 
the hair, and for ointments and medicines. \ 

A careful analysis of cotton seed shows that it contains thirty-seven per 
cent, of oil ; thirly-four per cent, of albumen ; eleven per cent, of gum; seven 
per cent, of fibre ; six per cent, of water, and seven per cent, of mineral mat- 



Our Insect Friends. 149 

ter. A ton of unhullod cotton seed yields about thirty-fivo gallons of crude 
cotton seed oil, and seven hundred pounds of oil cake ; but it requires great 
h^'draulic pressure to express the oil from the seed, and in the present state of 
the mills used for this purpose, the cost of machinery and labor renders the 
process one of great trouble and expense. It is said that no oil mill can bo 
profitably worked that has not a capital employed in its management of 
about §50,000. 

Eefined Cotton Seed Oil is now quoted in the New York market at 75@80 
cents per gallon. 



it|JiU*tmtttt uf Jiutiirul fiistorj). 



Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Bural 
Carolinian, for October, 1870,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles E. Dodge, Washington, D. C. 



Our Insect Friends. 



It has been said that the common good of this earth requires that all things 
endowed with vegetable and animal life, should bear certain proportions to 
each other, and when a certain specie exceeds that proportion it is no longer 
beneficial, but becomes noxious. Thus, insects preying upon plants do their 
share in keeping down, to a certain extent, superfluous growth, and when a 
plant is taken from its natural state and placed under cultivation by man for 
his use, the same economy of nature will go on, and as the insect is then 
injurious that before was simply aiding in caiTying out a great law of nature, 
it is his business to find proper means for preventing what must be taken as 
a natural consequence. 

The task is a hard one, but how much harder would it have been had not 
an All-wise Creator given us certain checks to operate against these insects 
when they become too numerous? Man may do all in his power to rid him- 
self of these pests, for such they become when we take a dollars-and-cents 
view of the case, but how little is really accomplished without the aid of 
these natural checks ? And what are they ? In the first place, the birds do 
a great service by destroying myriads of insects in all stages of existence ; 
and they should, therefore, be protected and encouraged. But the birds are 
insufficient for the task, and so certain species of insects have been created to 
prey upon the noxious kinds, and, in a measure, hold them in check, or pre- 
vent them from becoming too destructive, and it is our design in the follow- 
ing pages, to point out to our readers these their best of friends, so that they 
may be able in future to i*ecognize and protect them. 

Beneficial insects may be divided into four groups, as follows : Those that 
prey upon other insects, 

1st. While in the larval state. 



150 Our Insect Friends. 

2d. In the larval and perfect states. 

3d. In the perfect state only. 

4th. In all stages of existence. 

Sometimes leaf-eating insects are denominated beneficial when they feed 
upon noxious weeds, as for example the larva of the thistle butterfly, (Cyn- 
thia cardui,) but, strictly speaking, they must bo classed with vegetable 
feeders. 

A greater number of the insects that are beneficial in the larval state be- 
long to the order Hijmenoptera, and are included in the Ichneumonidx. It is 
estimated that we have nearly two thousand species of ichneumon-flies in 
this country, and the number of caterpillars and other insects annually de- 
stroyed by this one family must be enormous. Their manner of attacking a 
caterpillar is as follows: The parent insect deposits her eggs on the body of 
the worm — generally on the back of the neck — these soon hatch, and the 
young larvffi penetrate the skin into the body of its hapless victim, and there 
live, feeding upon the fatty matter, and carefully avoiding the vital parts, 
till full grown ; they then come through the skin and change to pupae, and, 
finally, emerge perfect ichneumon-flies. In appearance they somewhat re- 
semble wasps, and are readily recognized by their long slender bodies. Our 
largest ichneumons belong to the genus Pimpla, and deposit their eggs in 
wood-boring larvffi. They may be known by their slender ovipositors often 
measuring three or four inches in length. 

The large green caterpillars of the Sphingidce, (the tobacco worm and simi- 
lar insects,) are often attacked by a minute inchneumon, belonging to the 
genus Microgaster, the larvae of which make their cocoons on the outside of 
the skin of the caterpillar that has served them for food, after it has made 
its last moult. The cocoons are white, oval, and less than a quarter of an 
inch in length, and stand on end, closely crowded together. Eiley estimates 
that three out of every four, of a species of vine Sphinx, are destroyed by 
this parasite. 

From a number of cabbage caterpillars received last fall, not one of which 
ever completed its transformations, hundreds of minute hymenopterous 
insects were bred, and though not yet determined, they, doubtless, belong to 
the genus Pteromalus, which deposit their eggs in the larvae of butterflies. 
Aphidius is parasitic in the bodies of plant lice, and is a most valuable ally. 
The dead aphids may frequently be seen on the underside of leaves, with 
their bodies expanded to twice the usual size. 

A species of Platygaster (which are minute egg-parasites) destroys the 
eggs of the canker-worm. Anisopteryx vernata and the eggs of other species 
are destroyed in a similar manner. The Hessian fly is destroj'^ed in the 
flax-seed or pupa state, according to Harris, by one of these egg-parasites, 
which deposits three or four eggs in the egg of the fly. 

The Chalcididoi are insects of small size, often brilliantly colored, bronzcn 
or metallic, and are parasitic in eggs and larvae. Pteromalus, mentioned 
above, belongs to this family. 




Col. Yonge's System of Fish Culture. 151 

Among tho flies, (Biptera,) there are a number of species 
that have the same habits as the iehneumonida). These 
belong to the genus Tachina, and closely resemble the 
common house fly. Figure 1 was bred from specimens of tho 
hateful grasshopper, Caloptenus spretus, which it destroys. 
Nine individuals of a similar species were bred from a mantis that took up 
its abode last fall on the "writer's office desk. Tho pupa> of the largo Attacus 
moths are sometimes completely filled with these parasites, and many other 
insects are destroyed by them. T. doryphorcv prays upon the larvie of the 
Colorado potato bug. The genus Anthrax is parasitic, in the larval state, on 
bees. 

Even some of the coleopterous larvffi are parasitic in 
their habits. The family lihepiphoridcc (in Europe) are 
said to be parasitic on bees and wasps. 

The Stylopidoi are a very singular family of beetles, 
that do not resemble beetles at all, and are parasitic on 
bees. Figure 2 is an European sp. Xenos peckii. 

We have been considering thus far only true para- 
^^ff- ^- sites, which feed upon the living insect, only destroy- 

ing it when it has attained its full growth, and before it has changed to the 
perfect insect. In our next we shall speak of those parasitic larvse that kill 
their prey in the act of devouring it. 




Col. Yonge's System of Fish Culture. 



In another place we publish the report of the committee appointed by the 
East Alabama Agricultural Association to visit Col. Yonge's fish ponds. 
Here are some additional particulars in relation to the system of breeding 
there practiced, which is taken from the Montgomery Mail : 

Col. Yonge has never stocked his lake with fish. He discovered the springs, 
trained the waters into the reservoirs, and the fish appeared spontaneously. 
It is not for us to say where they came from. We leave all that to Darwin 
and Agassiz. They came just as fish come in brick-yard puddles, in wells, 
and in the ditches around the old fortification; just as pines come up in old 
fields, and just as oaks grow up when the pines are cut down ; and just as 
the so-called Japanese clover has sprung up all over the South. These special 
plants and fish need no transplanting or transportation. They just grow of 
their own accord, as Topsy did. 

With the thirty springs which feed his lake, Col. Yonge proposes to form 
thirty different primaiy reservoirs for spawning the different varieties offish 
which may be adapted to our temperature. On a small scale he has already 
practically illustrated the plan which he now submits to the East Alabama 
Agricultural Association, and which he proposes to the farmers of the State 
as a most valuable addition to their home productions. When the spawning 
season arrives, the trout or bream, as the case may be, is caught and trans- 
ported to tho primary fountain reservoir appropriated to that variety, where 
the spawn is deposited. The parent fish are then allowed to escape by raising 
the wire door and letting them pass down into the lake. The spawn produce 



152 Shad in the Hudson. * 

thousands of young. At a certain ago, say six mouths, the gate is raised 
and they all pass down into reservior No. 2, where they remain and grow to 
the age of one year. They then pass to reservoir ISo. 3, where they reach 
the age of two years. They are then introduced into the great lake, where 
their great size and strength save them from being made the prey of their 
cannibal kinsmen. If, however, the spawn were deposited in the lake, great 
part would become the prey of suckers, eels, turtles, etc., and that which 
developed it into young would suffer another loss by being preyed upon by 
larger fish of their own variety ; so that but a small proportion of the eggs 
would ever reach maturity. But, by removing the spawn to the fountain 
sources, protecting the young, separating the varieties, and permitting only 
those of the same age to mingle together, the production is vastly increased, 
and the sale of fish becomes a matter of great pecuniary profit. 

Most persons have springs of more or less volume, and of the proper tem- 
perature, on their premises, and generally near their dwellings. The labor of 
preparing ponds and lakes would be cheap, as it could be done at such seasons 
as not to interfere with ordinary farm work. There is no reason why the 
experiments made by Col. Yonge, resulting in such marked success, may 
not bo tried by every farmer and planter. 



Shad in the Hudson. 



The propagation of shad in the Hudson Eiver has been prosecuted under 
the Commissioners of Fisheries this year with energy and success. The num- 
ber of young shad brought fourth and turned into the river may be counted 
by millions. The season has now closed. The temperature of the water has 
risen above eighty, and put an end to the hatching operations. The place 
selected for operations was Mull's Fishery, some ten miles below Albany. 
To that place the agents employed with the requisite apparatus repaired and 
encamped about the middle of May and remained till the 6th of July. Owing 
to the increase of shad by the work of former years, there was less difficulty 
in obtaining the parent fish for propagation. The catching of the shad and 
the manipulation is all done in the night — generally between the hours of 
nine and two. A large proportion of the shad taken were unripe or unfit for 
production. 

M. A. Green, who has given his personal attention to the operations at 
Mull's, reports that on the night of May 15 he caught forty shad, of which 
only thi-ee were ripe, and from these he took 60,000 spawn. The tempera- 
ture of the water ranged from 60° to 68°. On the 20th he took seven ripe 
shad, which produced 1-40,000 spawn. On several occasions over 300,000 
spawn were taken in a single nig^ht. . On the 5th of July the water was 
above 80°, and no shad were taken. About 240,000 young shad were turned 
loose, and this closed operations on the Iludson for the season. The total of 
spawn taken was 8,335,000, from which 7,823,000 shad were produced, and 
turned into the river. Three years from this spring these shad will bo large 
enough for market, and at that time the catch in the Hudson will be so large 
that the shad will be sold at very low figures. Enough has been done in the 
way of shad culture on the Hudson in the past too seasons to make a marked 
ditferencc in the yield in the two succeeding seasons. The practical results 
offish culture may now be realized. 



YOL. III.] 



THE RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



CHARLESTON, S. C, DECEMBER, 1871. 



[No. III. 



" Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science." 



D. H. JACQUES, Editor. 



OUR STATE PAIR 

Neither the time nor the space at our com- 
mand at present, will permit a dotailod ac- 
count of the Fair at Columbia, but as the 
proceedings, list of premiums, etc., will be 
published in pamphlet form and widely cir- 
culated among our readers, the brevity of 
our remarks here need not be a matter for 
regret. 

So long as our State Fair brings together 
so many planters, farmers, stock raisers and 
mechanics from all parts of the State, excites 
90 lively an interest, and calls out so much 
good feeling and kind sympathy, it can never 
be considered a failure, whatever may be the 
character of the exhibition itself. In these 
respects the late Fair was all that could be 
desired. There was a large attendance, the 
spirit of the assemblage was excellent, and 
the interchange of experience and opinion 
free and cordial. If anybody went to the 
Fair without learning something and being 
profited thereby, it must have been his own 
fault. 

In some departments, the exhibition was 
not altogether what it might and should have 
been, and we trust that, seeing where the 
deficiencies were, our people will make them 
good next year by an extra display. The 
mechanical department was not well filled, 
and the exhibitors of produce were too few. 
The produce of all kinds exhibited was ex- 
ceedingly creditable to the State, but there 
should have been more competition. Three 
or four counties must not be allowed to carry 
off all the premiums. Come up planters and 
farmers, and planters' and farmers' wives 
and daughters, from all parts of the State, 
and show us what you cau do. Show the 
premium takers of this year that you can 

No. 3, Vol. 3. 12 



compete with them successfully if you will 
only try ; and you can do it. All honor to 
those who got premiums, but let us not infer 
that nobody else can show equally deserving 
articles. The fault is, they do not try. 

The stock department of the Fair was most 
decidedly successful and creditable to the 
State. We have seen nothing in a long time 
that has gratified us so much. In every branch 
there was an excellent show. Hogs, sheep, 
cattle, mules and horses, were alike nobly 
represented. South Carolina may well be 
proud of the display. We should be glad to 
particularize here, but could do no justice to 
the fine animals exhibited in the few words 
we could devote to them. Our stock raisers 
(we wish their number were greater) are on 
the right track. They have only to perse- 
vere. 

The ladies did their part nobly in the house- 
hold and fancy work departments, making 
their specialties among the most interesting 
parts of the exhibition ; but here, too, the 
number of competitors should have been 
larger, and the ladies must make up their 
minds to come out in their full strength next 
year with their butter, their lard, their 
pickles, preserves, dried fruit, etc. They 
have done well, but they can do better still, 
and they will do so. 

While we congratulate the Society and the 
State on the success of this year's Fair, we 
have full faith that this is only the small 
beginning, and as nothing compared with 
what we can and shall do in the future. 



THE COTTON CROP. 

The November returns of the Department 
of x\griculture, relative to the condition of 
the cotton crop, are more favorable than had 



154 



The Rural Carolinian. 



been expected from the tenor of the previous 
reports. 

There had been no killing frosts up to the 
date of these reports. In the rich and well 
cultivated soils of the lower tier of States the 
plant was as green and vigorous as in sum- 
mer. In some places the top crop was matur- 
ing, though complaints of the immaturity or 
loss of the later growth are quite general. 
In the latitude of Middle Georgia, the squares 
formed between August 25th and September 
25th, under favorable circumstances, promise 
to make good cotton. The principal cause 
of the reduction of yield in Texas is drought ; 
in Louisiana, drought, insects and black rot ; 
in Mississippi, wet weather in the spring, 
drought in summer, and, in isolated sections, 
the caterpillar or boll worm ; in Florida, 
driving winds and floods, which occasioned 
nearly the total destruction of considerable 
areas, and drought has wrought more or less 
injury in Alabama, Georgia and South Caro- 
lina. The yield per acre, as indicated by 
county estimates, is largest in Arkansas, de- 
creasing in the following order : Texas, Ten- 
nessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Caro- 
lina, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and 
Florida. 

The November and December returns of 
the bureau will be issued together, and will 
contain the substance of all cotton reports up 
to December 1st. 



As regards emigrants, we can assure you 
that there are no better and nobler set of men 
than the farmers' sons, gardeners, etc., of 
this country, and now that the Alabama 
business is as good as settled, wo can send 
you jufft as 7naiiy of tlie very bent of thene peo- 
ple an you can hfuidle. Some have just enough, 
to pay passage, others not enough, requiring 
aid .sfiy to the extent of $10 eacli, to be paid 
out of their wages. Some have a few pounds 
to spare; again, some others have quite a 
pretty amount of money, say §250 to $1,600. 
Some even $2,000 to $5,000. 

Now, if we can get you to aid some, say to 
the extent of ten dollars per head — that is 
per adult — to be afterwards repaid, and for 
which we take a due bill, (to be sent to you,) 
payable on demand, you can have all the 
good, square, honest, capable, sober, intelli- 
gent, hard-working people you want. 

Can we say more? We send none whose 
capacity and character are not good, and this 
we take care of. Among the thousands we 
send, we think it would be difficult to find a 
bad character. It is the cream, the bone and 
sinew we select, not the profligate, worthless 
or indolent. 

We shall be happy to do all we can to 
serve the purpose you have in view, and will 
send the people to you by our line of steam- 
ships running to Norft)lk and Baltimore, and 
forward them to Charleston by rail, unless 
you prefer sending some one to Norfolk to 
meet and take parties on to Charleston. Let 
us hear from you at j-our early convenience, 
and let us hear all you can do and will do for 
such people, as we may send you. 

***** 

We remain, dear sirs, yours faithfully, 
(Signed.) Reed & Keim. 



ENGLISH IMMIGRANTS. 

The following letter, lately received by the 
South Carolina Land and Immigration Asso- 
ciation will speak for itself, and is commend- 
ed to the attention of our readers : 

The Umted States Immigration 
AND Banking Agency, 
90 FiNSBURY Circus, London, Eng., ; 
September 28, 1871. J 

Messrs. Butler, Chadtvick, Gary ^ Co., 

Charlesfo7i, S. C: 

Deak Sirs : Tour esteemed favor of Au- 
gust 18th is duly received, and would have 
been replied to by return mail, had not the 
letter remained over for the writer of this 
(our Mr. Reed, who is an American) to 
answer. 

In the flrst place, let U8 assure you that 
our sympathies and best wishes arc with you 
and your State, and we shall be happy if 
(through yourselves or any other way) we 
can be of any service to her or yourselves. 



Absence from the cit}' during a part of the 
last month prevented us from giving so care- 
ful a supervision to the present number a? 
we could have desired, and necessitated the 
postponement of several communications and 
answers to inquiries which we had no time 
to prepare, on our return. We hope, in our 
next; to give all omitted articles and inquiries 
proper attention. 



W. L. Williams, of Rienzi, Miss., has been 
appointed General Deputy of the National 
Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, for the 
Southern States. The Order is making good 
progress in Mississippi, several Subordinate 
Granges having lately been organized. 



We have received from Dr. E. H. Ander- 
son, too late for this number, a roply to the 
strictures of our Entomological Editor and 



Editorial Depart inerd. 



155 



Mr. Grote, published in our November num- 
ber. We shall try to make room for it in 

our next issue. 

Wo are indebted to M. G. Reynolds, (late 
Phelps & Reynolds,) of Rochester, N. Y., 
for a very iicceptable package of flower seeds. 
Knowing Mr. Reynolds to be a trustworthy 
seedsman, we shall deem it our own fault if 
we fail to produce a fine show of bloom from 

our sowing^^ ^ 

FARM AND GARDEN NOTES. 
Clover and Barley Patches. 
During a late visit to Abbeville County, 
nothing pleased us more in that fine farming 
region than the patches, more or less large, 
of barley and red clover, now so common 
among the good planters and farmers there. 
The contrast between their fresh verdure and 
the gray old fields, or the red, gullied hill- 
sides around them was suggestive as well as 
pleasant. Experience in Abbeville has de- 
monstrated that it is as easy to grow barley 
and clover as rye or turnips, and the profits 
of these crops can be fully appreciated by 
those only who have had actual experience 
with them. We do not know to what ex- 
tent these crops may be profitably grown on 
lighter and more sandy soils ; but we are 
fully convinced that there is scarcely a plan- 
tation in Middle South Carolina or Georgia 
where there may not be found many acres on 
which barley, clover, and various tame 
-Trasses may be grown with but a moderate 
outlay of labor and manure. Try it. 

The Running Mango. ] 

This admirable vegetable {Sechlum eduUs, 
sometimes called vegetable pear) is too little 
known. It should have a place in every 
garden where the climate will ensure the 
maturity of its fruit. It has only to be plant- 
ed in the spring after danger from frost is 
over, a trellis or arbor built for its support, 
and little more attention will be required. A 
bushel or two of stable manure, or a heap of 
trash thrown over the roots in the fall, will 
preserve them from the frost, and they will 
throw up shoots and produce bushels of fruit 
year after year. The mango, cooked like the j 
summer squash, resembles that vegetable, , 
but is finer and more delicate in flavor. It 
is also excellent cut in slices and fried like; 



the fruit of the egg-plant or pickled like the 
cucumber. Packed in sand, it is easily kept 
all winter. It will succeed in Middle South 
Carolina and Georgia, and possibly even 
further North. 

Authoritg in Southern Horticulture. 
The horticultural journals of the North, 
though well conducted and valuable, arc ne- 
cessarily deficient in the special information 
we require in our climate, where many of the 
conditions under which we labor are so 
diflerent from those prevailing in colder 
countries. We not only fail to find proper 
guidance, but are often misled by Northern 
works. We need horticultural publications 
of our own, and we are glad to call attention 
again to the Farmer and Gardner, (Augusta, 
Ga.,) as giving the reader just what is need- 
ed. Its Horticultural Department is edited 
by our friend and correspondent, P. J. Berck- 
mans, than whom there is no man in America 
better qualified for the work. He speaks 
from experience, and one may safely follow 
his directions. 

Sheep and Clover. 
These we believe to be the two great agen- 
cies that are to revolutionize Southern agri- 
culture, and the one is the complement of the 
other. Sheep will enable us to grow clover, 
clover will help us to keep our sheep in fine 
condition, and both together will work some- 
thing almost like a miracle on our worn-out 
plantations. But what about the dogs and 
the freedmen 7 we are asked by those who 
have no faith in either clover or sheep. We 
have lately put this question to several exten- 
sive wool-growers in Abbeville County, and 
the reply is that with proper management 
1 there is little or no danger of loss from either 
I mutton-loving negroes or vicious dogs. The 
sheep are penned at night, and during the 
day they run in their pastures without being 
disturbed by anything. Depend upon it, for 
in a large portion of our middle and upper 
country, sheep and clover are the magic 
words of the new era of Southern agriculture. 
Dried. Figs. 
At the Columbia Fair we had the pleasure 
of tasting several specimens of excellent dried 
fio-s, either of which would compare favora- 
[ bly, in most respects, with the imported 
fruit ; but we were best pleased with a drum 



156 



The Rural Carolinian. 



of Celestial figs, (Small Sugar figs,) simply 
dried and packed without sugar or other 
preparation. These were small but sweet, 
and of the true natural flavor. "We are sorry 
to have forgotten the name of the exhibitor. 



INDUSTRIAL ITEMS. 

"William D. Smith, of Homcrvillo, Ga., 
has invented and patented a hand garden 
plough, the shank of which is divided in its 
lower part into two branches of unequal 
length. The shorter branch is curved to the 
right and downward, and to its end is at- 
tached or upon it is formed a blade. The 
other or longer branch is curved outward, 
upward, and downward, and upon its lower 
end is formed, or to it is attached a blade. 
The blades are made thin, narrow, curved, 
and with sharply inclined forward edges, 
with a sharp point. Guard, plate, or fender, 
made thin, fiat and broad, is formed upon or 
attached lo the end of a rod, which passes 
horizontally through a bole in the shank, at 
or near its branching point, and is secured in 
place by a hand nut. This construction en- 
ables the fender or guard to be turned down 
when cultivating small plants, turned up 
when cultivating larger plants, .nnd to be 
readily detached when required. The handle 
is about six feet long, so that it may be 
grasped nearer to or further from the ploughs, 
according to the height of the operator. 

We learn that two companies are al- 
ready at work developing the lately discov- 
ered sulphur bed of Louisiana. The bed, or 
layer of sulphur, commences at a depth of 
428 feet from the surface of the ground, and 
terminates at 540 feet, the bed having thus a 
thickness of 112 feet, The proportion of sul- 
phur is 60 per cent, at the top of the bed, 
the proportion increasing rapidly as we de- 
scend, being 90 per cent, at a depth of 486 
feet. The proportion then gradually di- 
minishes. The sulphur appears in compact 
and amorphous masses, of a pale color, inter- 
spersed here and there with yellow crystals. 
It is surrounded by a calcareous, crystalline 
matri.x of whitish color, and rather considera- 
ble hardness, but which, nevertheless, i« 
easily reduced to powder under the stroke of 
the hammer. The general analysis of the 
deposit yields 77 per cent, of pure sulphur. 



A new milk-producing tree in the 

Valley of the Amazon has lately been brought 
to the notice of Europeans. It is known as 
the Massaranduba, and appears to be a species 
of Miinusops, of the natural order Sapotnceos. 
The wood is valuable, and used for various 
purposes, and the milk flows freely from the 
trunk upon incision, but hardens on exposure 
to the air, and then has an elastic property 
similar to that of gutta-percha. This juice 
is used as food when fresh, but never in its 
pure state, being either mixed with a small 
quantity of water, or with coffee or tea like 
ordinary milk. 

The Rocking Gate is the name of a 

late invention of much value, if we may 
credit the claims made for it. On the ap- 
proach of a vehicle or person on horseback, 
it is said, the gate opens of its own accord, 
and after passing through it, the gate closes 
of its own accord, without trouble or even 
attention from the person passing. But it 
will not open for any kind of stock, and it by 
design it is left open^ the first animal that 
passes through causes it to close. It cannot 
be left open by accident. Its durability is 
apparent at first sight. The contrivance is 
so simple that any one able to use ordinary 
tools can construct it, after having once seen 
a gate in operation. It requires Very little 
more iron work than the common gate — has 
no springs, nor weights, nor pullies, and not 
even a crooked piece of timber in it. 

The Journal of Applied Chemiiiri/ Bixys 

that thousands of pounds of adulterated but- 
ter are sold in New York. The article used 
in these frauds are stearine and margarine 
obtained from the cotton seed oil. Carrot, 
juice colors the compound so as to make- 
resemble choice butter. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 
Adulteration of Food. 
Not only is flour sometimes adulterated, 
but sometimes alum, sulphate of copper and 
sulphate of lime have been detected in baker's 
bread. Butter may contain water, flour and 
earthy substances. Tea is adulterated with 
the leaves of other plants, Prussian blue, 
indigo, gypsum, chromate of lead and copper 
compounds. " Ground coflTee " contains, be- 
sides the berries of the Coffea Arabica, chicory,. 



Editorial Department. 



157 



roaited corn, acorns and leguminous seeds. 
Cayenne pepper has been known to contain 
rod lead, and sometimes colored snwdust. 
Mustard is falsified by tbe addition of wheat 
flour colored with tumeric, while the flavor 
is kept up by a d:\sh of red pepper. Yinecjar 
sometimes contains sulphuric acid in large 
proportion. Pickles are often made beauti- 
fully green with highly poisonous copper 
salts. 

Liquid Ghte. 

The French method of making a strong 
jjlue that may be used cold is as follows : 
Place two pounds of best pale glue in a quart 
of soft water ; let this digest by placing the 
vessel in a larger one containing boiling 
water ; when the solution is complete, let it 
cool while gradually stirring in seven ounces 
of nitric acid ; bottle with tight stopping. 
This is very strong, and will not gelatinize. 
How a Farmer Made a Whirlwind. 

An artificial whirlwind blew at Glen's 
Falls, New York, last fall. It was caused 
by a farmer who, wishing to burn a fallow of 
about fifteen or twenty acres, ignited the 
brush at several places at the outer edge. 
The flames rushed towards the centre and 
assumed a rotary motion, which increased in 
velocity till a terrific whirlwind was formed, 
which tore up small trees, root and branch, 
and frightened everybody who witnessed it. 
A column of smoke rose to so great a height 
that it was visible for many miles, and a noise 
as loud as thunder accompanied this singular 
phenomenon. 

Heat of the Sun. 

According to Prof. Tyndall, the heat sent 
to us from the sun is the same at all times. 
During his recent observations he has proven 
that tbe earth receives a certain quantity of 
heat, and when one portion of the country is 
cool it is an evidence that some other portion 
is hotter — that is, judging in all cases from a 
certain time of the year. 

To Mend Broken China. 

Rub the edge of the fractured parts with 
carriage varnish, (ordinary varnish will not 
do,) then join them neatly together, and let 
stand two or three days. When thoroughly 
dried the fracture will hardly be perceived, 
and will not be effected by ordinary heat. 



GLEANINGS. 

The Tuberous-Rooted Yetch, {Lathyrus 
tuberosus,) grows with a slender, straggling, 
turning stem, three to four feet high. The 
flowers resemble the pea, and of a deep rose 
color. The edible tubers are produced at the 
ends of the roots. They are oblong in shape, 
and two or three inches in length and an inch 
in diameter. The inside is white, but of a 
rather firm texture and resembles unboiled 
peas, but when cooked it has a flavor some- 
what similar to the chestnut. Each plant 
produces from twenty to forty of these tu- 
bers. The advantage this plant has over the 
Irish potato is in the value of the vine, which 
is greedily eaten by cattle. Tubers planted 
in spring will give a fine crop in autumn^ 
and may be stored for winter use the same as 
our common potato. 

A correspondent of the Country Gen- 
tleman says if copperas and saltpetre water 
are used around pear trees, the trees will 
show the efiects in a large yield of fruit. He 
tried this on a Bartlett pear tree that had 
yielded no fruit for two years previous ; that 
very year it yielded 155 large fine pears, and 
the following year 250 large fine ones, and it 
is still doing finely. If pear trees want iron, 
which most soils are deficient in, sulphate 
of iron or copperas, is a good way to sup- 
ply it. 

The Florist and Pomologist says, that a 

solution recommended by N. Cloez, of the 
Jardin du Museum, Paris, for destroying 
plant-lice and other insects, is made as fol- 
lows : Three and one-half ounces quassia 
chips, and five drachms stave-acre seeds, in 
powder, are placed in seven pints of water 
and boiled down to five pints. When cold, 
tbe strained liquor is ready for use, and muy 
be applied either with a watering pot or sy- 
ringe. 

A correspondent of tbe South-Land ob- 
jects to the introduction of the Chinese, on 
the ground that they are a race of people 
whose moral principles are not only danger- 
ous to society, but would tend to the multi- 
plicity of infinite social disorder. Much of 
their doings and habits will not admit of 
publication, and would not long je permitted 
to exist in any civilized community. It is 
nonsense to talk about Chinese living on 
cheap rations and low wages. When in 
" Eome they will soon do as llomans do." 



158 



The Rural Carolinian. 



It is very annoying, after having set out 

a nice lot of sweet potato or cabbage plants, to 
see them cut down, one by one, by cut- 
worms. "We have tried ashes, lime, soot, and, 
in fact, everything we have ever heard of, 
but never found anything effectual until, by 
accident, we found throe or four of the worms, 
one morning, gathered under a small board, 
which had been left by some children on a 
sweet potato hill. Acting upon this hint, 
we placed small pieces of board, large chips, 
etc., all through the patch, and we trapped 
them by hundreds. The boards must be lifted 
early in the morning, and on very warm 
days, again about noon. A little care, for a 
few days, will clear these pests out of the 
garden. One trial will satisfy any person of 
the merits of this plan. 

A cotemporary gives the following 

recipe for preserving smoked meats : Take 
ground black pepper, the finer the better ; 
wash all the mold or soil off from the hams 
or beef, and while they are damp rub them 
thoroughly with the pepper. Two pounds of 
pepper will keep thirty pounds of meat free 
from flies or insects of all kinds. It can re- 
main, after being thus treated, in the smoke 
house or wood house, and not a fly will ap- 
proach it. It also improves the flavor of the 

meat. 

A correspondent of the Plantation 

sends that paper the following remedy for 
snake bites : 

The remedy is simply to make a crucial or 
cross incision, or cut (not very deep, but only 
an eighth of an inch say, and an inch in 
length each way) just where the fangs have 
penetrated, or cut, or scratch, as the case may 
be; into this incision put as much pounded 
saltpetre as it will hold, and, in the mean 
time, have a common poultice prepared and 
well sprinkled with the saltpetre also, and 
place this poultice upon the incision. This 
simple remedy is effectual. 

Tlie writer adds that he fears the remedy is 
so simple that many will not try it, but caji 
assure us of its efficiency in several cases of 
rattlesnake bites in his own experience, and 
also in that of several of his friends. 

At the wine-making establishment of 

Don Mateo Keller, in Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia, a ten-horse power steam engine is being 
used to drive a grape-stemraer and crusher 
of sufficient capacity to stem and mash fifty 
tons of grapes per day. The machine is a 



Los Angelos invention. The grapes are 
cleaned, stemmed and mashed without break- 
ing the seeds, and dropped into a large trough 
beneath. A press is to be added to the ma- 
chine next year, which will extract the juice 
from the grapes as fast as they are mashed. 

The American Bee Journal has the fol- 
lowing recipe for tomato honey : To each 
pound of tomatoes, allow the grated peel of a 
lemon and six fresh peach leaves. Boil them 
slowly till they are all to pieces, then squeeze 
them through a bag. To each pound of li- 
quid allow a pound of sugar and the juice of 
one lemon. Boil them together half an hour, 
or till they become a thick jelly. Then put 
them into glasses, and lay double tissue paper 
over the top. It will be scarcely distinguished 
from real honey. 

LITEKARY NOTES. 

Messrs. Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, 
Philadelphia, by arrangement with English 
publishers, will issue during November a 
work bearing the title of " Homo vs. Dar- 
win." It is described by an English critic 
as being a complete refutation of Darwin's 
theory. As Darwin's works have been 
among the most popular publications of the 
year, this volume on the other side of the 
question will probably have a large sale. Its 
author is anonymous. 

• Dr. Oliver "Wendell Holmes will con- 
tribute a novel to the " Atlantic Monthly " 
for 1872, which, it is said, will be something 
in the style of " The Autocrat of the Break- 
fast Table." 

A second series of " Stories told to a 

Child," by that very charming writer, Jean 
Ingelow, will be published by Messrs. Rob- 
erts Bros., Boston, in the course of the 
month. 

Anthony Trollope has safely arrived 

at Melbourne, having written an entire 
novel on the voyage. He will return to 
Europe by way of the United Slates. 

A new work upon which George Eliot 

(Mrs. Lewes) has been engaged for some 
time, entitled MidcUcmarch, a story of Eng- 
lish provincial life, will be published in De- 
cember. 

The Beautiful World ia a new monthly 

from Boston. It is without a rival, in a sense, 



Department of Correspond&iice and Inquiry. 



159 



for it is devoted exclusively to "poetic lit- 
erature." 

The Rev. J. F. Vallandigham is writ- 
ing a biography of his late brother, Clement. 

Miss Louisa M. Alcott, lately returned 

from Europe, is again very busy with the 
pen. 

Profs. Longfellow and Ilolmes have 

each a new book on the anvil, to appear 
some time next j'ear. 

Mr. Henry Kingsley has in the press a 

story called The Lost Child. Miss Marquoid's 
tale Patty is also nearly ready. 

MERE MENTION. 

Col. Pickett, a Georgia planter, has planted 
this season, in the southwestern part of that 
State, 6,500 acres in cotton, and 3,500 in 
corn, and it is estimated that he will clear 
$180,000 upon his cotton alone. This is said 
to be the largest cotton crop planted in the 
South. He employs nearly four hundred 
hands, all of them negroes. 

Messrs. Vilmorin, Andrieux & Co., of 

Paris, perhaps the most widely known and 
patronized seedsmen in the world, announce 
that their losses during the late " unpleas- 
antness " in Paris were remarkably small, 
and that they have resumed their business in 
all its departments. 

Horse-radish is worth two dollars per 

ton in New York market, and the market 
can hardly bo glutted. It is very easily cul- 
tivated and can be grown with profit in the 
South. 

Dr. Randall, in i\\(i Rural New Yorker., 

counsels a " new departure " as to Merino 
sheep, now that interest in them is revived. 



He thinks the constant housing and the un- 
natural pampering and forcing of the sheep 
should bo discouraged. 

There is a cheese on exhibition at 

Buffalo weighing 3,000 pounds, the product 
of one day's milking of 2,200 cows, yielding 
80,105 pounds of milk. 

About 1,000 acres of flax were sown in 

the vicinity of Morning Sun, Louisa Co., 
Iowa, this spring, and is now being harvest- 
ed. It proves a valuable crop. 



PAMPHLETS AND CATALOGUES. 

Prof. Eug. W. Hilgard's "Report on the 
Organization of the Department of Agricul- 
ture and Mechanic Arts of the University 
of Mississippi," is a very thoughtful and 
thorough exposition of the subject of techni- 
cal education for farmers and mechanics. 
"We are glad to see so many able pens at work 
in this direction. 

"The National School Festival " is a 

magazine devoted to Dialogues, Recitations, 
and other exercises for day school and Sunday- 
school exhibtions. Alfred Sewell & Co., 
Chicago, 111. 50 cents a year. 

"Floral Guide and Gardener's Man- 
ual for 1872," is a very useful little hand- 
book prefixed to the seed catalogue of M. G. 
Reynolds, (successor to Phelphs & Reynolds,) 
of Rochester, New York. Sent to any ad- 
dress for ten cents. Mr. Reynolds, will, we 
believe, deal honestly with any of our rea- 
ders who may favor him with orders. 

F. C. Johnson & Co. 's Illustrated Cat- 
alogue of Nursery Stock, Southwestern Nur- 
series, New Albany, Ind. 



DEPARTMENT OF CORRESPONDENCE AND INQUIRY. 



WEATHER AND CROP REPORTS. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I mail with this, copy of address and reso- 
lutions in favor of a general international 
system of meteorological observations and 
crop reports. 

This subject was introduced last month be- 
fore the Agricultural Congress of Nashville, 
and argued before the Agricultural Society 
both of Rockbridge Co., Va., and of Mem- 
phis, Tenn., and on each occasion was enthusi- 
astically received and heartily seconded. 

The Cotton States are taking it up with 



much earnestness, and preparing to push it 
forward with energy. I am informed that 
the Southern delegates to the Agricultural 
Congress are soon to meet for the purpose of 
considering certain important questions. It 
is stated that prominent among the objects of 
this meeting will be the adoption of means 
for giving " active, aid and cooperation to a 
general and international system of meteor- 
ological observations and crop reports, ac- 
cording to Maur3''s plan." 

This plan includes both land and sea. It 
touches pasturage as well as tillage, and why 



160 



The Rural Carolinian. 



should not the grain-growing and stock-rais- 
ing States, the people who are engaged in the 
cultivation of any of the agricultural staples 
of the country, whether in Maine or Cali- 
fornia, Texas or Minnesota, take as lively in- 
terest in the matter as the people of Tennes- 
see, Virginia or Alabama? It is neither 
political, partisan or sectional in its charac- 
ter. It calls for no money, and it is alto- 
gether benignant in its designs, promising 
benefits alike to all farmers, planters and 
graziers, whether they be of the North, South, 
East or "West. 

"Why, then, have not the agriculturalists of 
the Eastern and Western, of the Middle and 
the Pacific States, been as quick to perceive 
and as ready to act in this matter as are the 
delegates from the Southern States? Simplj', 
I suppose, because the subject has not been 
fairly brought before them. 

Pray help me, through the columns of 
your journal, to do this, and also to invoke 
the aid of the agricultural journals of the 
country generally, and of the newspaper 
presses of all the States in the ventillation of 
the subject. M. F. Maury. 

Oj/iee of Physical Survey, Military Institute, 

Lexington, Va., November Sth, 1S71. 



PEAS BETTER THAN CLOVER. 
Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I assert what I believe to be a fact, that 
the Southern field pea is better for the South 
than clover, both as a manurial agent and as 
provender for stock. In making this asser- 
tion I do not wish to be understood as at- 
tempting to discourage the cultivation of 
clover. I would advise all perstms who have 
the soil or facilities for growing it to do so. 
But it is because I believe comparatively few 
have these facilities, and because I know that 
peas can be grown successfully on all farms, 
that I recommend the cultivation of the lat- 
ter above that of the former. 

The field pea can be grown successfully in 
every section, and on almost all soils through- 
out the South. Clover cannot. Peas are 
easier sown, are surer to germinate, grow 
faster, and afford more protection to the land 
at the right time than clover. Two crops 
can be grown yearly on the same land in 
every Southern State ; the seed required to 
plant a given area cost less ; it is as good a 
fertilizer as clover, and makes as good winter 
provender when properly cured. Besides the 
seed peas when gathered either green or drj', 
make an excellent article of food for stock, 
and even for man. It is unsurpassed for fat- 
tening hogs ; unsurpassed as a green manure ; 
and, to crown all, it will grow on all sorts of 
soil, and won't bo long about it anywhere. 
Good as food for man and beast, will grow 
anywhere, the Southern clover, the poor 
man's boon. B. "W. J. 



EXPERIENCE WITH SEEDS, ETC. 

Editor of The Jinrnl CaroUman : 

I am under obligations to you for seeds 
received last spring, but unacknowledged be- 
cause I wished to plant and note results. 

One of the squashes appears to me to be 
the old acorn squash ; another variety sent 
seems almost identical with the Hubbard 
squash, but the above are excellent, bear 
well, and seemed hardy. The Esparto grass 
seed and the Japan flax seed failed to come 
up. The running mango was injured by 
drought, but the vines (two) are now fruiting 
finely. The castor bean sent did well, and I 
have distributed seed all over the county. 
The Doura corn did well, and I think will 
come into general use as a forage crop. I 
have sent seed into diflferent parts of the 
county for trial. 

I have two guava trees growing, but ex- 
pect to protect them this winter. Those I 
sent to you miscarried, I suppose. I will 
find means to send you some sprouts in the 
spring. Much obliged to you, and hope for 
a continuance of your favors in that direc- 
tion. Apply to me the storekeeper's rule, 
" if you don't see what you want ask for it." 
If I can do anything to help the good cause 
along you will find that " Barkis i"? willin." 
J. Dknnis Wolfe. 

Pensaeola, Fla. 

TO MEASURE GRAIN IN A BIN. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian: 

First get the actual number of cubic feet, 
which is done by multiplying the interior 
length, breadth and depth together, then 
eight-tenths of the cubic feet will be the 
number of bushels that the bin will contain, 
or eight-tenths of the cubic feet of grain will 
be the number of bushels. 

To get eight-tenths, multiply the cubic feet 
by eight, (8) place a period before the first 
right hand figure, and you have the bushels 
and the tenths of bushels. 

If you measure corn on the cob, allow one- 
half for cob, so that four-tenths of the cubic 
feet will be the number of bushels of slielled 
corn. Illustrate : Bin 10 x 10 x 10 feet, mul- 
tiply these together, product (1,000) one thou- 
sand ; of which sum eight-tenths or 0.8 will 
be bushels, and four-tenths or 0.4 if corn in 
the ear ; that is, 800 or 400 bushels, as the 
corn may be shelled or on the cob. 

CUUFAS— HAMS. 
Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

J. R. L. wishes to know where he can bo 
supplied with Chufa seed. If he will ap- 
])ly to Mrs. E. Jennings, or D. R. Kersh, 
Esq., Graham's T. 0., S. C, he can be sup- 
plied with a small quantity. 

J. W. M. wishes to know the best method 
of putting up hams to prevent skippers. 
Kill the hogs in time to have the meat cured 



Literary and Home DepaHment 



161 



and smoked by the 1st March, at that timo 
take the hams and rub the flesh part well in 
oak ashes, leached and pack away in bar- 
rels or troughs, and the skippers will not dis- 
turb them. Since I adopted the above plan, 
I have never had a skipper in my meat. 

C. C. F. 

THE CHEAPEST HOT-BED. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

Prepare a box or tub, fill it with rich 
earth ; sow your seeds, then put the box 
under the stove until the seeds come up, then 
put it out in the open air, but protect from 
frosts. This may be repeated several times 
in one season. C. 



INQUIRIES AND ANSWERS. 
In reply to many inquiries in regard to 
the "Gopher Cart,'' we can only say that as 
soon as arrangements have been completed 
for its extensive manufacture, and the prices 
of the difterent sizes are fixed, due notice will 
be given. The few that have been made in 
this city, being constructed without the use 
of any labor-saving machinery, have neces- 
sarily been sold at a higher price than the in- 
ventor intends ultimately to put upon them, 
as he is desirous of placing them within the 
reach of every farmer in the country. 



We are sorry not to be able to inform 

Mrs. W. of whom, in Charleston, she can 
procure pin-e Houdan, Cochin or Brahma 
fowls. Those who have them will do well to 
advertise in The Rural Carolinian. We 
publish such remedies for the diseases of fowls 
as seem in certain cases to prove eflScacious ; 
but in our own experience, when a fowl gets 
sick it generally dies ; and this is especially 
true of the improved breeds. 

Mrs. , Charleston. For small 

orange trees the plan you mention of invert- 
ing over them two casks, the outer one con- 
siderably larger than the inner, is an excel- 
lent one, provided the casks are removed in 
fine weather to give the trees the benefit of 
air and light. This cannot be done with the 
straw covering. 

We will try to act upon "A Reader's " 

suggestion, but we have at present no further 
trustworthy information on the subject of 
"Odorous Plants in Malaria." 

E. T., Monroe, Co., Ga. The Peter 

Wylie grape is not yet for sale by any one, 
so far as we know. When ready for dissemi- 
nation it will, doubtless, be advertised. 



LITERARY AND HOME DEPARTMENT. 



ON THIS SIDE. 

Just as I thought of you, darling. 

Just as I named you of old, 
My little white rose of the spring-time, 

My little pet lamb of the fold ; 
Fair as the promise of summer. 

Sweet as its balmiest breeze, 
Bright as its dewiest blossom, 

Purer than any of these. 

Just as you were to me, darling, 

Out in that far-away timfe. 
Dear as the dream of a poet. 

Soft as its musical rhyme ; 
Sad with the weight of a sorrow 

You and I only might know, 
Just as you were to me, darling. 

Far in the days long ago. 

Just as you came to me, darling, 
Faith in your beautiful eyes. 

True as the whisp'rings of heaven, 
Blue as its sunniest skies. 

Just as you came to me, darling. 
Brown lashes heavy with tears, 



Saddened because of my sorrow. 
Weeping because of my fears. 

Just as you went from me, darling, 

Down through the darkness unknown, 
Over the echoless waters, 

Into the shadows alone; 
On through the radiant pathways 

Only the chosen have trod. 
Bright with the brightness of Heaven, 

White with the whiteness of God. 

Only a dream of you, darling, 

Never a clasp of your hand. 
Never a smile from you, darling, 

Far in the beautiful land ; 
Never to see you beside me. 

All through the desolate years, 
Saddened because of my sorrow, 

Weeping because of my tears. 

[^Catholic Telegraph. 

No man in existence, be his station what 
it may — high or low — is exempted from the 
duty of enquiring what good he can do to 
others. 



162 



The Rural Carolinian. 



HAKVEST APPLES. 

The letter said " come," and with a sigh of 
relief I laid it upon the table before me, and 
looked into the dusty streets. 

I was a working woman in the city of New 
York. Whether I trimmed bonnets for 
Madame La Mode, measured off laces for 
Mademoiselle her daughter, kept books, read 
proofs, set type, or even wrote editorials for 
the Starri/ Host, is a matter of no conse- 
quence. Suffice it to say, I was tired. In 
my dreams I "babble of green fields." I 
longed fur one long summer vacation of 
freedom and rest. But where should I go? 

At length I bethought me of a distant 
cousin, Hiram Gardner by name, who lived 
in a low, brown farm house away up among 
the Green Mountains ; and forthwith I wrote 
to him, asking him if he would receive me 
as a boarder for three months : 

" Come right along. Cousin Winifred," he 
wrote, "and stay as long as you can make 
yourself contented. Not as a boarder, 
though. Thank God, I am not so poor as to 
feel obliged to take money from my own 
kith and kin for a few weeks' boarding and 
lodging. My wife and Hope will be glad to 
see you." 

So, in a flurry of delight, I packed my 
trunk, tele'graghed to Cousin Hiram, and in 
two days' time stood on the platform of the 
depot at Highland watching the receding 
train as it thundered down tlie valley. 

As for Hope — little Hope Gardner — what 
shall I tell you about her? I had my own 
ideas about "country girls;" I thought of 
sunburn and freckles, coarse hands and un- 
gainly feet, in that connection. But one 
glance at Hope as she stood in the flickering 
shadows of the great elm that overhung the 
low, wide, roomy house overthrew all my 
preconceived opinions. Eyes that were of 
the very tint of the violets I loved — -hair that, 
guiltless of crimping pins, fell in great golden 
waves below her waiste, and there coiled it- 
self up in a profusion of tiny curls ; brow so 
fair that you saw the net work of blue veins 
at the temples ; cheeks softly tinted with a 
wild rose bloom ; face of a delicate oval, re- 
deemed from gentle insipidity by the sweet 
firmness of the well cut lips, and by eyebrows 
and lashes many shades darker than the hair ; 
slight girlish figure, clad in a simple, grace- 
ful costume that would have passed unchal- 
lenged anywhere. Such was the picture that 
greeted my eyes as Cousin Hiram's pair of 
handsome grays swept round the corner, and 
Hoi)e cam(^ forward to meet me. 

Before many weeks had passed I began to 
discover the trail on the serpent in my newly 
found Eden. I had thought my Cousin 
Hiram one of the most favored of mortals ; 
but Mordecai sat at the king's gate, and the 
■ soul of Haman was troubled. 

It was the old, old story — older than the 



days of the Montagues and Capulets — almost 
as old as the days of Adam and Eve There 
had been first ambitions and rivalries, then 
harsh words and bitter recriminations, 
hatreds and revenges. Now all had settled 
down into a deep and silent enmity. Hiram 
Gardner and Thomas Piemington lived upon 
adjoining farms ; could have clasped hands 
across the narrow aisle as they sat in their 
pews on Sunday; met each other daily in 
streets, at the postofRce, in the market place. 
But thej' never spoke, never recognized each 
other by glance or sign. Yet they were both 
good men — men who should have loved each 
other. Perhaps deep down in either heart 
there was a regret for the past, a longing for 
reconciliation. Perhaps if either one had 
been unfortunate or in distress, the other 
might be willing to be the first to bury the 
hatchet and smoke the calumet of ])eace. 
But botii were prosperous, both were honored, 
and the demon of pride kept them apart, 
ruling their natures with a rod of iron. 

Yet a faint line across the meadows showed 
where a well worn foot path had once run 
from doorway to doorway. 

I think that my coming to Highland was 
a pleasure to Hope. Perhaps it brought some 
element into her quiet life that was needed 
there. But after the first excitement of my 
arrival had died away, and I had insensibly 
glided from the position of guest into that of 
member of the family, I began to porceive 
that all was not well with her. There was, 
at times, a look of pain and longing in her 
eyes. There were drooping curves about 
her sweet lips even when she smiled There 
was a nervous unrest about her, and she flew 
from employment to employment as if to 
escape thought. I noticed that when these 
moods were upon her her mother watched 
her furtively, and her father's brow darkened 
strangely. Yet his manner toward her was 
inexpressibly tender. She was, indeed, the 
very apple of his eye — this " Hope " that had 
been born to him after all his other children 
had been laid under the sod. 

" I shall not go to church to-day," said 
Cousin Ilhoda, one Sunday morning. " Me- 
lissa's mother is not well, and I have told 
her she may go home." 

" Neither shall I go," said Cousin Hiram- 
" I sprained my wrist yesterday, and it is 
growing very painful." 

"Let us walk, then. Cousin Winifred," 
said Hope, her eyes brightening. " Wo can 
go ' across lots,' and it shortens the distance 
by half." 

Nothing could have suited me bettor, and 
we were soon on our way. No flower that 
bloomed in the meadow or down by the 
winding river banks was fairer or swo<etor 
than Hope Gardnt'r that dav. All the fresh- 
ness, tlu* purity, the sweetness, the repose of 
that still Sabbath morning seemed embodied 



Litei'aiy and Home Department. 



16' 



in hor. Tho minister was roading tho first 
hymn, when a firm, quick trend sounded up 
the aisle. Even before I had time to think 
I felt a sudden shiver in tho arm that lay 
agairi8t mine, and saw tho hand that held 
one-h:ilf of the liymn book tremble. A re- 
markably fine looking young man passed by 
and took a seat in the pew just in front of 
us, on tho other side of the aisle. It was 
Mr. Remington's pew. 

Impelled by I know not what subtle in- 
stinct of womanly sympathy, I glanced at 
Hope from behind my veil, expecting to see 
precisely what I did see — evidences of sud- 
den and profound emotion. A quick pallor 
drove all the color from her face for an in- 
stant ; then the rich blood swept back again, 
and her cheeks grew crimson. 

She scarcely glanced at the new comer, 
but kept her eyes fixed upon old Dr. Merrill, 
apparently absorbed in his thirdlys and 
fourthlys. As soon as the benediction was 
pronounced, however, she took my arm 
hastily, and pressed forward toward the door. 

If she was anxious to escape from any one, 
to elude any one, her design was defeated. 
There was a crowd near tho door, and our 
progre.ss was obstructed. As wo waited in 
the porch I felt a presence behind us, and a 
low voice that could scarcely have reached 
less sensitive ears whispered, 

" Look at me, Hope I Speak to mo I Give 
mo one word, for God's sake !'' 

She clung to my arm with a close clasp, 
trembling like a loaf. For one instant her 
face grew radiant as she lifted her eyes to 
meet the passionate glances that sought her 
own so eagerly. But she spoke no word. 
Ho leaned forward, with another whisper 
upon his lips. Suddenly she turned with an 
air of decision. 

" Cousin Winifred — Miss Ethridgo — this 
is Mr. Willard Remington." 

I bowed ; tho gentleman bowed. Then tho 
crowd broke and parted at the steps, and we 
all went our several ways. 

Hope wept silentlj^ half the way home, and 
I walked, statue like, beside her. At last I 
could bear it no longer. 

" What is it, Hope ?" I asked. " T^ell mo 
all about it, dear." 

"Oh, there is nothing to toll I" she said, 
■wearily. " Only I am very wretched, and 
so is — somebody else." 

Of course. It was merely another old story. 
Romeo and Juliet this time. It was not ne- 
cessary to ask tho cause of the trouble. I 
knew it too well already. 

" Is this Mr. Thomas Remington's son?" 
I asked, to make assurance doubly sure. 

" Yes." And after a little she told mo all 
there was to tell ; how they had loved each 
other for years in boy and girl fashion long 
before this dreadful feud arose ; how, as boy 
and girl, they had given each other up on 



account of tho family troubles : how Willard 
went West to seek his fortune as a lawyer; 
how both imagined that they had forgotten 
tho early love, and that the old wounds Avore 
iiealed; how lu; liad come home a year ago; 
and how tho first word, the first look, ox- 
changed between them, had revivified the old 
alfoction, and proved to them that instead of 
dying it had been gaining strength through 
all these silent years. But it was of no use, 
sho said ; thc^y could never marry, ^nd 
now Willard hud come on again, when it was 
only tortur(i to both of them to moot, and 
she did not know how she could bear it. 

After that, day by daj^ I watched the strug- 
gle that was going on in Hope Gardner's 
heart — a struggle under which she grew pale 
and still and cold. I knew that the lovers 
met sometimes in the little summer house at 
tho foot of the garden, or down by the river- 
side. So persistent a wooer as this new 
Komeo could hardly fail to bring about as 
much as that. Yet tho stolen interviews 
brought little of joy to either of them, if one 
could judge of the weary eyes and yet still 
face that Hope always brought back with 
her. 

One night I waylaid Cousin Hiram as ho 
was coming in from the orchard. He looked 
worn and depressed. Indeed, a shadow rested 
upon the whole house. 

"Were j'ou coming in 7" I asked. "I 
was just going up to the ' Spreading Tree,' to 
see if the harvest apples were ripe." 

" Not yet, I guess," he said, turning about. 
" But I'll go with you. Apples are late this 
year," he added, reflectively. 

The large tree, renowned for its wide 
spreading branches, was laden with fruit 
oven to its topmost bough — great balls of 
green and gold, that were slowly reddening 
in the sunshine. 

" Hard as Rock Dunder," said my compan- 
ion, making a slight indentation upon one of 
them with his thumb. " They will not be 
fully ripe in a fortnight." 

I had not lured him there, out of sight of 
tho house, to talk about apples. 

"Cousin Hiram," said I, suddenly, while 
my heart seemed to spring to my throat — 
"Cousin Hiram, do you know that Hope 
loves Willard Remington ?" 

I was frightened before the words had 
fairly passed my lips. I had broached, I well 
knew, a tabooed subject. People were not 
in tho habit of talking to Hiram Gardner 
about tho Remingtons. I ventured one glance 
at his face. It was stern and dark, and his 
breath came in quick, labored gasps. Pres- 
ently ho turned on his heel, and was about to 
leave me. But, having put my hand to the 
plough, it was not my nature to look back. 
I ran after him, and repeated my question. 

"Pshaw!" he said, tossing an apple into 
the air with tho toe of his boot, " that's all 



164 



The Bural Carolinian. 



over long ago. There was some nonsense 
or other between them when they were mere 
children, I believe." 

_" You believe ! Do you not hiom. Cousin 
Hiram, that Hope loves him to-day?" 

" Well, what is to be done ahout'it ? What 
if she does?" he asked, turning upon me 
like a hon at bay. " Do you suppose I can 
ever humble myself enough to give my 
dauirhter to that man's son ? I'd see her die 
first ! But there's no danger ; girls don't die 
of broken hearts, except in novels." 

"Do not be too confident, Cousin Hiram," 
I said. " Can you not see that she i.s dving? 
I do not say that you will be compelled to 
lay her under the sod this vear or next. 
Something will be left, probablv, that will 
move Mhout your house in a pxle, still way ; 
something that will work, and speak some- 
times, and— suffer : something with sad, 
weary eyes ; and an air of hopeless patience. 
But your Hope, your bright, joyous, loving 
child, your sunbeam, your song-bird, will be 
dead— dead as her brothers and sisters in the 
grave yard yonder I" 

He shivered from head to foot, that soft. 
balmy summer night, and his mouth worked 
in a sudden spasm of pain. But I went on 
pitilessly : 

"It is killing her mother too; can you 
BOtseeit? Can you not see how her eyes 
follow Hope, how she urieves over her, how 
her own cheek pales whenever Hope's grows 
white, how — " 

"Stop!" ho cried. " Do you think T am 
blind, Winifred, or a fool ? Do you think I 
have no eyes ? Do you think I am in this 
position from mere wilfulness? But women 
can never look at things from a man's stand- 
point. How can I help myself? I don't 
want to mar Hope's life, I don't want to 
make her wretched; yet what can be done? 
I can't undo the work of the last seven years, 
and I can't let Hope marry the son of the 
only man on earth, I verily believe, who 
hates me— and whom I hate. That's the 
long and the short of it, Winifred. We're 
in a bad fix, but it can't be helped." 

" But }'ou don't hate Willard ?" 

" No— r like him. He's a fine, manly 
young fellow; sure to make his mark in the 
world, if he is a Remington. I have no 
fault to find with him." 

"Then, oh, Cousin Hiram—" I began. 
But he interrupted me, laying a heavy hand 
upon my arm. 

" There's no use talking, Winifred. You 
can tell me nothing that 1 do not know al- 
ready. I am as sorry for all this as you can 
be. Is not Hope my own child ? But I am 
a man, and I can not go back on my own 
record. I never shall consent to this mar- 
riage, unless some voice speaks to me out of 
a thunder cloud and says ' Do it.' " 

A sudden thought struck me as I glanced 



up at the laden boughs of the apple tree. 

" Then if a miracle was wrought in their 
favor, your pride might be persuaded to 
yield?" I said, doubtless, with a little tinge 
of bitterness. 

He answered, angrily : 

"When a sign is .«ent to me direct from 
Heaven, I'll give Hope to Willard Reming- 
ton, but not before." 

I sat up late that night ; but early the 
next morning, when the grey dawn was just 
brightening in the east, I stole softly past 
Hope's door, down the stairs, opened the hall 
door as silently as a dream, and flew down 
the garden path and over the wall into the 
orchard. 

For some days things went on from bad 
to worse. One evening Hope threw a light 
cloak over her head, and wandered off to- 
ward a little clump of hemlocks down by the 
falls. I knew well enough where she was 
going, and what she was going for. Proba- 
bly her father knew also. But if so, he did 
not interfere. He could trust her. 

I was in the hall when she came in. Her 
face was white as marble, and just as set 
and cold. Her eyes were tearless, but heavy 
and bloodshot. She went up stairs to her 
room, and I went to mine. She had never 
spoken to mo of Willard Remington since 
that Sunday at church, and I respected her 
silence. 

The next day, at the Postoffice, I heard 
that he had gone back to his Western life. 

This was Tuesday. The next Thursday 
we were all out in the porch when a neigh- 
bor, who was going by, stopped for a chat, 
leaning with both arms upon the gate. 

" By-the-bye," he said, "have you heard 
of the accident on the Nev/ York Central? 
Cars ran off a bridge into fifteen feet of 
water, and a third of the passengers were 
killed. William Remington was on board 
and they say he is among the missing." 

Hope raised one hand to her head, with a 
faint scream, and fell to the floor as if a ball 
had pierced her heart. 

We carried her into the house and laid her 
upon the bed in her mother's room. It was 
an hour before she gave signs of returning 
consciousness. Then, when the pale lips 
began to quiver a little, and there was a 
slight tremulous motion of the eyelids, Cousin 
Rhoda said, in a hushed voice: 

" Go away now, both of you.'' When she 
comes too she will want to see no face but 
her mother's. Iliram Garden, if your pride 
Las killed our child, may (iod forgive you!'' 

We went out of the back door, and follow- 
ed the little foot-path that led to the orchard 
till we stood uniler the tree where the harvest 
apples wore fast crimsoning. Cousin Hiram's 
face was very grave. 

"Winifred," he said, "I wonder if the 
sign from Heaven was sent to me long ago, 



Literary and Home Department. 



165 



and my blind oycs could not see it ? This is 
too much like tho voice out of the thunder- 
cloud." 

I passed round to the other side of the tree, 
apparently looking for fallen fruit, and 
waited for him to follow me, which he did 
presently. 

"Look there, Cousin Hiram I" 1 said, 
tremblingly, while my face flushed. " Look 
there 1" 

"Look where?" he asked. "I do not see 
anything." 

1 took a long stick from the ground and 
pointed to a great crimson apple that swung 
from tho nearest bough, yet far above our 
heads. There in letters of pale green upon 
a ruby ground, were the words, " Willard " 
— " Hope." 

He started violently. " My God ! Wini- 
fred, what does that mean ?" And the man's 
lips were white as ashes. 

''It means," I answered, perhaps with lips 
as colorless as his, for the very depths of my 
being were stirred — " it means that if Willard 
is alive he belong to Hope, and you have no 
right to keep them apart." 

Por full five minutes he stood beside me 
with his face buried in his hands. Then he 
looked up, with a faint smile playing about 
his resolute lips. 

" There is some hocus-pocus about this 
"Winifred. We don't have miracles in the 
nineteenth century. However, I accept the 
omen. I am going over to Mr. Remington's 
to ask if Willard was on tho train, or if he 
had been heard from. Don't touch that 
apple." 

An hour afterward Cousin Hiram came 
home and walked straight through the sit- 
ting room into the bed-room, where Hope 
still lay with closed eyes, speechless, motion- 
less — a white statue that scarcely breathed. 
He bent down and kissed her lips. 

" I have been over to Mr. Remington's, 
Hope," he said. " Willard has just tele- 
graphed. He was not on the train. Open 
your eyes, my child, and look at me. I 
want you to send this apple to Willard, and 
tell him it means that you belong to him, 
and he to you." 

She ju.«t kissed him ; that was all. 

Three years afterward I went up to High- 
land to meet Hope, who was home on a visit. 

We were all out under the spreading apple- 
tree. 

" Now tell us all about it, Winifred," said 
Cousin Hiram. "I know you can explain 
the mystery of the apple if you choose." 

" No," 1 answered, laughing ; "that would 
spoil all the romance. But if you ever want 
a miracle performed in behalf of your little 
grand-daughter hero, all you have to do is to 
give me a sharp pair of scissors, some tissue- 
paper, and a few drops of mucilage." 

" One thing more, I reckon," added Cousin 



Hiram. " In my opinion you would need a 
half-ripe harvest apjile." 

THE BIG TREES OF THE WORLD. 

A writer in Apj^letons^ Journal has, with 
commendable industry -and research, col- 
lected and arranged accounts of the most 
famous trees of the world. Wo transfer a 
portion of the article, in a condensed form, 
to our pages : 

A recent English periodical mentions n 
great chestnut-tree at Tortworth, in Glouces- 
tershire, which, it says, rivals or surpasses 
any existing oak or yew-tree in Great Britain. 
Its circumference, five feet from the ground, 
is over fifty feet. As it was mentioned as a 
boundary-mark of the manor in the reign of 
Stephen, was famous in King John's time 
for its magnitude, and was in existence in the 
time of Egbert, it may be even much older 
than a thousand years. 

The magnitude of the famous chestnut-tree 
on Mount yEtna is still more remarkable. 
This is the " Castagno de Cento Cavalli," 
which is probably the largest chestnut-true in 
the world, the trunk of which is described 
by Brydone as resembling five large trees 
growing together, and having a hollow cavity 
more than sixty feet in diameter. 

But the plane-trees of Greece seem to bear 
away the palm for magnitude. Of this spe- 
cies is the specimen of "Godfrey de Bouil- 
lon," at Buyukdere, on the European side of 
the Bosphorus, a tree that was flourishing 
when first 

" Byzantium's native sign 
Of cross on crescent was unfurled," 

and is conjectured by M. de CandoUe to be 
more than two thousand j'ears old. When 
measured in 1831, it was found to be a hun- 
dred and forty feet in circumference at the 
base, and it has been described as resembling 
a tower of clustered trunks. Its branches 
are said to be more like a forest than like a 
single tree. Its sides are cavernous, and 
shelter the herdsmen, who make their fires in 
these hollows. 

Another enormous plane-tree, growing 
upon the banks of the Selinus, near Maslizza, 
is mentioned in Hobhouse's " Travels in All- 
bania," and is described as being forty-five 
feet in circumference at the base, and a hun- 
dred feet high, covered with luxuriant fol- 
iage. In the Turkish Empire these ancient 
trees seem to be held in reverence, as they 
were before the days of the Prophet. 

Among the flourishing giant trees of Wes- 
tern Australia, rivalling in magnitude our 
California wonders, is one near Warren 
River, recently discovered, and by actual 
measurement found to be four hundred feet 
high; and, another in the same region, iu 
the Black Spur Mountain, four hundred and 



166 



The Rural Carolinian. 



eighty feot high. The tallest tree in Cali- 
fornia is said not to exceed four hundred and 
fifty feet. Although the tree at Warren Kiver 
is large enough to permit three riders, and 
an additional pack-horse to enter its hollow 
trunk and turn in it without dismounting, 
the size of some of the California trees, at 
the trunk, greatly surpasses it. The stump 
of one of the latter measured, on its surface, 
a space of six hundred square feet. 

A traveller gives the following account of 
the "zamaug," a tree belonging to the sub- 
order CccsalpiiKE, which he saw in Venezuela, 
South America: 

" Its head is somewhat in the shape of an 
open umbrclln, and covers very nearly an 
acre of ground. In 1857, I measured its head 
in its greatest diameter, from east-south vi'est 
to west-northwest, most carefully, and found 
it to be two hundred and six feet and eleven 
inches." 

The Brazilian journals tell of a wonderful 
tree on the banks of the Branco, a tributary 
of the great Amazon, under the canopy of 
which ten thousand human beings may find 
shelter, and the height of which is such that 
a gigantic bird, the sononydon, perches itself 
so liigh up as to be quite beyond rifle-shot. 
The tree belongs to the malvaceous order. 

In Mississippi County, Missouri, paw-paws 
grow to a circumference of three feet, and 
grape-vinos and trumpet-keepers to a circum- 
ference of nearly two feet. 

A svcamore-tree, one hundred and ten feet 
high, and with a hollow fourteen feet in the 
clear, is mentioned as a feature in Calhoun 
County, Illinois. In Kansas, at the mouth 
of Fall River, is a remarkable tree, the di- 
mensions of which are on record in Wash- 
ington. It is nine feet in diameter, thirty 
feet in circumference, and runs up, straight 
as an arrow, forty feet without limbs. 

Tlie original " London Pippin-tree," in 
Virginia, is still standing. It is known to 
have borne every season, for the past eighty 
years, from forty-five to seventy-five bushels 
of apples, and eighty years ago, it was re- 
garded as a venerable specimen of vegetation. 
The fruit is of excellent quality, and above 
the average size. The tree is forty-fivo feet 
high. 

Another aged fruit-tree — the " Big Apple- 
Tree," as it was known — recently passed 
away after an existence of over a century 
and a half, it is believed, at Peekskill, New 
York. Its trunk, near the ground, was over 
thirteen feet in circumference. 



RECIPES. 

Nkw Remedies for Old Ailmknts. — 
Acetate of lead is recommended as a cure 
for the toothache. Put one or two grains into 
the cavity for a moment, and then spit it out. 
The relief is instantaneous, and the remedy 



docs not fail in more than eight per cent, of 
the cases. 

La Sanie gives the following as a method 
of removing corns : Macerate the tender 
leaves of ivy in strong vinegar for eight or 
ton days, then apply them to the corns. This 
dressing should be applied twice a day, and 
in a few days the corns will be removed. 

For rheumatism, a large piece of flannel, 
well sprinkled with sulphur and wrap{)ed 
about the part atl'ected, will often prove a 
remedy as efl"ective as it is simple. 

Dr. Young asserts that muriate of am- 
monia will cure any case of mumps in forty- 
eight hours. Give in doses of from fifty to 
twenty grains every two or three hours. It 
is equally good in orchitis. 

To Collect the Odors of Flowers. — 
Roses, and all fiowers containing perfumed 
oils, may be made to yield their aromatic 
properties by steeping the petals of flower 
leaves in a saucer, or a flat dish of water, 
and setting it in the sun. The petals should 
be entirely covered with the water, which, 
by the way, should be soft or rain water. A 
suflicient quantity should be allowed for evap- 
oration, and the vessel should be left undis- 
turbed a few days. At the end of this time 
a film will be found floating on the top This 
is the essential oil of the flower, and every 
particle of it is impregnated with the odor 
peculiar to the flower. It should be taken 
up carefully and put in tiny vials, which 
should be allowed to remain open till all 
watery particles are evaporated. A very 
small portion of this will perfume glove- 
boxes, drawers, apparel, etc., and will last a 
long time. 

Kbmedt for Diarrhcea. — "Take two 
pounds of the bark of the root of blackberry, 
add a suitable quantity of water; boil for 
two hours, then pour off the liquid, then add 
more water; continue to boil and pour ofl' till 
all strength is extracted; then strain, add all 
boilings together, simmer to two quarts; 
strain ; add four pounds of loaf sugar, and 
when cool add half a pint of the best French 
brandy. Dose, a tablespoon ful three times a 
day, fasting. If it does not arrest the dis- 
ease in a few days, gradually increase the 
dose as the stomach can bear it." 

A Cure for Nervous Headache. — Take 
a dessert spoonful of common soda, such as is 
used in making bread, and dissolve it thor- 
oughly in a quart of cold water. With this 
thoroughly siuimpoo the head for about five 
minutes, scratching the skin of the head and 
back of the neck well with the finger nails, 
then rinse the head with clean cold water. 
It will seldimi fail to give relief in from five 
to ten minutes. This remedy is for nervous 
headache, and is not for those alTections of 
the head arising from a deranged stomach. 

Water-Proof and Fiue-Pkoof Ce.ment. 
Mix two ounces of milk with two ounces of 



FabUshers' Department. 



167 



vinecrar. It will curdle. Sepunite the curd 
from" the whoy, and mix the kttex thor- 
tm^'hlv with the whito of nn egg. i^inally, 
add quicklime through a sieve until it is as 
thick .1= pa>te. The cement is then ready for 

""swEK.i'ixG Carpets.— Persons who are ac- 
customed to use tea-leaves for sweeping car- 
p.-ts. and tind that they leave stains, will do 
well to employ fresh-cut grass instead. It is 
better than tea-leaves for preventing dust, 
Hnd "-ives the carpet a very bright fresh looU 
To Keep Fkuit.— Boat well together equal 
measures of honey and spring water in an 
earthen vessel; put in your apricots, plums 
and peaches, freshly gathered ; cover closely, 
and thev will keep fresh for a year. _^\ hen 
taken out for use, they must be rinsed in cold 

water. ,^ ■. 

To Wash Flannel.— Never rub soap upon 
it. Make a suds by dissolving the soap in 



warm water. Rin.=o in warm water ; very 
cold or hot water will ishrink flannel. Shake 
them out several minutes before hanging to 
dry. Blankets can be washed in the same 
wav. 

SwEKT Apple Pudding.— Take a dozen 

good, ripe sweet apples, pare, core, and cut 

into slices; put them into a quart of milk, 

with a pint of corn meal, and bake three 

1 hours. If the apples are not very sweet, a 

I little brown sugar or molasses may be added. 

I Blackberry Pudding.— Make a batter of 

one quart of flour or corn meal, three pints 

of milk and three eggs ; and stir into it three 

pints of stewed blackberries ; sweeten to suit 

the taste and bake. 

Custard Pudding. — Mix with a pint of 
sweet cream or now milk one tablespoonful 
of flour, three beaten eggs and two table - 
spoonsful of sugar; and bake for half an 
hour. 



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CAROLINIAN. 
To enable our subscribers to preserve The 
Rural Carolinian , we will bind in full cloth, 
gilt back and sides, so as to make a handsome 
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for 75 cents. Or, we will bird in half leather, 
library style, for $1 25 per volume. These 
prices exclusive of cost of transportation. 
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ton Railroad, 25 cents. 
1 In ordering, please to specify whether cloth 
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168 



The Rural Carolinian. 
FARM AND GARDEN CALENDAR FOR DECEMBER. 



It should be understood that the following directions are given with special reference to the latitude of 
Charleston, and persons residing any considerable distance North or South of this place must make 
the necessary allowances for difference in the seasons^about five days for each degree of latitude. 



GARDEN WORK. 

In this latitude and southward, peas for 
the main crop may now be put in. The 
ground should be rich, but if so from pre- 
vious manuring, it is better than if made so 
now by the application of fresh manure, 
which gives a tendency to produce a dispro- 
portionate growth of vines. To secure a suc- 
cession, plant several varieties of different 
habits of growth, for instance: McLean's 
Little Gem or Tom Thumb for the earliest ; 
Extra Early, or Dan O'Rourk, and Bishop's 
Dwarf Long Pod next ; and for later sup- 
plies, Eugenie, Brown's Marrowfat, Cham- 
pion of England, and Large White Marrow. 

Cabbage plants, from your September 

or October sowings, if you are so fortunate as 
to have them, may be put out. If necessary 
give them protection by throwing your ground 
into ridges, and planting them on the south 
side of each ridge. You can cover them 
sliglitly with straw in severe weather. They 
should produce fine heads in April. Cabbage 
seed, if heretofore neglected, may still be 
sown. Try Early Ulm Savoy, Little Pixie 
and Early Dwarf Flat Dutch. 

Mazagan or Windsor Beans may be 

planted as directed last month. 

Onions are still in order for planting 

any time during this month and the next. 

Spinach, Radishes and Lettuce should 

be planted for a succession. Flanders spinach 
is best, but Round Leaved is good. 

Irish Potatoes may be planted about 

the end of the month, or in January ; but in 
this latitude it is better to delay till about the 
first of February, otherwise they are liable to 
come up too soon, and get cut down by frost. 

Grape vines and fruit trees should be 

pruned and new ones planted as needed. The 
ground should be deeply ploughed, (and sub- 
soiled if practicable,) and the holes made 
broad but not deep. 

In the flower garden there is not much 

to be done this month, except pruning and 



transplanting shrubs and vines and protecting 
plants that are liable to be injured by frost. 



AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

Finishing up the work of the year is now 
in order in every branch of farming; also 
settling all accounts or preparing to do so, 
that the new year's business may be com- 
menced aright. 

Fences should be repaired and new 

ones built as occasion requires. Some of tho 
heaviest losses and worst annoyances that the 
farmer meets, often result from inadequate 
fences, and when the time comes that other 
work will press, it is very difficult to give 
them the attention they require. We must 
see to it now. 

Cattle ca7i exist in our fine climate with 

little or no attention during the winter, but it 
does not pay in the end to let them thus take 
care of themselves. Let all your stock be 
well fed and sheltered, if you wish them to 
come out in good condition next spring. 

Manure is one of the essentials of good 

farming, and is now the time to make, collect 
and prepare it. See articles on " Making 
and Saving Manure," on '* Fertilizers," etc., 
in various numbers of Thk Ruual Caeo- 

LINIAN. 

Grub out roots, extract stumps, burn 

brush and inaugurate a general clearing up 
about the farm, preparatory to the commence- 
ment of the new year. 

Now is the time to organize Farmers' 

Clubs, to discuss agricultural topics and 
Granges of Patrons of Husbandry, for the 
protection of agricultural interests and tho 
elevation of the agriculturist. Making crops 
is not all of a farmer's life, or should not bo 
all. lie should strive to improve his mind 
and his heart as well as his soil and his stock. 
Read, also, such books as you can get on tho 
various subjects connected with your btisi- 
ness, and look over the back numbers of your 
BEcricultural magazines. 







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THE 



RURAL CAROLINIAN. 

Vol. III.] JANUARY, 1872. [No. IV. 



The Agricultural Advantages of South Carolina and its 
Inducements to Immigration. 



To portray " the agricultural advantages of South Carolina," and recite her 
"inducements to immigration," in a single essay will require a conciseness 
that forbids valuable minutife. In discussing this subject, I will first speak 
of her physical characteristics. 

Geographically, her position is peculiar, wedged in between the " Empire 
State of the South," and Old Rip, (who seems to have awakened from hia slum- 
bers in these latter years,) South Carolina presents a broader sea-coast, with 
deeper bays, and more extensive harbors than any State north of" Mason and 
Dixon's Line," a line well known to the citizens of the United States, and 
easily discovered by inquisitive immigrants. This peculiar sea-coast confor- 
mation naturally invites the products of the vast West and Northwest to her 
sea-ports, as the most direct line of foreign exportation. Her rivers are short 
and rapidly flowing, and furnish a practicable water-power, unsurpassed m 
the same area of land, (25,306 square miles,) perhaps in the world. Her 
superficial extent cannot be surpassed for its diversity of production, and 
nowhere in so small a compass can more varied employment be given to the 
industrious laborer. Away up in her northwest, where the wild and pic- 
turesque scenery is only modified by the limitless expanse of untrodden 
forests of hard wood, the most valuable minerals abound, which from want 
of effort to develop, their value and quantity still lie sleeping in the bosom of 
nature awaiting the enterprise and skill of the experienced miner. Here, too, 
are valley lands of great fertility, that produce abundantly all the cereals and 
the grasses. One step lower down on the great water shed of the Atlantic, 
are her middle counties, that grow prolifically middling cottons, ramie, hemp, 
flax, tobacco, rice and all the cereals, the finest fruits, most of the grasses, 
and every possible member of the vegetable kingdom that can be grown else- 
where in the temperate zone. Still lower down on her pliocene formations, 
fringed with inexhaustable pine forests that invite enterprise, are lands unsur- 
passed in fertility by the Delta of the Nile, and which produce a quality of 
No. 4, Vol. 3. 13 



1 70 The Agricultural Advantages of South Carolina. 

cotton and rice nowhere else grown in Christendom. Along her coast are ex- 
tensive beds of fossil deposits, which are now not only being utilized in the 
recuperation of her exhausted soil, but, from their superior value as a fertili- 
zer are being shipped, in their crude as well as in their manufactured state, 
in great abundance to foreign countries. And all over her surface, from the 
sea-coast to the mountains, medicinal plants of endless variety grow spon- 
taneously. 

These natural advantages have not been ignored by her enterprising citi- 
zens, who have constructed railroads that ramify her entire length and 
breadth ; only live counties in the State being without them, and three of these 
are soon to enjoy these facilities. Thus the products of the extreme northwest 
county of the State are within forty-eight hours easy reach of our principal 
sea-port, whence steamships and sailing vessels ply to all points of the habi- 
table globe. 

Climate, 

Whatever can be said favorably of the climate of any section of the Union 
may be said of the climate of South Carolina. Our proximity to the ocean 
greatly modifies the range of the thermometer, and equalizes the tempera- 
ture of our seasons. Our intensest cold seldom reaches the mean winter tem- 
perature of the Northwestern States, while the extreme heat of midsummer 
there is equal to and more disastrous than the hottest weather in South Caro- 
lina. Our winters are short, and seldom excessively cold. Our Fall and Spring 
are seasons of delightful temperature ; and our Summers, though long, and hot 
and occasionally dry, are seldom productive of malarial scourges. South Caro- 
lina may be said to possess a salubrity of climate and purity of air that makes 
her a stranger to calamitous epidemics. Her starry canopy is as brilliant, and 
her sunsets as gorgeous as those of vaunted Italy. Her atmosphere is as free 
from the humidity of England as it is from the volcanic fumes of Peru. No 
isothermal lines are necessary to trace the differences of climate between any 
two given points within her confines. The temperature is exceedingly equa- 
ble, shielded from the extremes by the proximity to each other of her sea-girt 
coast and mountain heights. Consumptives in South Carolina live beyond 
the average longevity of man, and in her mountain districts old inhabitants 
tell us, " they must leave home to die." 

Real Estate 
is cheaper in South Carolina than in any Northern or Northwestern State, 
and can be purchased of any quality for one half its intrinsic value. Home- 
steads, surrounded by partially exhausted land, capable of easy and rapid 
recuperation by scientific farming, can almost in every county be bought for 
less than the prime cost of the improvements. This fact should be well and 
carefully considered by the prudent immigrant. Is it not more advisable to 
purchase these lands already settled, surrounded by all the advantages of 
society, and markets, and railroad privileges, than to launch out into the 
wild unbroken forests of the Government domain of the great Northwest? 
Any plantation in South Carolina purchased at present ruling prices, and 



The Agricultural Advantages of South Carolina. 171 

occupied by the purchaser will, without a Bhadow of a doubt, realize twcnty-fivo 
per cent, annually upon the investment. The energetic, frus^al and economi- 
cal immigrant can purchase on time, and by his individual labors pay for a 
farm in South Carolina before he can, with all possible success, subdue and 
civilize the forests of the Northwest, simply because farming pays better in 
South Carolina than it does in the Northwest. This is a bold assertion, and 
may seem to lack confirmation, but in agriculture facts and figures predicated 
upon the past justify assertions as to the future. To corroborate this idea, 
I submit two statistical tables taken from the agricultural census of the 
United States for 1860. 

Indiana, one of the most flourishing of the Northwestern States, with a 
population of 1,400,000, is compared to South Carolina with her mixed popula- 
tion of 700,000, or only half that of Indiana. These figures and those of the 
table are given in round numbers. Where the fractional part exceeds the 
half, the next round number is taken ; where it is less, the preceding is taken. 

INDIANA. 

Area, 16,000,000 acres, value $357,000,000 

Live stock, value 42,000.000 

Farming implements, value 10,500,000 

Total investment §409,500,000 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Area, 16,000,000 acres, value $140,000,000 

Live stock, value 24,000,000 

Farming implements, value 6,000,000 

Total investment $170,000,000 

In 1860 Indiana produced : 

17,000,000 bushels of wheat, worth $17,000,000 

500,000 bushels of rye, worth 500,000 

72,000,000 bushels of corn, worth 30,000,000 

5,000,000 bushels of oats, worth 2,500,000 

8,000,000 pounds of tobacco, worth 2,000,000 

2,500,000 pounds of wool, worth 800,000 

80,000 bushels of peas &c., worth 80,000 

4.000,000 bushels of potatoes, worth 3,000,000 

400,000 bushels of barley, worth 400,000 

400,000 bushelsof buckwheat, worth 300,000 

Productof orchards, worth 2,000,000 

18,000,000 pounds of butter, worth 4,500,000 

600.000 pounds of cheese, worth 100,000 

625^000 tons of hay, worth 6,250,000 

100,000 bushels of grass seed, worth 500,000 

1,500,000 pounds of maple sugar, worth 250.000 

1,000,000 gallons maple and sorghum syrup, worth 500,000 

Home-made value of manufactures 1,000,000 

Value of slaughtered animals 10,000,000 

Hops, flax, barley, wax etc 2,000,0u0 

Total products > $83,680,000 



172 The Agricultural Advantages of South Carolina. 

In 1860 South Carolina produced : 

1,300,000 bushels of wheat, worth $2,000,000 

90,000 bushels of rye, worth 100,000 

15,000,000 bushels of corn, worth 15,000,000 

1,000,000 bushels of oats, worth 750,000 

120,000,000 pounds of rice, worth 7,000,000 

100,000 pounds of tobacco, worth 30,000 

353,412 bales of cotton, worth 18,000,000 

425,000 pounds of wool, worth 150,000 

1,800,000 bushels of peas, worth 2,000,000 

225,000 bushels of Irish potatoes, worth 150,000 

4,000,000 bushels of sweet potatoes, worth 2,000,000 

Products of orchard, worth 400,000 

3,000,000 pounds of butter, worth 600,000 

100,000 tons of hay, worth 1,500,000 

200 hhds. sugar, 1000 pounds each, worth 20,000 

15,000 gallons cane syrup, worth 15,000 

50,000 gallons sorghum syrup, worth 25,000 

Home-made, value of, manufactures 1,000,000 

Value of slaughtered animals 6,000,000 

Hops, wax, honey, barley, etc 500,000 

Total products §57,240,000 

Thus an official record proves, that whilst the fairest of the sisterhood of 
Northwestern States realized in 1860 less than twenty per cent, gross upon 
the capital invested, South Carolina had a gross income of more than thirty- 
three per cent. 

Social Status. 
There can be no lack of social advantages in any of the older States, and 
especially so in South Carolina, where intelligent, educated and refined na- 
tives from almost every country in Europe, or their descendants, are settled 
as bona fide citizens of every county in the State. If a peoi^le are likely to 
partake socially of those idiosyncracies which result from their past political 
history. South Carolinians are entitled to that esprit du corps which attached 
to the idea of chivalry, and all immigrants settling within her confines, and 
becoming identified with her people and her soil, imperceptibly imbibe the 
same feelings. If the names of Caesar and Napoleon are associated with 
Eoman and French renown and greatness, or if the names of Bruce and Tell 
are suggestive of the mountains and highlands of their respective countries, 
80 is the name of South Carolina suggestive of its envied peculiarities, despite 
the taunts and jeers of our traducers. Every native South Carolinian well 
knows, and without boasting should honor the thought, that being a South 
Carolinan is prima facie evidence of being a gentleman, and no more potent 
introduction into good society throughout this Union can be devised than the 
simple assertion — I am a South Carolinian ! 

Education. 
The educational advantages of South Carolina are unlimited. Scarcely a 
county seat but that has its academies, and scattered throughout the State 



The Agricultural Advantages of South Carolina, 1 73 

in almost every township are flourishing schools where children can bo taught 
the rudiments of an education with accuracy and economy. Besides the 
State University and the Charleston College, there are institutions where 
the learned professions are taught, and denominational colleges and military 
academies, where youths can receive practical moral lessons as well as be 
ti'ained to grapple with the duties of life. And equally well is the State pro- 
vided with those charitable establishments whore the poor find help, the 
insane are cared for, and orphans made happy. 

Religion. 
The piety of our people is comparable to that of any other Christian com- 
munity. The Protestant religion prevails, and the several denominations, 
perhaps, rank in the following order: Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, 
Episcopalians, Associate Eetbrmed and Lutheran. In many parts of the 
State the Eomanists have their churches. Without let or hindrance, our 
people are at liberty to worship God after the manner of their own choosing. 

Manufactures. 
The experienced artisan need not want for an opportunity to apply his 
dextrous art in South Carolina, for manufactories of all kinds are either in 
operation, or are being rapidly erected in many parts of the State. Nowhere, 
perhaps, in the United States, are handsomer net incomes realized from the 
capital invested than amongst the manufactories of South Carolina, the chief 
of which are manufactories of pottery, crockery, brooms, paper, wool and 
cotton, and iron foundries. 

Labor. 

The present generation know no other than negro labor, which though 
once the most effective and the cheapest, is now inefficient and dear. Though 
abundant, this labor is virtually scarce because not available, and almost 
wholly unreliable, hence the better opening for the industrious immigrant. 
In advocating immigration it should not be our purpose to eradicate existing 
labor, but to improve it, which can best be done by competition. 

To sum up in an epitome of truth and correctness. South Carolina has the 
soil and climate to produce any crop not requiring the heat and cold of the 
torrid and frigid zones. Her geographical position and railroad facilities place 
her in immediate communication with the markets of the world. Her in- 
creasing manufactures, her religious privileges, her educational advantages, 
her unexceptionable social status and the quality of the labor, all assure the 
honest immigrant than within her confines, better than elsewhere, can be 
found lovely, happy homes. D. WYATT AIKEN. 



White Beans. — A member of the American Institute Farmer's Club, New 
York, estimates that he can raise $450 worth of white (Navy) beans per 
acre. We can do as well or better than that here with the beans, and get a 
second crop from the same ground. 



174 The Reclaiming of Hill-Sides. 

The Reclaiming of Hill-Sides. 



The damage to the cleared lands in om* hill country, caused by washing 
rains together with improper culture is so great as to render their value, in 
many instances, from 25 to 50 per cent, less than it would be, had this damage 
been prevented. Though as great as it is, it can be repaired. The ghastly 
(mllies, we had almost said, to be seen on almost every cultivated hill-side can 
be filled up and leveled over, and the land restored, at but little cost, to its 
original evenness. As a means of accomplishing this we would suggest to the 
planters, whose lands have been thus damaged, that they plant for the next 
two or three years, or until their damaged hill-sides are all reclaimed, say 
from one-fourth to one-third less land than they have heretofore planted, each 
selecting as the portion to be left out the fields that have been most damaged. 

For each work animal not needed in the crop, on account of lessening the 
planting area, hire for a moneyed consideration, a reliable laborer, whose prin- 
cipal duty for the year shall be to fill up the gullies in the fields not planted, 
by hauling from the most accessible points any and everything that will 
answer for the purpose. The expenses incident to the hiring of the laborers 
can be easily defrayed by requiring each to cultivate a few acres of cotton, 
which can be done without its interfering materially with his regular work. 

By the judicious application of this plan the planter can have his gullied 
hill-sides easily and cheaply reclaimed, and at the same time, though planting 
a smaller area, with the advantage of planting only his best land, and the 
use of the same quantit}' of fertilizers applied to the area formerly planted, 
stand a fair chance of making just as much, if not a little more, as when he 
planted his good and his damaged land together. 

Another result attending it would be the important step taken by those 
adopting it in the direction of retrenchment and reform, or, as some of our 
friends would express it, towards concentrating ; a step so very necessary to 
be taken by our planters, many of whom still adhere with a wonderful tenac- 
ity, and a zeal worthy of a better cause, to the old time way of scratching 
over almost the half of ci*eation, to the great damage of their land, and at but 
a very small profit on the amount of capital invested in their planting interest. 

In commencing work upon the gullies, the lower end of each should first bo 
obstructed with rocks, logs or heavy bx'ush to prevent the passage out of what- 
ever might be washed down during the progress of filling up above. Com- 
mence then at the upper end to fill up and complete the job by sections from 
thence to the lower end. 

Where the gullies are of any considerable depth we would suggest first the 
use of rocks or logs, next clay to within 12 or 15 inches of a level with the 
adjacent ground, and then top soil or swamp muck together with woods trash 
and decayed vegetable matter. The level of the gullies, when the filling up 
is completed, should be about 10 inches above the original level to allow for 
Bettlin<4;. 



Colonel D. Wyatt Aiken and Abbefville Farming. 175 

After the work of reclaiming tlie hill-sides is finished, apply as early as prac- 
ticable the plan suggested in the November number of The Ixural Carolinian 
for the preservation of hill-sides. 

We must not be understood, however, as saying that gullied hill-sides should 
first be reclaimed before applying that S3'stem. 

It would of course be best if the gullies could first be leveled over, though 
its application even before this is done would tend much to prevent further 
injury to the land. IIILL-SIDE. 

^St. Matthew's, November, 1871. 



Colonel D. Wyatt Aiken and Abbeville Farming. 



Near the eastern borders of Abbeville County, and within a few miles of 
the beautiful Saluda, in the midst of one of the finest and most salubrious re- 
gions of country in the South, (or in the world, for that matter,) is situated 
Stoney Point, the plantation of our friend and co-worker. Colonel D. Wyatt 
Aiken. Not long since, we had the pleasure of partaking, for a few too brief 
days, of the genial and graceful hospitalities of the place, and of examining, 
as well as the lateness of the season and the shortness of our visit would 
permit, some good specimens of Abbeville farming. 

It is not our intention to repay the considerate kindness which made our 
short stay so pleasant, by any fulsome puffery, after the style of the news- 
paper reporters of the day, or to make use of what we learned to give Abbe- 
ville and its farmers an undue preeminence. We did not visit our friend 
for any such purpose. We went up to Abbeville to see the country and to 
give ourself the benefit of a few days of recreation; but if we can make the 
trip in any way profitable to our readers, another object will have been 
attained. If Abbeville farming has some good points, not generally prevailing 
elsewhere, we may benefit others by setting them before our readers, who, 
we are sure, are always ready and willing to follow good examples, whoever 
may set them. 

From Ninety-six Station to Stoney Point, we pass over a fine rolling 
country with a strong red clay soil, and (where the natural forest remains) a 
heavy growth of oak and hickory. Here, as everywhere else in the South, 
old fields abound, but the growth upon most of them indicates that their 
fertility is by no means wholl}'' exhausted. Our visit was made in November. 
Corn was generally harvested, and the last picking of cotton was being made. 
Fields of red oats and patches of barley, and of red clover were to be seen 
on every side, and very refreshing they were to the eye. We were pleased 
to see orchards of peach and apple trees on every plantation. They were 
not, in all cases, so well kept as we could desire, but they show that fruit is 
appreciated, and that the soil and climate favor its production. 

During our rides, walks and talks with Colonel Aiken, we saw and heard 
much of the farmers and the farming of the neighborhood, and the county 



176 Colonel D. Wyatt Aiken and Abbeville Farming. 

generally, of all of which wo "took note;" but we can speak on a few points 
only, here and now. 

LEASING LAND TO PREEDMEN. 

We inquired particularly into the practical workings of Colonel Aiken's 
plan of renting land tofreedmen — rent payable in cotton — and are convinced 
that, with the class of negroes ho has gathered around him, and with his 
admirable management, nothing could better promote the interests of both 
the laborer and the laud-owner. The rents are promptly paid from the first 
cotton ginned. The rest, with their corn and other crops, belongs to the 
laborers, and they all do well and are encouraged to strive for still better 
results. Is not this system a good one for general adoption ? 

To keep the well-disposed negroes in his neighborhood and to give them 
additional ties and the place additional attractions, as well as to promote re- 
ligion and morality. Colonel Aiken has given them land on which to erect a 
church, and they had at the time of our visit commenced building it. 

COTTON ON OLD FIELDS. 

Colonel Aiken's principal cotton field was on a piece of land which is known 
to have been in cultivation for nearly or quite a hundred years, and better 
cotton one seldom sees in any of the older cotton States. We were glad to 
see a very general attention being paid to the recuperation of old fields, in 
preference to the exclusive clearing and "skinning" of new lands. It is 
neither difiicult nor very expensive, to bring such old fields as we saw in Abbe- 
ville County up to the point at which they will produce a crop of clover. 
Once in clover, one can make anything he will of them ; and this brings us to 
one of the most important features of what we saw of farming at and near 
Stoney Point. 

CLOVER AS AN AMELIORATOR OF THE SOIL. 

The readers of The Eural Carolinian need not be told here that clover 
growing, in our middle and upper country, on good clayey lands, is an estab- 
lished fact—]\x%t as well settled, indeed, as cotton culture. It remains for our 
friends residing still further South, and on lighter soils, to determine, by judi- 
cious experiment, just where, and under what condition, the limits of its suc- 
cessful production are to bo found ; and we urge our readers everywhere to 
give it a fair test, and not to be satisfied with a single trial. 

Numerous facts brought out, not only in the South, but elsewhere, have 
shown that clover is the best ameliorator of clayey lands yet discovered. It 
not only enriches them, but it improves their texture and color to a wonder- 
ful extent, as we had abundant opportunity of observing during our late visit 
to Stoney Point, and we wish here simply to state the fact, and again to 
urge our readers who are farming on clayey lands to try it. 

the small grains with cotton. 
The practice of sowing the small grains on cotton fields, while the cotton 
is still standing, seems to be universal in the neighborhood of which we have 



How to Improve Plney Woods Lands. 177 

been speakiog. Oats arc sown at the last woi-king of the cotton, no extra 
labor being required except that of broadcasting the seed between the rows 
in advance of the plough ; but oats sown so early in the season require to be 
fed off before the final picking of the cotton. Sheep do this work, greatly to 
their own benefit and without injury to the cotton, provided, of course, they 
are turned out as soon as the oats are well cropped. Wheat, sown later, 
requires to be covered with a plough or cultivator. During the winter the 
cotton stalks are to bo broken down, when the grain has full possession of 
the field. 

HORSES, CATTLE AND SHEEP. 

Colonel Aiken believes in the profit of keeping and breeding improved 
stock of all kinds, and his horses, mules and cattle bear witness to the sound- 
ness of his views and the success of his practice. Another thing which 
pleased us was his arrangements for the comfort of his stock, and his atten- 
tion to their needs during the winter season. "The merciful man is merciful 
to his beast." 

The Stoney Point flock of Merinoes, something about which our readers 
have been told in previous numbers of The Eural Carolinian, now numbers 
about one hundred, and plump, healthy, fine looking animals they are. If 
any one is possessed by the popular idea that the Merino does not make good 
mutton, as well as fine wool, we would suggest that the samples he may find 
on Colonel Aiken's table would soon settle that point, as well to the credit of 
the sheep as the honor of Stoney Point cookery. 

ESSEX AND BERKSHIRE HOGS. 

The Black Essex and the Berkshire are the favorite breeds of swine at 
Stoney Point, and its vicinity, though we also saw some fine Chester Whites. 
We were glad to learn that Col. Aiken finds a ready sale for his fine pi^s, be- 
cause it shows that there is a demand for such improved animals, and ensures 
to the country, for the future, better stock and more profit in raising hogs. 

We are not at the end of our notes, but lest we should give the reader too 
many points to consider at one time, we will close here for the present. 



Ho^w to Improve Piney "Woods Lands. 



You ask your correspondents, in the "Land of Flowers," to "give J. L. I. 
light" on growing "clover successfully in Florida," and also as to "the best 
mode of cultivating and improving the poor piney, sandy soils of Florida." 

To the first question I can make no answer at all, not having made, and 
knowing no one who has made, the experiment of growing clover on the 
piney woods lands of Florida. 

It is doubted whether the ''best mode of cultivating" the piney woods land 
of the Gulf States has yet been discovered. The attention paid to this sub- 



178 Hoio to Improve Piney Woods Lands. 

ject has been very slight, and the parties most interested are generally 
poor, and ill informed as to the general principles of agriculture, besides 
being widely separated from each other, and with little desire and few 
opportunities for conference and comparison as to the results of different 
modes of cultivation. Our opinion is, however, that the pine lands of the 
Gulf States have been badly slandered, and the phraseology of the inquiry 
made by your correspondent leads us to suspect that he is to some extent 
a follower of the popular and erroneous belief on this subject. These lands 
embrace large sections as rich as the delta of the Mississippi, and the poorest 
portions are naturally richer and more productive than the sandy soil of JSTew 
Jersey, that is to-day covered with the garden spots that supply a large pro- 
portion of the market products going to the cities of New York and Phila- 
delphia. With a climate like ours, Vineland in New Jersey would be an 
earthly Paradise. What ails us is not the " poor pine}^ sandy soils of 
Florida," but the poor thriftless cultivators of the soil, who spend their time 
in digging for gophers and hunting for a few scattering deer and turkeys, 
instead of cultivating the soil — a ^^ cow-penned " patch or two, twenty or 
thirty miles distant from each other evidencing the extent of their abilities 
in that direction. We speak, of coui'se, of many, not of all. The improve- 
ment in this regard is not only appreciable but rapid. 

The people of the pine lands are getting clear of the negroes and relj'ing 
more and more upon themselves and white labor. An experience of eight 
years, connected with careful observation as to what was going on around 
us, has satisfied us that " nigger" sweat won't grow turnips nor raise radishes. 
The black man of the United States as a hired laborer, on any other than a 
cotton and rice plantation, (and we doubt his ultimate success even there,) 
is a failure, and to the pine woods farmer an incubus, an eating canker, and 
a perpetual torment. He will neither dig nor spade deep enough, and he will 
shirk it in every way possible. 

The first general rule we would lay down for "J. L. I.," as to "the best 
mode of cultivating and improving the poor piney and sandy soil" of tlie 
South is this: Do the work yourself, and within your own family, and employ 
none but white laborers, if you employ any. There is not now time or room 
to speak at length, but the reasons for this are, to our minds, many and 
weighty, and touch closely on many points intimately connected with the 
agricultural and general welfare of the Southern people. Had the people of 
the South, at the close of the war, at once and forever freed themselves from 
all dependence upon the negro, and left him entirely to his own devices and 
those of the polilicians who wanted his services, the money that has been 
stolen by the political cormorants instead of going into the pockets of ad- 
venturers, would have been forced into home use for feeding the "Nation's 
wards," and it would have been equal and exact justice; "for the laborer is 
worthy of his hire," and the days spent by the negro in attending to politics, 
and the result thereof upon the negro himself, has been the ruin of the 
Southern planter and farmer. 



How to Improve Plney Woods Lands. 179 

Above and beyond this special local consideration there exists the general 
truth that all apparently poor lands have been successfully reclaimed, culti- 
vated and made sources of wealth and revenue, and capable of supporting a 
largo population only by the settlement upon them of people who, as a rule, 
confined themselves to small farms or gardens and did the necessary work 
with their own hands. The sandy plains around the capital of Prussia, with 
their teeming population ; the rich garden spots in New Jersey, and the 
wealth and prosperity of the German and Scandanavian settlements in Penn- 
sylvania and the West, all indicate clearly the means by which the desired 
end may be attained. 

It is hoped this is "information " "general" enough to meet the views of 
your correspondent. It is not what we had intended to say when we took up the 
pen, but wo doubt if a better beginning could have been given to our answer, 
or if wo could have got an}'' nearer to the root of the difficulty. 

After four years of practical labor on the poorest of piney woods land, not 
unattended with successful and satisfactory results, w^e are prepared to say to 
"J. L. I." and others, get down deep in the ground, 12, 18, 36 inches, if you 
can make your soil so deep, and use lime freely. The soil operated on here 
will bear 100 bushels to the acre, applied 25 or 50 bushels per year. How 
much more can be profitably applied I have not yet tested, but intend to keep 
putting on as the alterative and changing effect on the sand is clearly marked. 
It gives the soil adhesive and moisture retaining power, besides supplying 
valuable plant food. Haul all the swamp muck you can, compost it with 
stable and other manures, say two parts muck to one part manure, and let it 
lay four months or longer in a heap, then spread on land or apply in drills. 
Purchase bone dust, guano and good commercial fertilizers, (I find Langdon 
the best for pine woods land,) as you are able, going however, to little expense 
until you have felt your way by testing them as to practical and profitable 
results. 

If possible, mulch every inch of your ground, and as soon as the growing 
crop will allow it. Cover the space between the rows with pine straw or some- 
thing else that will keep the weeds down and the hot sun off" the ground. 
Cultivated land in Florida should be covered from two to six inches deep from 
April to October. You will find not only these rules, but " also, general 
information," and particular directions as to the various modes of cultivating 
and improving land in any good Southern agricultural journal, and better set 
forth than I can state them. 

Let hand and brain work together ; seek to be sufficient in, and of your- 
self; have faith to sow your seed and wait for the harvest; you shall bring 
in your sheaves rejoicing. Put your baud to the plough and refrain from 
looking back; press onward and forward; "paddle your own canoe," and 
your poor, piney, sandy soil of Florida will soon "bud and blossom as the rose," 
and generations yet unborn, will arise " and call you blessed ;" a benefactor 
among men, because you "caused a blade of grass to grow where none grew 
before." PINTJS SILV^. 



180 More About Jute. 

More About Jute. 



The following extracts from two letters addressed to our friend, F. Peyre 
Porcher, M. D., of this city, by Mr. Thomas H. Dunham, of Boston, will be 
read with interest in connection with the facts and suggestions already pub- 
lished in The Rural Carolinian. Of the adaptation of jute to our climate, 
on the seaboard at least, there can be no doubt. Some stalks of it in our 
garden, planted in June, matured seed ; but it should be planted much ear- 
lier. We found no difficulty whatever in preparing specimens of the fibre. 
Mr. Dunham says: 

I have had much to do with tariff on jute, and in its manufacture, the 
latter from boj-hood to fifty years of age. 

The demand is now a national necessity — no one fibre in the general use is so 
much needed. I started the first gunny cloth manufacture here at the North, 
and was burnt out six months before the war, but had made tons of the yarn 
and a few thousand 3-ards of cloth. I am very glad to know of the promis- 
ing state of this plant, and will aid you and 'others all I can towards the 
introduction freely. 

1st. Jute is put up in three hundred pound bales well compressed, but need 
not be more than pressed, in an ordinary cotton press, the fibres being long 
lay better than cotton, press easier, no bagging is used, or but one small strip 
face each ; side rope wound around, turned every time around, so as to make 
a bight to hold, not baled as cotton. Usually jute rope is same size as cotton 
bale rope, it don't need much care in baling, nor any expense. 2d. I have 
been unable to learn up to this time as to the treatment beyond careful 
dressing and don't think anything further is done; the buts are cut so as to 
give pretty uniform length, in bundles arm size. Do not cut too far down as 
they cut the but again about eighteen inches, and send that now in bales as 
"jute ends or buts." They are very stiff and red, while the main stalk is 
whiter — pale white with streaks of reddish in it at times. I think the sun is 
the great working force in its production to wuiteness and growth. "Doss 
jute " is Soudon or English premium jute, owing to silkiness and white color. 
1 colored it and made it into bogus woolen yarns for carpets in 1850, the first 
I ever knew. It went into blankets freely afterwards. No jute comes white 
as cotton. The sun rots the fibre. I think it is a perfectly tender plant. It 
can never be used on shipboard as it has no strength. Painted as oil cloth, 
or used in gunny cloth or gunny bags, cheap bale rope, mixing with wool or 
in any capacity not requiring strength it answers better than anything else. 
It has no dust, nor dirt, or wood in the fibre, it requires no cleaning in its 
manufacture. No waste comes from it, it is more volatile than any fibrous 
plant in use, it is lighter and more buoyant than cotton, quicker to burn, but 
not so inflammable as any wool or cotton. It is the cheapest known fibre and 
most worthless for strength, but really has wear enough, as it is used, for the 
purposes named. Only one place out of India manufactured it into cloth, 
that was Dundee, Scotland, ten years ago. Now the manufacture is large 
here, but nothing to what it will be. 3d. No doubt need be entertained as to 
quantity needed. Five to ten tons per day is used at the North easily, if it 
could be had. 

A manufactory of gunny cloth and rope for bagging and carpeting would 
take many hands, and can be had as well at Charleston as any ])lace. The 
goods have to be carried, that is for a few months each 3'ear, to the crops as 



Cultivation of Sugar- Cane. 181 

wanted. The South should take this in hand. A man who could got the 
States interested should do so. I can got Hon, Geo. Boutwell, several Senators 
and others in the House. Money would be given by the States and nation to 
this growth. You cannot begin to estimate the value in gold of this plant 
to the South. It equals half the cotton crop. Flax, hemp, etc., are not, can- 
not be used in cloth fibre as this is. Everything North and South, at home 
and abroad, is using this fibre that can do so. The price of cotton or other 
fibre does not atfect this. The rank, quick growth would make it pay, and 
little risk in culture. Can the growth be helped by anything doue ? I should 
be glad to push matters on here, or at Washington, or abroad. 

Jute has no gum to hold its fibre, and rots under alkali or bleaching pro- 
cess, (or coloring paints,) never coming out without great waste. White 
paper would be made from it if it would stand bleaching. Buff envelopes 
and pure manilla paper are all made from jute. American hemp makes best 
printing paper for newspapers — white rags and linen rags for books. Three 
and a half to four and a half cents per pound can be paid for the red or root 
pieces of jute for paper stock, using twenty tons daily. 

I believe it can be made to compete with straw in straw board and papers. 
One house in the commission paper business has forty straw board and paper 
mills, using each, one to five tons daily. Our common straw paper used in 
groceries is much sought for and brings a good price. Delaware, Maryland 
and Pennsylvania are great straw paper and board regions. Jute or Manilla 
paper would come cheaper, and is stronger than straw. 

Jute ought to be grown here in this country, at the South and in Texas. It 
can require little or no care. There is nothing that can injure it. As a crop, 
even the smallest growth can be used. 



Cultivation of Sugar-Cane. 



The high price of sugar and molasses having made many planters turn 
their attention to sugar-cane, who never raised it before, we will, therefore, 
give a brief sketch of its cultivation and management. In an article of this 
kind, of course, we cannot go into all the details of working up the crop into 
sugar, etc. No inflexible general rules can be laid down for the cultivation 
of any crop, which will suit exactly all individual cases. 

Sugar-Cane. 

This cane is propagated, not from seed but from cuttings. It requires an 
average of an acre of cane to furnish cuttings to plant four acres. The riper 
the cane the better it is for planting, and the ripest part of the stock the 
best to plant. Hence, it is poor economy to use the green tops for planting, 
and use the best part of the stock for sugar. With cane, like other plants, 
imperfect seed produces imperfect and feeble plants. For the best results we 
should use the best and ripest cane to plant. 

The varieties of cane, now generally planted, are the Otahite, Creole, 
Green Ribbon, Red Ribbon and Bourbon. 

The "Otahite" yields an abundant juice, but is delicate and tender, and 
is not regarded with favor. 

The " Creole " is easily crushed, and yields a very rich and delicious juice, 
making very fine sugar, but it is tender and easily frosted. It is not at pres- 
ent 80 extensively cultivated as formerly. 



182 Cultivation of Sugar-Cane. 

The "Green Eibbon" jnelds well, but is tender and easily affected by- 
frost, and, therefore, not much cultivated. 

The "Red Ribbon " is a beautiful and hardj' cane, with strong thick skin, 
which protects it from slight frosts, ratloons well, and yields an abundance of 
juice rich in sugar. This is the favoiite cane. 

The "Bourbon" resembles the "Red Ribbon," the stock being a dark 
purple, with a thick skin protecting it from the cold. It is hardy, rattoons 
well, yields well; is probably cultivated more extensively than the other 
varieties. 

The beginner who procures either the Red Ribbon or Bourbon, may be 
certain he starts with good stock. 

Saving Seed Cane. 

The cutting for seed is usually done in October or November. It is better 
to delay it as long as possible without running any risk of frost, that the 
cane may be well ripened, and because the stubble is much injured by too 
early cutting, very often so much as to require re-planting. As soon as the 
cane is cut, unless it is immediatel}'^ planted, it is matted to preserve it from 
frost until time can be found to plant it. The '^mattresses" are made of vari- 
ous forms — on large plantations frequently 150 feet long by forty feet wide, 
and two or three feet thick, the buts of the stalks being made to touch 
the ground, and all laid in the same direction, so that the leaves will afford 
as much protection as possible. The sides and ends of the "mat" are partly 
covered with dirt. 

Preparation of the Soil. 

The first thing to be attended to, if the land needs it, is the proper drain- 
age of the ground. When the land is fertile, wide rows, if well cultivated, 
will produce an equal quantit}" of cane as closer, and there is much less ex- 
pense and labor in planting and cultivating the crop. 

The land should be deeply broken up with a two or four-horse plough. If 
light and sandy, should be ploughed flat; but if stiff or wet, it should be 
thrown up in high beds. Great advantage has always followed the use of a 
subsoil plough, when run a foot below the bottom of the turning furrow, and 
immediately under the rows to be occupied by the seed cane. This is the 
more important as no opportunity will again occur for breaking up this por- 
tion of the soil until the plant is renewed. 

The ploughing should never long precede the planting, unless in stiff soils, 
which need the influence of the atmosphere to crumble the large clods. A 
fine bed of well pulverized earth is thus secured for the plants to take root in. 

Land for sugar-cane should be fertile, either naturally or be made rich. 
This leads to the discussion of the question, " What i'ertilizers should be ap- 
plied to the soil for sugar-cane ?" To answer this intelligently, it is necessary 
to give the analysis of the ashes of sugar-cane. 

Analysis of Ashes of Cane by Stenhouse. 

Silica, (dissolved sand) 44.13 

Phosphoric acid 4.88 

Sulphuric acid 7.74 

Lime 5.49 

Magnesia 11.90 

Potash 16.97 

Soda 1.64 

Chloride Sodium, (common salt) 7.25 

100.00 



Cultivation of Sugar- Cane. 183 

Wo 8ec from the .above, that silica or sand, made soluble, is one of the prin- 
cipal niineral ingredients of sugar-cane; this sand, of course, is obtained from 
the soil, and is made soluble by alkalies, such as potash, soda and lime. 
Hence, the importance of applying ashes, lime and common salt to lands 
intended for sugar-cane. We see from the analysis that these very ingre- 
dients are direct food for the plants; they also do good by neutralizing the 
vegetable acids in the soil. 

If the alluvial lands of Louisiana, and other fertile lands, are properly 
managed, they will never become exhausted by the cultivation of sugar-cane, 
provided wo return to the soil all the trash, leaves and " bagasse " taken 
from it; and if the "bagasse" has been burned, as is often the case when 
fuel is scarce, the ashes should be scrupulously saved and used as a manure 
on the same field. 

G3'psum, sulphate of lime, or land plaster — for this substance is called by 
all these names — furnishes both lime and sulphuric acid to the plant. It is a 
fact, perhaps, not known by many, that there are large beds of this valuable 
fertilizer extending over a large area in Louisiana. It seems as if nature 
stores up for the use of man, valuable ingredients for the restoration of our 
exhausted soils, that, too, in close proximity to places most needing them. 

A small portion of bone-dust or phosphate of lime, will furnish the phos- 
phoric acid needed by the plant. 

Most soils have an abundance of magnesia in them. 

Common salt furnishes soda, for it is muriatic acid and soda combined. 
This substance is found in great abundance in the shape of rock-salt in 
Louisiana. 

From what has been written above, wo think any intelligent planter may 
be able to select the fertilizers applicable to the sugar-cane. 

Time for Planting. 

The best time to plant is the fall, as soon as the seed cane is mature ; but, 
on account of the hurry of grinding and manufacturing sugar at that season, 
it is very seldom commenced until January. Sometimes planting has to be 
deferred until spring; in that event, the cane should not be covered so deep 
as in the fall or winter planting. 

Planting. 

The most generally approved method seems to be, after the furrow is 
opened, to lay three canes in the furrow, in rows about four inches apart. 
The canes should be laid with the ends overlapping and the joints alternatino-, 
that is, "breaking Joints." Care should be taken not to lay it so one row of 
eyes will be on the ground underneath, and be smothered or retarded in 
growth. The cane should be carefully covered, from four to six inches deep, 
and a deep water furrow should be run between the beds. 

Cultivation. 

The main object should be to keep the grass and weeds down and the soil 
mellow. As soon as the cane is up, the ground should be stirred with alight 
plough, throwing the dirt from the plants ; then, when the cane is a foot high, 
ihe furrow should be reversed and the dirt thrown to the cane, hilling it up 
slightly. The middles of the rows should be broken out with a two horse 
plough. By the first, or middle of July, the crop should be well earthed up 
and the cane growing from the crest of a round bed, with deep water furrows 
between the rows ; it should then be " laid by." The cultivation of the stubble 
is the same. The stubble produces a fair crop the second year — somtimes 
nearly equal to the first crop. The third year it falls off materially. It is 
becoming moi'e and more customary to plant everj' two years, though some 
still continue lo raise the third crop from stubble. 



184 Queries on Composting Commercial Fertilizers. 

Harvesting 

commences about the last of October, or first of Xovember, according to the 
season. Every exertion should be used to save the cane from freezing. If 
the crop is so small that it can all be ground before freezing weather com- 
mences, it is better to cut the cane only so fast as the mill needs it for grind- 
ing, for then it is fresh and in the best condition, and all rc-handliug is saved. 
If there is more cane standing than can be ground before freezing, then a good 
portion should be cut and put in a wind-row, or be matted to protect it from 
frost until ground. 

When cut, the cane is hauled directly to the mill for grinding, the operator 
uses a large cane knife made expressly for the purpose, and by an upward 
stroke cuts off the immature top of the stalk, and by two downward strokes 
strips the leaves from each side of the cane, by another stroke cuts the cane 
off near the ground, leaving a stalk from three to five feet long ready to go to 
the mill. It is essential the leaves should be stripped off. If permitted to go 
through the mill, they carry off much of the juice, besides littering up the mill 
and adding to the foreign matter in the juice, thereby increasing the difficulty 
and labor of defecating it. 

If the cane should become frosted, it must be ground as soon as possible, as 
it will quickly sour and spoil. The souring of cane after a freeze is much 
hastened by the heat of the sun, therefore, the canes that are most scattering 
and exposed to the sunlight should be ground first. 

The Yield. 

On new rich lands the yield is often, in favorable seasons, from 3,000 to 
4,000 pounds of sugar to the acre, and 50 gallons of molasses for every 1,000 
pounds of sugar. On old lands the average is from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds, and 
molasses in proportion. These old lands, by a judicious system of deep tillage, 
draining and manuring, may all be brought up to the average yield of the new 
lands. In ordinary seasons one good hand is capable of cultivating ten acres. 
If the soil is heavy and season wet, eight acres would be a fair allowance for 
each hand. S., in The Field and Factory. 



Queries on Composting Commercial Fertilizers. 



[Feeling an interest in the success of all our fertilizer manufacturing 
companies, and a still stronger one in the profitable use of their manures by 
our planters and farmers, we publish with pleasure anything which we think 
will contribute to these desirable results. In laying before our readers the 
following correspondence, we need hardly say that we do not thereby give 
any special preference to the particular fertilizer which happened to be the 
subject of experiment. The queries and replies are equally applicable to 
the similar fertilizers manufactured by other companies, and the information 
imparted will be no less useful to the farmer who is using any one of 
them. — Ed.] 

Society Hill, S. C, November 27. 
Messrs. W. C. Bee & Co. 

Gentlemen : As a practical farmer, I am very much interested in the success 
of your fertilizers. I therefore take the liberty of asking a question with re- 
gard to their application, which 1 trust you will deem of sufficient importance 



Queries on Composting Commercial Fertilizers. 185 

to submit to your chemist ami to </\vo me an answer, either by private letter, 
or, if you prefer, in some way wiiieli may reach a large number "of interested 
readers. 

In your circular, you insist upon the importance of compostintr your "dis- 
solved bone" witii cotton seed, and allowing it to stand as Ion'*- a time as 
possible. Now, the question is, would not these materials act as'^well simply 
put together under the bed at a reasonable time before plantino-. In other 
words, are the chemical products of the compost heap different fmrn and more 
valuable than those which would result from the more gradual decom- 
position within and under the soil? 

Dana, in his " Muck Manual," seems to advance this theory, but I have not 
met with it elsewhere. The ordinary value of the compost heap is to reduce 
crude materials at once to the condition of plant food, without, perhaps 
adding to the ultimate value of its materials. ' ' 

During the present season I composted your dissolved bone with wood 
scrapings and cotton seed, and used it with excellent results. I also simply 
mixed your Etiwan with cotton seed with equally good results. One of my 
neighbors composted j-our dissolved bone with cotton seed strictly after your 
formula with striking effects. While another simply put them under the bed 
together with results equally 8atisfactor>^ You thus see the difficulty of 
reaching safe conclusions by experiment alone. Experiments, to be of value, 
should be extended through a series of years, and conducted with more care 
than farmers are generally willing or able to bestow. In the loose way in 
which they are usually made they lead to much error and to many agricul- 
tural absurdities. I would therefore prefer a chemical treatment of the sub- 
ject. If there bo no chemical and consequent practical advantage in the com- 
post, it is very important that it should be known, as its preparation in the 
manner which you recommend is tedious and expensive. Cotton seed in- 
tended for manure is now universally kept under cover, so that no loss of am- 
monia, can take place from rotting. 

With high respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

EDWARD E. EVANS. 

Charleston, S. C, December 1, 1871. 
Messrs. W, 0. Bee & Co. 

Gentlemen : I would say in reply to the inquiry of Mr. Evans that com- 
posting cotton seed and dissolved bone in heaps, is better than mixino- them 
in the soil for the following reason : '^ 

The chief use of cotton seed as a manure, is to furnish ammonia; now this 
does not exist in the seed as ammonia, but as nitrogen, which on the decom- 
position of the seed unites with hydrogen to form ammonia. It is therefore 
highly necessary, that the decomposition should be such as to ensure this re- 
sult. 

There are two -kinds of decomposition, one slow, the other rapid. The 
slow one takes place when the seed is exposed freely to air, while the rapid 
one proceeds only when the air is nearly or entirely excluded. 

In the slow decay of the seed, the tendency of the nitrogen is to escape free 
and not to combine with hydrogen to form amnaonia, while in the rapid 
putrefaction of the seed all the nitrogen goes to form ammonia. 

It will therefore be seen that when the seed is placed in the soil as a 

manure, and commences to decompose, as it is exposed pretty freely to the 

air from the porosity of the soil, the decomposition would be rather of the 

slow kind, so that the tendency of the nitrogen would be to escape and bo 

No. 4, Vol. 3. 14 



186 Farm Adornment. 

lost ; while in the heap, as the air is almost entirely excluded, the rapid de- 
composition occurs, and all the Ditrogeii is saved as ammonia. 

The fact mentioned by Mr. Evans that the two composts of dissolved bone 
and cotton seed and Etiwan and cotton seed, gave equally good results, 
-would leave me to infer that bis land or mode of cultivation gives more 
ammonia than is usual, so that he might save himself the expense of that 
valuable ingredient of the Etiwan, and simply use dist-olved bone and seed. 

I would, however, advise him to repeat the experiment careiully before 
coming to a determinate conclusion. 

Very respectfully, 

W. W. MEMMINGER, 
Assistant Chemist and Secretary. 



Farm Adornment. 



In an old number of the Rural New Yorker wo find the following sensible 
remarks, suggested by the inquiries of a correspondent who wishes to know 
how to lay out and beautify his farm without the cost of a landscape garden- 
er, and costly shrubbery. The editor says : 

Every farmer should be his own landscape gardener. We do not assert 
that every man can be; nor that with the best of taste in rural adornment 
he will not find it profitable to employ professional aids. But he should be, 
and may be so educated in his vocation that when he plans the planting of 
an orchard, or the outline of a field, or the disposal of a fruit or floAvcring 
shrub, he may regard the general and especial effect it will give, as well as 
the soil adapted to its growth. A farmer is, of necessity, a landscape gar- 
dener. He cannot be otherwise. His work is almost wholly with the land- 
scape. He is constantly changing and molding it — changing outlines and 
creating new features. It is incidental to his vocation, while rural architect- 
ure is not. In one case he cannot pursue his avocation without changing 
the features of his farm ; but the old house and out buildings may stand a 
century without change, so far as his action is concerned. 

Hence we advise every farmer who cap, and every farmer's son to employ 
all possible aids in the education of eyes and taste in rural adornment. Avoid 
all arbitrar}^ rules for adornment, study effect and conlbrm to circumstances 
in its production. If a man can afford the aid of a professional landscape 
gardener, employ him. His services will prove a means of education. But 
if one cannot afford it (as was the case with our correspondent,) do7i't try, but 
study such well-planned grounds as you may find time to visit, study your 
own grounds, and seek to fix clearly in your mind the effect you wish to pro- 
duce, the possibilities of and obstacles to its realization, and then, when the 
plan is determined upon, work steadily, albeit you work slowly, for its reali- 
zation. Don't try to do too much at once, but do what you do well. 

One thing more. When we recommend every farmer to be his own land- 
scape gardener, we are doing the best possible thing we can do for those who 
make this branch of art a profession. Just as the amateur artist is more ap- 
preciative of and desirous of securing a good picture, so will a higher culture, 
among farmers, in matters of rural adornment beget a desire for the best 
aids to the realization of the noblest pictures this art can furnish. The steam 
engine has not affected the breeding of horses ; nor will the culture of tasto 
destroy the lands('apo gardener's vocation. 



7s it Safe to Plant Ramie? — To Make a Bermuda Grass Pasture. 187 
Is it Safe to Plant Ramie ? 



Wo are not fully prepared to answer this question in the affirmative, but 
the progress made seems to indicate that the principal difficulty — the lack 
of suitable machinery for the preparation of the fibre — is gradually being 
overcome. Mr. "William Hall, of the "Kamie Planting and Manufacturing 
Compan3%" of Louisiana, saj^s : 

"Siill further improvements have been made in the machinery, and lam 
enabled to state that the fibre of the ramie can now be prepared on the plan- 
tations of a pure white and pearl}'' lustre, fit for spinning on any machinery 
in the world without alteration, at the rate of a ton to every acre." 

In regard to a market for the prepared fibre, the New York Skipping List 
says : 

" Our Liverpool correspondent writes that ramie is wanted in that market 
at $264 gold per ton. As the culture of the ramie plant in the South is under- 
stood to have passed beyond mere experiment, and as cotton is said to be too 
cheap to be profitable, the wonder is that the planters do not turn their atten- 
tion more to the first mentioned staple. Ramie culture has many advantages 
over cotton. It is a hardy and vigorous grower, and its growth is continuous. 
A crop once planted will stand for years, without requiring to be renewed. 
It is not destroyed by worms, does not suff"er from excess of rain, and stands 
the longest drought without injury. From all that is related of this wonder- 
ful plant, it would seem that it is exposed to no special danger in a suitable 
climate, has no enemies, requires but little labor, needs but a small capital to 
produce a crop, propagates rapidly, commands a ready market at a high price 
for all that can be produced, and the market is never likely to be overstocked, 
as the area for its successful growth is limited toa belt in the Gulf [andSouth 
Atlantic] States. It requires less labor to cultivate than cotton, the process 
being similar to corn culture; and it is said that one hand can take care of 
fifty or sixty acres, after the first year." 



How to Make a Bermuda Grass Pasture. 



Whether Bermuda grass is a great blessing to the South, or a terrible curse 
is a question we are not disposed to discuss at this time. Those who propa- 
gate it should make up their minds fully and finally that it will be a benefit 
to them, whatever it may be to the country as a whole, for once established, 
there is no known practicable way to get rid of it. It can be confined within 
limits, provided the stock pastured on it are not permitted to go from it directly 
to other portions of the plantation. Bermuda grass will make a good pasture 
where no other grass will thrive. 

The following is recommended as a good plan for planting a Bermuda grass 
pasture. 

"Plough an old field in a deep and thorough manner; harrow and seed 
down with rye. Then take sods of Bermuda Grass and chop them into 
small pieces with a sharp spade. The prepared sods to be placed in a cart 
hauled to the field and thoroughly strewn over the soil, after which the field 



188 The Farm and the Man. 

could be rolled to force the grass into the soil. If planted at a favorable sea- 
sou almost cveiy portion would take root. In fact it might be planted at 
regular distances like corn. The rye would furnish a large amount of winter 
food for stock, would prevent the growth of weeds, and would furnish a tem- 
porary protection for grass. Some will exclaim that such a mode of obtaining 
a pasture would be paying dear for one's whistle ; but when we take into 
consideration the fact that the land can be purchased at from thi*ee to six 
dollars per acre, the outlay will be trifling." 



The Farm and the Man. 



It may be important to consider which is first and most important, the man 
or his farm. It is certain that the farm, as land and water, rock and wood 
existed before he did ; but it may no^; have been a farm till he made it so. If 
he is the maker of the farm, he is evidently the most important — for the thing 
made cannot well be sujDcrior to its maker. The maker must hold the first 
rank. 

But it strikes us that there is a mutual relationship between the man and 
his farm which should be recognized, and which makes each party dependent 
upon and partly the maker of the other. If the man makes his farm as it 
ought to be made, it will do much in return to make him — that is, if he culti- 
vates it intelligentl}', thinks, reasons, experiments as becomes a rational 
being; improves his soil, his stock, his grain, his fruit; learns the nature and 
habits of the things he cultivates; knows why he does ever}' thing — such 
attention to his farm will remodel the man and cultivate him as much as it 
does the farm. 

When a man studies law and practises it intelligently, the profession will 
give strength, culture, force, and power of will to the man — that is, his profes- 
sion will make him — make him a man of larger stamp than he would have 
been without the study and energy put into it. The study and practice of 
medicine makes the physician. Divinity makes the divine. In each of the 
professions men are made by them, because they each require study in their 
acquirement and intelligence in their practice. Our great men are chiefly 
from the learned professions as they are called — and it is so simply because 
they are learned professions. They require a great deal of mental labor and 
research ; they exercise the mind ; they stretch the muscles ; they harden the 
sinews; they solidify the bones. The pi'ofessions do much toward making 
the great men that are found in them. 

So it should be with the farming profession. The farm should make men — 
great men — as well as the bar and the desk ; and it will, if it is regarded and 
treated in the same way. Let our young farmers be intelligently prepared 
for their duties. Let them study their profession ; read the authors on scien- 
tific farming, on agricultural chemistry, on the earth, the soil, stock, fruits, 
grains, vegetables, and then on the practice of farming; and when they are 
thus well prepared, let them continue their researches in all their practical 
operations, and the farm would soon turn out more great men than any other 
one place of human exertion. When as much intelligence is exercised on the 
farm as in the other professions, it will produce as many great men as the 
same intelligence will, exercised in any other way. The lawyer, doctor, and 
divine have each their library — where is the farmer's? Those farmers who 
have good agricultural libraries arc among our best men. Let the farmer 
make his farm in the light of the best intelligence that relates to the subject, 
and his farm will make him a man of the first stamp. 



Small Farm Maxims. — Agricultural Miscellany. 189 

Small Farm Maxims. 



1. Small farms arc cheaper and easier to manage than large ones, and pay 
better for the capital invested. Therefore, small farms are best. 

2. If you want to make your farm pay, you must give it your daily, per- 
sonal attention. But if your farm is too large you cannot do this; hence, 
as I said above, small farms are best. 

3. If you don't want your farm to run away, you must stop the little 
leaks. We may expect fewer leaks on a small place than a big one ; hence 
again, small farms are best. 

4. Feed your land well, and it will feed you. It takes less to feed a few 
acres than a great many. So you see small farms are best. 

5. If you would live long and enjoy life, work a little then rest a little. 
But if you have a large farm you must labor all the time. Here again, small 
farms arc best. 

6. To raise big corn, you must keep small grass. To make small grass 
you must cut often. So in this, we find small farms the best. 

7. If you have a good fence, you need fear no loss by stock. But fences 
are costly. Thus once more we find small farms are best. 

8. If 3'ou want good roads, and plenty of schools, churches, and mills, you 
must have a dense population. If forms are large this is impossible. There- 
fore, I declare small farms to be best, 

9. Farms should increase in value year by year. It costs less to impi'ove a 
few acres than a great many. Hei-e, us before, small farms are best. 

B. W. J. 



Agricultural Miscellany. 



ASHES FOR SWEET POTATOES. 

A correspondent in the Southern Cultivator says : " I notice the question 
is asked, which is the best fertilizer or manure for sweet potatoes. From the 
experience I have had, in manuring the sweet potato, I must, say that rotted 
ashes when properly put on, has precedence over all othei's I have had any 
experience with. The plan that I adopted was to open a deep furrow with a 
scooter plough, and put in a plenty of ashes. Bed out on the ashes, and a sure 
crop may be realized on the poorest soil. Cow-penning is good — so are cotton 
seed and stable manure; but, after experimenting with the ashes, they will 
all be abandoned, provided ashes can be had. I experimented on as poor soil 
as I had, and the result was as fine a crop of potatoes as I ever saw on any 
kind of land. Rotted ashes is good for cotton also, and almost any kind of 
vegetation. I am convinced there is not a better fertilizer made on any plan- 
tation than rotted ashes. So every one will find it greatly to his interest to 
take special care of it." 



190 Agrieultwal Miscellany. 

GRAIN PRODUCE OF THE WORLD. 

The following statistics were compiled by S, B. Riirgles, and G. S. Hazard, 

connected with the U. S. Commission to the Paris Universal Exhibition of 
1870: 

Bushels. 

Eussia 1,358,437.500 

Finland and Poland 125.000.000 

Germany 737.703,774 

France 710,669.279 

Austria 486.092.000 

Great Britain and Ireland. 355,053,389 

Sweden and Norway 62,000,000 

Denmark 23,500,000 

Holland 36,725,000 

Belgium 64,297,692 

Switzerland 17,200.000 

Portugal 29,503 367 

Spain" 120,(100,000 

Italy 187,247,957 

Greece 9.300,000 

Roumania and Servia 150,000.000 

European Turkey 110,000,000 

United States, 1860 1,221,428,453 

MAKING PORK AND MANURE. 

J. D, Willis, of Union (church, Mississippi, according to the Eeport of the 
Department of Agriculture, in December, 1868, put five shoats eleven months 
old, in a pen having a floor three feet above the ground. This floor was cov- 
ered fifteen inches deep with leaves and loam, and was so constructed that the 
manure made could be turned below. The floor was cleaned off once a week, 
and fresh material supplied, and thus all the urine saved. The shoats were 
kept up five weeks, each receiving during this period five bushels of corn 
cooked. At the close of this period they averaged one hundred and thirty 
and a half pounds net, and the manure amounted to one hundred and ninety 
bushels of good quality. 

TWO EXCELLENT COMPOSTS. 

The editor of the Jieconstructed Farmer recommends the following composts. 
Those who have all the materials at hand will do well to try them : 

Good Compost. — By mixing 20 bushels of cotton seed and 20 of ashes, or 50 
of marl, with 700 bushels of vegetable mould, you will have a fine compost. 

A Number One Compost. — Take 500 or 700 bushels of any rich earth and mix 
it with 200 bushels of cotton seed, 20 of ashes, 40 of stable manure and 50 of 
marl, and you will have that which is superior to any commercial fertilizer on 
any crop. 

BULK OP A TON OP DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES. 

23 cubic feet of sand, 18 cubic feet of earth, or 17 cubic feet of clay make a 
ton. 18 cubic feet of gravel or earth, before digging, make 27 cubic feet 
when dug; or the bulk is increased as three to two. Therefore, in filling a 
drain two feet deep above the tile or stones, the earth should be heaped up a 
foot above the surface, to settle even with it, when the earth is shoveled loose- 
ly in. 



Garden Seeds — How to Plant Them. 191 

Icpiidmcnt of gortintlture anb Sural Srt. 



Garden Seeds — How to Plant Them. 



We have, on various occasion?, given our readers sucii suggestions as wo 
thought would bo useful to them in regard to phinting the various garden 
seeds recommended for our climate, and we may repeat, in substance, what 
has already been said on the subject ; but we have many new readers, and 
the old ones may, in some cases, be benefitted by a repetition of the lessons. 

1. In the first place, the success or failure of seed sowing, whether on the 
farm or in the garden, depends largely upon the proper preparation of the 
soil. This should bo thoroughly pulverized, and in the garden the beds 
should be made smooth and level with a rake ; and the smaller the seeds to 
be planted, the finer and smoother should be the ground. 

2. The condition of the soil in regard to moisture, also has an important 
bearing upon the germination of seeds. Early in the season, the soil especial- 
ly if clayey and retentive, is often too wet, and the seeds rot before germina- 
tion has taken place. Later, and in light, sandy soils, the surface is often so 
dry that the seeds lie in it unchanged or are destroyed by the heat of the 
sun. In winter, and the beginning of spring, therefore, avoid sowing when 
the ground is very wet or very cold. When the weather is hot and drv, lot 
the ground always be freshly stirred, and, if necessary water the seeds in the 
drills before covering ; also, cover more deeply in hot, dry weather than when 
the ground is wet and cold. 

3. The depth at which seeds should be sown varies with the species, as well 
as with the condition of the soil. Large seeds, other things being equal, 
should be planted deeper than small ones — beet seeds, for instance, deeper 
than carrot seeds. Too great depth excludes air and warmth and prevents 
germination. The smallest seeds should be sown upon the surface and simply 
brushed or pressed in. We have of late made our fall and winter sowino-.s of 
nearly all kinds of garden seeds on the surface, pressing them into the soil 
with the foot or the back of a hoe, and we have never had seeds ger- 
minate more freely. Wo saw a field of oats, last fall, in which a narrow strip, 
being sown too far in advance of the ploughs or harrows, remained uncovered 
at night, and a rain coming on, it was left in that condition. When we saw 
it, it was looking even better than the rest of the field. 

4. In sowing seeds, regard must be had to the climatic character of the 
species. Everybody knows that, while he may plant peas in January, in our 
climate, he must not plant beans till danger from frost is over; but few, per- 
haps, consider how widely the same principle applies. As a general rule, the 
seeds of plants whose original place of growth lies south of us, as in tropical 
or semi-tropical regions, either fliil altogether to germinate, if planted while 



192 



Garden Seeds — How to Plant Them. 



the ground is wet and cold, or come up feebl}' and make a sickly growth. A 
temperature much above the frost mark may prove fatal to them. The Lima 
bean, the egg plant, and the Cayenne pepper, (natives of the tropics,) are of 
this class. On th^e other hand, the seeds of Northern plants, especially if 
small, are germinated here with difficult}^ during the summer, and the tender 
young plants are very liable to be killed by the heat and droughts of our 
climate. The beet, the cabbage, the turnip and the parsnij-), are instances. 
Many species of flower seeds which the books direct to be sown in the spring 
must in our climate be put into the ground in the fall, or the early part of 
winter, or they will fail entirely. Some of the most important of these we 
have named in a previous number. 

5. In addition to the foregoing general hints we will now, in brief, offer 
some specific directions for planting the most common kinds of kitchen 
garden veiretables : 



Asparagus. — Sow in February or March, in 
drills one foot apart; cover one inch in depth, 
pressing the earth upon the seed, thin out to 
six inches apart. 

Bean, Snap. — Plant as soon as danger from 
frost is over, in drills two feet apart, the seeds 
two inches apart in the row ; cover an inch 
and a half. Later plantings may he covered 
a little deeper. 

Bean, Lima. — Plant when the weather has 
become warm in spring, in hills four feet 
apart, setting the poles before planting; cover 
one inch, thin out to three plants in each 
hill. 

Beet. — Por the principal summer crop, 
sow when the peach trees are in bloom. In 
this latitude, you may sow also in August, 
September and October. Plant in drills from 
one foot to fifteen inches apart, and cover 
from one inch to one inch and a half in 
depth, according to the season and the con- 
dition of the soil. 

Cabbage. — Sow in a rich seed bed, in drills 
three or four inches apart, and cover lightly, 
watering if necessary. Cauliflower, broccoli, 
and khol-rabi are to be treated in the same 
way ; or the latter may be sown in drills, 
where the plants are to grow, like the 
turnips. 

Cardoon. — Sow in drills five feet apart, as 
soon as spring frosts are over ; cover one inch 
in depth, gradually thin out to eighteen inches 
apart, in the row. 

Carrot — Plant like the beet, except in 
depth, which for the carrot should not be 
over half an inch. 



Celery. — Sow earlj' in spring in a rich seed 
bed, in drills three inches apart, covering 
very slightly. Later sowings, if a "stand " 
can be got, make quite as good plants. 

Corn. — Plant for the first crop of sugar 
corn when the peach is in bloom, in hills three 
feet apart, cover an inch and a half in depth. 

Cucumber. — Plant when danger from frost 
is believed to be over, in hills six feet apart, 
ten or twelve seeds in a hill, and cover with 
one inch of soil ; thin out to three plants in 
each hill. 

Egg Plant. — (Guinea squash.) — If plants 
be not grown in a hot bed or cold frame, 
plant in the open air, as soon as settled warm 
weather can be counted upon, in a rich seed 
bed, in drills three or four inches apart and 
cover lightly. 

Khol-Rahi. — See cabbage and turnip. 

Lettuce. — Lettuce may be sown at almost 
any time during the fall, winter and spring, 
either in seed beds to be transplanted, or in 
drills twelve inches apart, where it is to grow, 
covering, in either case, very lightly. 

Melon. — Plant like the cucumber. 

Okra. — Plant when frosts are over, or at 
the same time with snap beans, in drills three 
or four feet apart; drop several seeds together 
two feet apart ; cover an inch and a half in 
depth ; thin out to one stalk at each place. 

Parsley. — Sow early in the spring in drills 
one foot apart ; cover half an inch deep ; 
gradually thin out the plants to from nine to 
twelve inches apart. 

Parsnip. — Plant the same as beet, except 
do not cover quite so deep. 



The Wilmington Pear. 



193 



Pea. — Plant from November to March, in 
drills from fifteen inches to four feet apart, 
depending upon the height to which the 
variety is expected to grow. Where sticks 
are to be used it is best to plant in double 
rows, nine inches apart, the pairs of rows 
being as directed above, at least as many 
inches or feet apart as the peas are expected 
to grow in height. Sot the sticks between 
the pairs of rows. 

Pepper. — The directions are the same as for 
egg plant. 

Salsify. — Plant the same as parsnip. 

Spinach. — Sow in October and November, 



and in early spring, in drills an inch deep 
and fifteen inches apart, and gradually thin 
out the plants to from six to nine inches apart. 

Squash. — Plant the same as cucumber. 

Radish. — Plant in drills from eight to ten 
inches apart, and one inch deep, any time in 
autumn, winter and spring. 

Tomato. — See directions for egg plant. 

Turnip — Sow in August, September and 
October, and again in the last part of Jan- 
uary and in February, in drills one inch 
deep, and from fifteen inches to two feet 
apart, thining out the plants to from five to 
six inches apart in the row. 



The ^Vilmington Pear. 





Fig. 1.— Wilmington Pear. Fig. 2.— Section. 

Frnit, medium or below, obtusely terbinate, inclined, slightly angular, 
somewhat oblique. Skin, greenish yellow, considerably netted and patched 



194 Ilinis on Planting Vineyards. 

with ruBSct, especially around the stalk and calyx, and thickly sprinkled with 
russet dots. Stalk, long, generally straight, sometimes curved, much inclined, 
inserted in a slight depression, generally by a lip. Calyx, open, segments of 
medium length, persistent, sometimes recurved ; basin rather shallow and 
uneven, often regular. Flesh, fine, whitish, very juicy, buttery, melting, 
with a rich, sweet, pleasant flavor, slightly aromatic. "Very good," or 
" best." 

It is a delicious pear to eat. It was raised by Dr. Brinckle from seed of 
the Passe Colmar, planted in 1847. It is in season in August and September. 



Hints on Planting Vineyards. 



When grape-growing was first introduced in America by Europeans, the 
mode of planting and training the vine which was practiced in their native 
country was strictly followed ; but long since it has been conceded that grape- 
vines should not be planted from eighteen to twenty-four inches deep, and 
from three to five feet in the row, which is, certainly, too deep and too close 
planting for our native and strong growing varieties, and our soil and climate. 
Being perfectly satisfied of the folly of such deep and close planting, advo- 
cates ot shallow planting and more room became very numerous. Now some 
advise to plant, and really do plant, from two to three inches deep only, and 
from twelve to twenty-four feet apart in the rows, on poor soil. Can any 
observer say that t>uch practice is economical, or can he advance any sound 
theory for thus planting? I wish to show^ the error of both these extremes: 

1st. A vine planted tw^enty-four inches deep, the lower roots are too far 
from the air and light, and throughout the winter and spring are saturated 
with water, which must, necessarily, cause disease in the vine and the fruit. 

2d. If a vine be planted only two or three inches deep, the roots are con- 
stantly disturbed by cultivation, and are more subject to the changes of heat 
and cold. In the spring a few mild days will start them, when a sudden cold 
snap will kill the little young rootlets Avhich have started, and in the summer 
a short drought will stop the growth, and, in a few days after a shower, they 
are again in the (hy dust ; hence feeble growth and imperfect fruit. An 
even temperature is the best preventive of disease, and the best assurance of 
health to the vine. Is it not clear to every observer that a vino planted so 
near the surface is subject to more and greater changes than one planted 
deeper ? 

3d. The distance from three to four feet in the rows, is surely not room 
enough for our native vines, their heavy foliage, long jointed wood and vigor- 
ous growth, will not admit of it. We should be driven to the necessity of 
pruning too close. The above named distance is even too close for the Dela- 
ware ; but, on the other hand, as some advise to plant twenty-four feet apart, 
regardless of varieties and soil, sujjposo such advise is followed, and a vine- 



A Model Pyramidal Pear Tree. 



195 



yard planted with Delaware or Crcvcling grapes, which require but seven or 
eight feet in the very best of soil, of what use will that large space be, to be 
cultivated and trellised ? 

Having shown the folly of these extremes, I will hero give my mode of 
planting: I plough and subsoil as deep as possible, until thoroughly pulver- 
ized, lay off my rows eight feet apart with a common plough, and give the 
rows just enough fall to carry off the surface water. This done, I take a 
two-horse turning plough on the right of the first furrow, thus throwing out 
the ground, which leaves a large trench open, about six or eight inches deep. 
Measuring the distance for strong growers nine or ten feet, and for weak 
growers seven feet, I place a small stake, place the vines to the stake, spread 
the roots out evenl}% and put sufficient earth around the plant to hold it in 
its proper place. Having done this, I plough the earth back again into the 
furrow, and the planting is done. L. A. BUEKHART. 

Clark's Nurseries, Covington, Ga. 



A Model Pyramidal Pear Tree. 




A French pomologist, Monsieur A. Du Breu- 
il, in his " Cours Elementaire d' Arboriculture," 
gives the accorapanj'ing illustration, showing 
how a pear tree, properly treated up to that 
time, should be shortened in at the fifth prun- 
ing, the design having been, from the first, 
to make it a perfect pyramid ; and this cut- 
ting back of the laterals and shortening of 
the main shoot indicates, substantially, what 
all previous prunings have been. M. Du Breuil 
says: 

The pruning of this j^eardoes not differ from 
that of the preceding year ; but in one point 
of view, that is to say, the branches at the base 
having already attained all the length they 
ought to have, you should no longer attend to 
their prolongation. In that respect you cut 
them short. As to the other branches, they 
ought all to be cut in such wise that their ends 
will touch the line A B, which extends from 
the ends of the lower branches to the tops of 
the leader, after it has been cut back. 



196 



jfVic Nectarine. — Ricinus Borhoiiiensis. 



The Nectarine. 




It is much to be regretted 
that the culture of the nec- 
tarine has been made almost 
impossible in the open air, in 
most localities, on account of 
the curculio. The few who 
can allow themselves the lux- 
ury of an orchard-house should 
not neglect this fine frnit, 
which can be grown to per- 
fection under glass. The va- 
riety here represented is the 
New White, and is thus de- 
scribed by Downing : 

The New White is the finest light-skinned variety, and is a beautiful, hardy 
and excellent nectarine, bearing abundant crops. It is an English seedling, 
raised by the Rev. Mr. Neate, near London, Leaves, with reniform glands ; 
fruit, rather large, nearly round ; skin, white, with occasionally a slight tinge 
of red when exposed ; flesh, white, tender, very juicy, with a rich, vinous 
flavor. The stone is small; ripens early in September; flowers large. 



Ricinus Borboniensis. 



This gigantic species of the Castor Oil plant is thus described by Prof J. 
Parish Stelle in the Mobile Weekly Register : 

Stem large, three to five inches in diameter at the base, reddish color, and 
covered with a whitish bloom ; leaves a bright glossy green, circular in out- 
line, palm-like, from eighteen inches to two feet in diameter, with ten deep 
lobes ; the lobes oblong, pointed and sharply notched on the sides ; leaf-stalks 
thickly set on the stem and main branches, three to four feet in length, and 
furnished with the glands peculiar to this tribe of plants; flowers destitute of 
petals, in a dense oblong open cluster, located in the main forks and standing 
erect; fruit of a green color; spiny, three oblong one seeded capsules, seeds 
like those of the ordinary castor oil bean, though very much larger; plant 
from fifteen to thirty feet high ; half hardy annual above the frost line. 

Ricinus borboniensis is simply a gigantic variety of the castor oil bean or 
palma christi, (i?. communis of botanists.) In general appearance it is some- 
thing the same, though it runs up more compact. It is a grand plant, and 
its long leafstalks and largo leaves thickly set from within four feet of the 
ground to the very top, endows it with a splendid cfl'cct. We have a noble 
specimen growing on our place this year, which we propose trying to keep 
through the winter by cutting down to within four feet of the ground and 
protecting with some kind of covering. 



A Fell) Hints on Planting IVees. ' 197 

A Few Hints on Planting Trees. 



It seems a very simple thing to plant a tree, and almost every farmer 
thinks he knows how to do it, but it is seldom well done. It is a more im- 
portant operation than is generally supposed, for the life of the tree and all 
its future health and fruitfulness ax"e directly dependent upon it. Eight 
planting is the foundation and corner-stone of all successful horticulture; for 
if a man commences his life and experience by building up from this small 
element, the probabilities are that he will be sure to undei'stand and master 
thoroughly the knowledge of all the subsequent arts to produce vigorous 
trees and abundance of fruit. 

It has seemed to me reasonable to throw out a few hints, in a condensed 
form, which shall prove a help to beginners, for there are many every year, 
and also to assist those who are among the afflicted already. 

1. Plant young trees, both in your orchards and gardens. They cost less 
in actual price, in freight, and in planting than older trees. Thej' are surer 
to grow, have more and better small fibrous roots, will adapt themselves 
quicker to the soil and location, and with equal watching and care will grow 
80 vigorously as to excel older trees both in abundance of fruit, size, health 
and earliness of bearing. Never choose standard apples, pears, plums, or 
cherries more than two years old, and dwarf trees one year old. 

2. Be careful, where a choice is allowed you, in your choice of soils. A 
sandy soil is leachy, contains no moisture, and is liable to drought. A very 
heavy, clayey soil is directly the opposite — too wet, tough, and adhesive. A 
gravelly soil is hardly more desirable ; but a deep, loamy, or alluvial soil may 
always form a good choice. 

3. Let the land be well drained. Never plant where there is the remotest 
chance for water to settle and stand near the surface. It will surely ruin 
the tree and blight all hope for fruit. 

4. When you are ready to plant, hitch up two teams. Let the first plough 
to the depth of one foot, a strip six feet or more wide. Let the second follow 
with the subsoil lifter, and stir to the depth of two feet; cross-plough in the 
same manner a strip of same width ; then dig holes one foot or more deep 
three feet in diameter ; place the tree at the same depth as when removed 
from its former place ; replace the earth, taking care not to bend or cram 
the rootlets of the tree, and always allow abundance of lateral room for the 
growth of the roots. Many inexperienced persons lose their trees from too 
deep setting. No tree should be set lower in the earth than its original position. 
Where the ground has not been ploughed and subsoiled, the planter must 
invariably dig his holes two feet deep and four or more wide. 

5. Mix with the earth, before it is returned to the hole and is placed around 
the roots of the tree, a good compost of ashes, well-rotted stable manure, and 
chip manure mixed together. Leaf-mould, muck, and lime maj' all form part 



198 Orange Culture in Florida. 

of the compost. Let a large portion of the compost be placed beneath but 
not iu contact with the roots of the tree, and the remainder on the surface of 
the ground, to act as a mulch. The quantity will vary, according to the size 
of the tree, from a half-bushel upward. 

G, If any of the roots are mutilated or bruised, pare them off with a sharp 
knife to prevent decay; cut back on the under side until you reach the sound 
wood. Nearly all trees that come from the nurseries have lost some of their 
roots, and their branches must be shortened in the same proportion. At the 
time of planting, prune all branches back to three or four buds from the base 
of each branch. 

7. Mulching is almost indispensable. The earth should rise like a small 
mound toward the trunk of the tree, and over this should be a mulch two 
inches deep of hay, half-decomposed manure, sawdust, or tan-bark. It not 
only saves the labor of cultivation, but prevents the moisture of the soil from 
evaporation, renders the temperature more uniform, and prevents injurious 
effects from frost. The mulch should extend beyond the tips of the roots. 

H. T. WILLIAMS, in Horticulturist. 



Orange Culture in Florida. 



From an essay on Orange Culiure, read last fall before the American In- 
stitute Farmer's Club, by Mr. M. Day, Jr., we take the following extracts for 
the benefit of our friends in the orange growing regions of the Gulf States: 

Orange groves are brought forward by one of three methods. First, by 
buddinu- or grafting wild trees where they stand ; second, by transplanting 
the wild stocks and afterward budding them; and, third, by planting sweet 
seedlinK-s. In the first method cut off the wild tree one foot from the ground 
duriu"- the winter or spring, cut with a bevel, coat with wax, and allow a 
single^shoot to grow from the stump. By June this will be ready to bud, or 
it may be grafted at any time when the bark is free. Clear away the forest 
shade oradually until the orange has become accustomed to the warm sun. 
Train but one bud or graft, because, first, it will use all the sap and make as 
much top in a given time as a dozen ; second, two shoots will enveloj) the 
decayed end of the stump, and, enclosing a mass of infectious matter in the 
very heart of the tree, will affect the trunk clear to the roots. Sickly trees 
in old groves are almost all of this class. A single shoot will crowd the de- 
cayed portion to one side and heal it under, while the heart of the stump 
and the heart of the sweet sprout will unite and make one continuous healthy 
trunk from the ground up. Nip the terminal bud at the desired height for 
makini'- the top, and thenceforward allow the tree to assume its own form. 

When it is desired to transplant the wild stocks, select trees about four 
inches in circumference ; cut them off about one foot from the ground and 
pull them up carefully, so as to lose none of the roots. This may be done by 
taking a hitch on the stump, close to the ground, with a bite of untwisted 
hemp'^rope. With a stiff lever thrust through the bight, a man can easily 
lift a stump two inches in diameter. Larger and refractor}^ stumps should 
have the soil worked from under the Tuain roots and a more powerful lever 
applied. The rays of the sun should never be allowed to strike the roots, 



Orange Culture in Florida. 199 

nor should they bo drenched with buckets of water, as this will wash off all 
the alumina. Sprinide them carefully, with a bush, and keep cool, damp and 
well ventilated until they ai-e heeled'-in. Select a moist, not wet, spot con- 
venient to soft water; excavate a pit four feet wide, one foot deep, and of 
such length as required by the number of trees. Dig a trench eighteen. 
inches deep for the tap roots, which should bo cut off to thirty inches, then 
set in the trees, filling back the earth taken from the next trench as well as 
from the sides of the pit, till all are heeled in, when the whole mass of loose 
earth must be completely saturated with water, and the soil perfectly set- 
tled around the roots, first providing, however, for a speedy drainage, so that 
the water will not stand in the pit. Erect a temporary shelter to exclude 
the sun at first. Remove this gradually, until the tree so suddenly brought 
from the dense shades of the hammock will be enabled to endure the light 
and rejoice in the genial rays of a Florida sun. 

In a few weeks, with an occasional watering, the trees will begin^to sprout, 
when they must be carefully removed to their respective places. They may 
be budded at any time when the hark is free, but no sprouts should be re- 
moved until the'foUowing year. The tree has new roots to make, and it will 
only strike root in proportion to the amount of foliage. Let a tree make all the 
wild top possible the first year ; it at the same time makt-s feeders, and when 
you have secured a good flow of sap you may consistently expect to force 
the sweet bud by pruning off all others. Mr. McDonald claims the heeling-in 
process to be original with him as applied to the orange, and to be the grand 
secret of his success. 

Setting out a grove of sweet seedling trees is exactly like setting out an 
apple orchard. Trees should be planted about twenty feet apart, or about 
one hundred to the acre, nor should they be set deeper than nature put them. 
In transplanting mark the north side of each tree, that it may be reset ex- 
actly as it originally stood. Do not cultivate any crop which will overshadow 
the orange, but the grove is greatly benefited by the culture of low crops. 
Do not plough too close to the roots. Stirring with a light harrow is better. 
Keep the trees mulched with cane-tops or grass. Many place a bushel of 
oyster shells around the foot of each tree every two ov three years. The 
tree is an evergreen, and may be transplanted at any time, regardless of the 
moon's phases. 

Experienced nurserymen will secure a show of fruit in eighteen naonths or 
two years. A safe rule is never to touch a sweet tree with pruning-knife. 
Plant a seed, feed it, and let it alone, says Mr. McDonald, and the tree will 
assume a more perfect and well-balanced shape than any meddler can give it. 
The sweet seedling will bear in six or seven years, and live many centuries, 
bearing thousands of oranges every 3' ear. 

The^orange grove has three enemies — lazy owners, the "scale insect," or 
coccus hisperidum, and frost. The first ought to die, the second may be routed 
by nourishing and cultivating the grove, and the third can be avoided by 
going far enough South. 

There is much wild speculation upon the profits of orange culture. Under 
iavorable circumstances the yield is very great. I have seen trees laden with 
from 2,000 to 5,000 oranges, while at Mellonville stands an old tree which has 
borne its lO.Oi oranges. It is safe to assume 2,000 oranges as a fair average 
for a grove of fifteen years old. These are worth upon the tree, the buyer to 
pick them, two cents each, or $40 per tree. This is equal to $4,000 per acre. 
But assuming that the product is but half that, what other crop affords so 
great and so reliable a profit? Opposite Pilatka stands Mr. Hart'.s grove of 
500 trees of as yet only medium size. I have seen the statement in print 



200 Orange Culture in Florida. 

that his oranges in 1870 brouglit him §17,000, having sold over four hundred 
thousand oranges at prices ranging I'rora throe to six cents. I saw the grove 
one month since, and it is in most admirable condition. 

Orange culture in Florida is yet in its infancy, and not enough are grown 
to supply the home demand, so suddenly created by the influx of Northern 
people and the demand in our more Southern cities. Hence none find their 
way to New York. Where the Indian River or Smyrna oranges, as those 
on the eastern coast are called, are known, they always command double the 
price of the Sicily orange, and I have seen them sold in Atlanta, Ga., side by 
side, the foremost at §1, and the latter only 40 cents per dozen. For anyone, 
especially an invalid, desiring a pleasant, profitable and healthful employment 
in the most salubrious of all climates, where he can with impunity labor in 
the open air every day in the year, there is nothing more satisfactory than 
orange growing upon the eastern coast of Florida, and nowhere can he main- 
tain himself so easily upon limited means until the grove begins to pay, for from 
the orange land he can realize two, three, and sometimes four crops of vege- 
tables a year. These, with the game, fish and 03'ster crop, make living cheap. 
When the orange grove does come on, the reward of his labor is great, and 
he is thenceforth independent. 

[We have no desire to dampen the enthusiasm of Mr. Day or any one else, or 
to discourage the cultivation of the Orange in regions where the climate and 
soil are favorable, but a word of caution and a scrap or two of advice which, 
at worst, shall cost the reader nothing, seem to be called for here. 

Having occasion lately to make inquiries in this market, in behalf of an 
orange-grower in Florida who wished to ship his crop to this port, we learned 
with surprise and regret that Florida oranges have here lost the high character 
which a few years ago caused them to be in such great demand, and com- 
manded for them the highest prices. So great, in fact, has been the change 
that no commission dealer here is willing to receive a consignment on any 
terms, feai'ing that he could not sell them for enough to pay the freight bills. 
The complaint is that they are small, rusty and liable to rapid decay. Of 
course, it is not asserted, nor should it be inferred, that no good oranges are 
now produced in Florida, but that so many bad ones have been received from 
there, for a year or two past, that the credit of the fruit is destroyed, and no 
one can safely take a consignment unless he has actually examined the fruit 
in the grove. 

From what we know of Florida and the orange-growers of Florida, as well 
as from information received from various sources, we arc convinced that the 
deterioration of the orange crop is due, to a large extent, to two causes : First, 
the unsuitable soil on which many groves are planted ; and, second, neglect of 
the proper cultivation and manuring of the groves. On "shell lands" the 
oranges, we are told, are generally good, and on young groves much better 
than on old ones. Our advice then, to those purposing to engage in orange 
culture, is to be very careful in the choice of a location and to make up their 
minds that orange-growing, like every other business, must be conducted with 
intelligent skill, backed by industry and energy, or it will prove a failure. 

We shall be pleased to hoar from praclical orange culturists on the fore- 
going points. — Ed.] 



Long Grape Cuttings for Vineyard Planting. — Our Insect Friends. 201 
Long Grape Cuttings for Vineyard Planting. 



Mr. Francis, a Portuguese gentleman engaged in grape culture in Cali- 
fornia, plants cuttings from six to seven feet in length, where they are to grow 
in the vineyard, in holes two feet in diameter and eighteen inches deep, so as 
to be below the plough. The cuttings were twisted and cracked between 
each joint, and placed around in, and about three inches from, the outer part 
of the holes, and then brought up in the centre to the surface, as usual, close 
to a stake three feet long. The long cutting plan is accompanied with more 
labor at the commencement, but the compensation is truly remarkable, as 
they have produced from five to seven pounds of good fruit each this year, 
though planted but three years and a half ago, and a vigorous growth of 
wood. The contrast between them and some short cuttings, planted at the 
same time, is very striking, the latter presenting a sickly appearance, and 
having borne no fruit. 

Mr. Francis claims that every check between the joints sends forth a root- 
let, which gives the long cutting a much greater hold on life at an early time. 

For the first two or three years he prunes back to the second or third bud, 
so as to elevate the vines about two feet from the ground, that they may be 
easily kept clean about the stalk. Afterwards he prunes them, leaving from 
four to six feet of cane, according to their strength and the season, and prefers 
to have them lie on the ground. ^ 



l^pitrlmtnt tti Satural Sistorg. 



Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Bural 
Carolinian, for October, 1870,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles E. Dodge, Washington, D. C. 



Our Insect Friends — II. 



The insects treated in this chapter are not true parasites, as their larvae do 
not live upon or within the bodies of their victims, causing death only when 
full grown, but kill their prey in the act of devouring it, or feed upon insects 
already dead. 

That sand-wasp that has been so busily engaged in collecting caterpillars, 
does not want them for herself, but for her progeny yet unborn, and which 
she is destined never to see. After preparing her nest, she provisions it with 
caterpillars and other insects, which she first paralyses by stinging; she then 
deposits her eggs and her mission is ended. In the course of time these eggs 
hatch into hungry little grubs, that riot in the abundance of fresh provision 
No. 4, Vol. 3. 15 



202 Our Insect Friends — II. 

with ■which they are surrounded, never troubling themselves with the ques- 
tion of how it came there. Thus we see how the young sand-wasp does his 
share in aiding the agriculturist, never once stirring out of his nest till nature 
has given him a pair of strong wings. 

Many species of Hymenoptera have this habit of provisioning their nests 
with other insects, indeed the greater number of imparasitlc insects, as thev 
have been termed, are included in this order. Oftentimes these wasps choose 
particular species as food for their 3'oung, never taking an}' others, or at least 
as long as their favorite food can be found. The large Stizus, (S. grandis,) 
which is one of our largest wasps, measuring over an inch and a half in length, 
stores its nest with the common Cicada, or harvest-fly, which is allied to 
the 17-year locust, though nearly twice its size. These she stings and then 
drags or carries to her hole, depositing an egi^ in each. Eamenes fraterna, a 
small black and 3'ellow species, called the potter-wasp, builds a beautiful little 
clay nest, shaped something like a vase ; this she fills with canker worms, (in 
the Eastern States,) and then, after depositing an egg in the mass, she seals it 
up tight ; and thus it remains till broken by the perfect wasp that has come to 
maturity within its walls. Some wasps fill their nests with grasshoppers, 
and, according to Packard, one species deposits its eggs in little pellets con- 
taining about fifty individuals of a species of plant-louse, or aphis. 

Among the destroyers of plant-lice, the family syrphida; (which are two- 
winged flies,) may be mentioned as exceedingly useful. Their eggs are de- 
posited singly in the midst of their food, and the grubs when hatched liave 
nothing to do but to eat; they are destitute of eyes, and have the mouth 
armed with a peculiar organ for suction, this they thrust into any plant-lice 
that come in their way, in a short time devouring all within reach. Next 
season, if the reader will examine a colony of plant-lice, these insects may be 
seen, and it is well to know them. Last summer, we were shown by a lady 
friend some "little green worms " that were infesting her roses. On exami- 
nation, the worms were found to be syrphida;, and were doing a goodly work 
on the hosts of aphids, that had nearly ruined the little pet rose. Some of 
the larvre, which were kept in a glass, turned to small greenish pupre, having 
one end sharply pointed, and in about ten days the perfect flics appeared. 
The larva) of lady-birds, (coccinclUdm,) are also beneficial by destroying plant- 
lice, but we will speak of them more fully in another chapter. The lace- 
wing fly, (chrysopa,) in the larval state, is another aphis-slayer, and has 
been called, by Reaumer, on account of its ferocity, the aphis-lion. The 
perfect insect is provided with four gauze-like wings, colored with a delicate 
shade of green, and its eyes are like burnished gold. The eggs are deposited 
upon leaves, each at the extremity of a slender pedicel, which, according to 
Kiley, is done in order to prevent newly hatched larvje from devouring any 
of the eggs that might be yet unhatchcd. The larva) are furnished with stout 
mandibles, with which to seize their prey, and half a minute is sufficient time 
for the aphis-lion to suck the plant-louse dry. In the absence of other food 
theylwill pre)'- upon each other. 



A Review of the Year. 203 

Wo will close by giving tho habits of the mi/rmeleon, or ant-lion', which is a 
most singulai" insect. The larva buries itself in fine sand, making conical pits, 
at the bottom of which it protrudes its powerful jaws, with which it seizes any- 
hapless victim thai falls into its trap; if by chance, however, it should escape, 
the ant-lion throws up a shower of sand, by a jerking motion with its head, 
and the insect is brought down again, and after its juices arc exhausted, the 
dry skin is cast out of the hole and the pit cleared for a fresh suction. 



A Review of the Year. 



The partial failure of certain crops during the last season cannot wholly 
be laid to the "bugs," indeed the greater number of complaints have been of 
drought, or the other extreme, too much moisture; but the " bugs" have not 
been idle, although the year cannot be called an "insect year," if we except 
the great destruction and general prevalence of the chinch-bug in the West. 
In the eastern and more northerly States, grasshoppers (probably Caloptemis 
femnr-rubrum) have made fearful havoc with all kinds of grain, and in the 
West its near relative (C. spretus) has been quite troublesome in some parts 
of Utah and Colorado. Grain in the Northwest, particularly wheat and 
corn, has been seriously injured by the chinch-bug, (Rhyparochromas leucop- 
terus,} the greater number of complaints coming from Kansas, Missouri, 
Iowa and Illinois. In May and June, in nearly the same States, the 17-year 
locusts made their appearance, and fruit trees were very much injured in 
localities where they were most abundant. The Colorado potato bug is still 
marching toward the East, destroying all before it, in the potato line. 
They are chronicled now as most injurious in Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and 
parts of Canada. The common species (^Lema, Lytta, etc.) have been de- 
structive in some few localities. The principal pests to cabbage growers 
have been Pieris rapce in the North, and Plusia brassicce in the South, which 
is the onlj' one of which complaint has been made, although Pieris protodice 
has, probabl}', done its share. That new pest, the bean weevil, has left its 
mark all over the country, North and South, consequentl}'' all beans intended 
for food should be carefully picked over before using, and all showing dark 
or transparent spots, i. e., where the beetles have eaten nearly through the 
skin, preparatory to coming out, rejected and burned. 

The principal drawbacks in cotton culture have been rust, rain, and ex- 
cessive di'ought, although cotton insects made their appearance in many 
localities. In Mississippi and Louisiana, they were reported as especially 
destructive in tho following counties or parishes : Clark, Clairborne, Coahoma, 
Lauderdale, Issaguena, Bolivar, Yalabusha, Newton, Madison, Wilkinson, Jef- 
erson and Hinds, Miss. ; Rapides. St. Laudry, Washington, East Feliciana, Tan- 
gipahoa, A.voyellea, Richland, West Feliciana, Moorehouse and Caliborne, La. 
The boll-worm was reported in Georgia from Brooks and Crawford Counties, 
and in Florida, from Madison and Suwanee. Both the boll-worm and cotton 



204 More About Cotton Caterpillars. 

worm, are reported from Conecuh, Montgomery, Macon and Hale Counties, 
Alabama ; Eed Eiver and Austin Counties, Texas, and Columbia and La Fay- 
ette Counties, Arkansas. They appeared in many other localities not men- 
tioned, but only in small numbers. Garden pests, such as the cucumber 
beetle, the squash vine-borer, etc., have not been more annoying than they 
are every year. The year has not been marked by the failure of any one 
crop from insect causes alone, and, therefore, it cannot generally be called an 
"insect year." 



More About Cotton Caterpillars. 



[We take pleasure in allowing Dr. Anderson to correct any false impressions 
which the criticisms on his article may have made on the minds of our readers, 
and to further define his position. He has fallen into an error, however, in 
attributing to us the remarks of Mr. Dodge, the editor of this special depart- 
ment, which were not elicited by the article of Mr. Grote which Mr. Dodge 
did not see till it was in print, though aware that it had been received. We 
are glad to print anything on the subject of the cotton worms, that may pro- 
mise to be of benefit to the planting interest; but we must be permitted to 
express a hope that whatever shall be written hereafter may take a practical 
rather than a controversial turn. — Ed. Rural Carolinian.] 

In your November number appeared a criticism of yours, and one from Mr. 
Aug. R. Grote, on an article of mine, on the Cotton Caterpillar, published in 
your September number. 

In the publication of my article you omitted an important paragraph, which 
if inserted in its proper place, would have pronounced my position, in offering 
as an amateur observer some comments upon the observations of others, as 
well as some made by myself. The paragraph referred to was in these, or sim- 
ilar words : 

" The observations offered are matters of philosophic faith, rather than facts 
clearly demonstrated." 

An agricultural journal, I understand to be a vehicle through which exper- 
imenters and explorers, in matters appertaining thereto, are invited to record 
the results of their labor, always subject to the supervision of the Editor, and 
to be accepted or rejected by him, as he may think best for the interest of his 
paper. Entertaining this view, I forwarded my article, which you obligingly 
published without comment. Your courtesy led me to suppose that you un- 
derstood the spirit in which it was offered. Your criticisms, elicited, as it 
would seem, by Mr. Grote's review, rather surprised me, and as the effect of 
both before the public are well calculated to place me in a false position, I 
presume you will allow me space for a reply. 

The whole object and scope of my article was to elicit closer observation to 
the habits of the Cotton Caterpillars, and to give the results of my observations, 
go as to show that there was a striking similarity among those that visit and 



More About Cotton Caiet'piUars. 205 

prove detrimontal to cotton. I am not an entomoligist and make no preten- 
sion to being one ; but as tiie domain of Nature is open to all observers, 1 have 
entered it, to see for myself, and to draw conclusions, by rational deduction, 
from known data. 

The most marked feature of all the writings that have come under mj" re- 
view on the subject of the Cotton Caterpillar is discrepancy. Each one states 
truthfully what he sees, but the whole subject is as yd in a tangled web of 
mystery. I might, in yo\XY estimation, get beyond my depth in entomology, 
as I certainly would, were I to attempt to navigate its deep and obscure 
waters, but I should not be apt to go beyond my depth in my own observa- 
tions. 

You are correct as to my misquoting Mr. Glover, as to the grass-worm 
making its cocoon like the Cotton Caterpillar. As I quoted from memory, I 
evidently had the boll-worm in my mind, which makes its cocoon like the 
grass-worm. Mr. Glover speaks of the grass-worm and Cotton Caterpillar as 
often being confounded. 

By a mode of speedy production or generation, unknown to Mr. Glover, Mr. 
Grote and yourself, I have seen them, so mixed, as not to be able to identify 
them, more with one than the other; and having seen this recur repeatedly, 
I am forced to the conclusion, that they are of the same parentage; and as 
to either the one or the other eating grass or cotton, I am sure they eat either 
as chance develops them in one or the other. This may seem paradoxical 
and will not readily obtain credence, but it is nevertheless demonstrated. 

When you and Mr. Grote have the key to my mystery, you will be able to 
see how many things may be that I have stated, which must remain obscure 
until you get it. To show to you that my remedy is no myth, I will here 
state that it is in the possession of a number of intelligent planters, given 
gratuitously for trial. 

In your allusion to a remedy, you speak of having seen so much swindling 
that you look with suspicion on anything of the sort when remuneration is 
the first object. To forestall such an imputation, and for the further reason 
that I would, as I have done, decline to receive aught until the remedy has 
proved its efficacy, I submitted the plan of having it first tried. He who 
would draw any other inference from my published plan stultifies himself. 

Mr. Aug. li. Grote, after a liberal indulgence in anathemas against all ob- 
servers outside the pale of " the American Entomological Society," and who 
would lay an embargo on all efforts at discovery in the field of Nature unless 
the explorer was especially provided with a mandamus from some august 
scientific body, pounces with a fell swoop upon my poor worm article, and 
demolishes it as a gourmond would a plate of vermicelli. 

He commits an error in his first paragraph, and in his hurry to gobble up 
my dissertation, seems not to have examined its contents. He pronounces it 
a conundrum to be answered when paid for. On the other hand, the author 
proposes to give it with a full explanation, and only to be paid for when 
proved. Where were his moral glasses when he made this observation. 



206 3Iore About Cotton Caterpillars. 

In his next be seems to be refreshed with several of my grammatical errors. 
No doubt I did use the article "the" improperly, and did not pay suflScient 
attention to diction throughout my article. It is quite surprising to mo that 
he did not find many, and more glaring errors than those pointed out, as my 
article was written hurriedly, at one sitting, and without revision. My excuse 
is pressure of business. 

I acknowledge, with gratitude, his explanation of " spira'cles." With the 
amended spiracles the matter stands thus, that in Mr. Grote's opinion the 
boll-worm and garden cut-worm are two distinct insects. Will Mr. Grote be 
good enough to furnish you a drawing of the moth of the garden cut- worm ''' 
Mr. Glover has failed to do it, and I have never seen one, unless it is likewise 
the parent of the boll-worm. In my opinion they are of the same parentage, 
and the only difference in the worms, as examined by myself, is this, that the 
external capillary arrangement is shorter in the cut-worm than in the boll- 
worm. 

Whatever Mr. Grote's army-worm may be called Northward, the Anomis 
JCylina is so called here. What is likewise called by Mr. Glover grass cater- 
pillar, is aNo called army- worm, when numerous. I will endeavor to explain 
how this may happen, and will draw from my own observation. When a . 
field has been planted in cotton one yeai', as in 1867, the Anomis JCylina 
stripped it. The succeeding year the grass caterpillar springs up on the 
grass in corn on the same land, and vice versa. Entomologists will say that 
the moth must have been present as an antecedent; but no moth has been 
observed, yet in portions of the field, myriads of worms will spring up and 
destroy, and disappear, leaving no successor. 

It was the sudden appearance of the Noctua Xylina in 1858, in overwhelm- 
ing numbers, passing through and utterly destroying a belt of cotton, leaving 
the rest of the field untouched, that first attracted my attention. There was 
no return of the worm that year, though it appeared, as mentioned, early in 
July. Subsequent observation and study have furnished me with the key to 
this mystery and its prevention, as I have good reason to believe. Will Mr. 
Grote be good enough to tell me when the grass-worm — Mr. Glover's Locusta — 
becomes a grasshopper. Naturalists say that the grasshoppers are grass- 
hoppers from the cg^, but only have the rudiments of wings in the pupa 
state. 

As to the Anomis Xylina having but one mode of pupation, I most earnestly 
ask him to investigate that matter, whenever he may be afforded the oppor- 
tunity by the ap])earance of the worms in great numbers. In 1867 and 1868, 
I found the cotton caterpillar in all stages, except the egg — Mr. Glover's 
Noctua Xylina. I found the worm inside and outside of bolls eating raven- 
ously, and denuding the stalks of every green thing on them. I found the 
case of various shades, from light to dark brown, suspended by a thread 
from twigs, often perfectly bare, and again, webbed loosely, in a curled leaf. 
My deduction was, that so long as their food furnished them fibre, they spun 
a loose web, otherwise they simply went into case. Believing, as Mr. Grote 



Injiiicnce of Climate Upon Verjetation, 207 

seems to do, (hat they could not survive a winter in case, instinct would teach 
tbeni to ijo into cocoon like their congeners. 

Mr. Grote, after giving a short entomological classification of sub-order 
Jjcpidoptera, family Noctuida:, gives his short experience of the cotton-vporm 
in 1869. As it had then visited Central Alabama, and had ])as8cd through 
its successive generations during the summer, atid had disappeared in all of 
its stages by the next spring, he would lead the planters to suppose that 
unless a new supplj' Avere \vaftcd on the southerly winds, they would bo no 
more troubled. They are certainly natives of the cotton latitude, and, un- 
doubtedly, hibernate there in some form. The puzzling question with Mr. 
Grole is, "where does the first brood come from?" It was the discovery of 
the answer to this question twelve years since, and subsequent observation to 
verity its truth, that has induced me to offer a remedy to the public. 

Mr. Grote, in his concluding tirade, in referring to remuneration, either 
needed my glasses, or designedly misrepresented me by a garbled extract. 
In his anxiety to throw discredit upon the author and his plan, he has 
stepped beyond the rules of decorum, and permitted his zeal to blind his per- 
ception. Fair and just criticism I desire, as my object and aim in all my 
pursuits is to seek truth and do right. Truth, it has been said, lies at the 
bottom of a well, and as the subject under discussion is one as yet enveloped 
in mj'stery, it would be at least prudent, even in a member of the "American 
Entomological Society," particularly one of limited practical experience, to 
weigh well and sift thoroughly all observations from practical explorers, 
whether in strict accordance with classification or not. Mr. Grote seems to 
have been chagrined because, forsooth, a novice had entered his sanctuary. 

My manuscript is the exponent of my plan and the theory of its modua 
operandi. It is based upon a practical fact, and can be clearly demonstrated 
by both vegetable and animal physiology. 

I wish to place it befoi^e the public for trial, not to be paid for until proved. 
The trial the primary, the pay the secondary object. It cannot be patented, 
and an antecedent security is a necessity. I would in this, as in all the 
transactions of my life, spurn a consideration without giving a just equiva- 
lent. E. H. ANDEESON, M. D. 



Influence of Climate Upon Vegetation. 



We find the following interesting extract in an exchange, but do not know 
its original sourceorthe authority on which the statements are made, except 
80 far as they are mentioned therein. If it be true that tea grown in South 
Carolina, (and the same would probably be true of that grown elsewhere in 
the South,) yields no thein^ it is important that the fact should be known : 

It is not alone the exterior appearance of plants which climate alters, it 
has a distinct action on the chemical compounds of vegetables. Dr. Darwin 
says, the chemical qualities, odors and tissues of plants, are often modified 



208 PortulaGaeeous Plants. — To DeHroy the Gacitmber Biij. 

by climate in a manner which seems to us extraordinary, and is remarkable, 
because it might have been thought that definite chemical compounds would 
have been little liable to change either in quantity or quality. 

The Hemlock yields no Conocine in Scotland, the Aconitum napellus be- 
comes innocuous in frigid climates. The Ehubarb flourishes in this country, 
but does not produce those medicinal substances which make the plant so 
useful when grown in its own country. The China Tea Tree grows well in 
the west of England, amazingly so in South Carolina, in neither case is Theine 
yielded. The wood of the American Locust Tree in England is as worthless 
as that of the Oak {Quercus rubur) grown at the Cape of Good Hope, or as 
the Tasmanian Gum Tree grown in the vicinity of Melbourne. 

Dr. Falconer says, there is a great difference in the fibre of the Hemp, in 
the quantity of oil in the seeds of the Linum, and of Morphine in the Poppy, 
when these plants are cultivated on the plains or on the mountains of India. 
The same species of Cactus has been carried from Canton, Manilla, Mauritius, 
and from the hot-houses of Kew. They were all alike in appearance, but the 
Cochineal insect thrives only on the native plant, on which it thrives prodig- 
iously. Monsieur Berthier says, if we compare amongst themselves the 
ashes of wood grown on land of different kind, it is seen they differ remarka- 
bly, which seems to establish the fact that climate has an influence on their 
constitution. These examples are pertinent, so far as they go, to show how 
comprehensive and complete must all circumstances be to bring a plant up 
to its maximum state. 



Tenacity of Life in Portulacaceous Plants. 



Specimens of Lewisia rediviva, a Portulacaceous plant, large-flowered and 
fleshy, growing in British Columbia, Oregon, and California, will grow, 
although they have been dried and in the herbarium for two or three years ; 
and indeed the samples are often troublesome from sprouting whilst between 
the papers. One species, collected by Dr. Lyall, of the British Navy, was 
*' immersed in boiling water" to stop this growing propensity, before submit- 
ting to the dr^'ing process, and yet more than a year and a half afterwards 
it showed sj-mptoms of vitality, and in May, 1863, it produced its beautiful 
flowers in the Eoyal Gardens at Kew. That pest of our gardens, purslane, 
belongs to the same family, and is almost equally hard to kill. 



To Destroy the Cucumber Bug. 



A correspondent of the Maryland Farmer says : 

The following effectually protected my melon, squash, cucumber and other 
vines from the "striped or cucumber bug," the past season, with only one 
application, viz : a strong solution of hen-house manure — say one peck of the 
manure to one and a half gallons of water — let it stand twenty-four hours, 
and sprinkle the plants freely with it after sunsct.» The above was suggested 
to me by a negro woman living on my place, who has some practical experi- 
ence in gardening, and says she has used it for years, and has never known 
the first application to fail to drive them off, and they never return. 



A Remedy for Cut- Worms and Wire- Worms, etc. 209 

A Remedy for Cut-Worms and ^Vire-^Vorms. 



Conversing with an old farmer a few years ago on this subject, he told me 
that he was in the habit of soaking his seed corn in strong brine — meat pickle 
would answer — and that corn thus treated was never injured by worms. I 
think he said he soaked his seed in the pickle about twenty-four hours. I 
expressed some apprehension that steeping corn in brine would injure the 
germinating principle, but he assured me that such was not the case, as it all 
"came up well. He said he once farmed a place to the shares, and intended 
pursuing this plan with his seed corn, but his landlord objected, thinking it 
would ruin the seed ; he, however, after much persuasion, consented that a 
portion of it should be thus treated, and the result was the corn from the 
pickled seed came up well, and grew on undisturbed by worms, while that 
from the dry seed was almost totally destroyed hy them. 

1 remember of hearing my father tell once of some peach trees he once had 
in his yard, and which were badly injured by the borer. In order to destroy 
the worms, he poured a quantity of fish pickle about the roots. The trees 
bore a plentiful crop of peaches, but the fruit was so salty as to be unfit for 
use. It would appear from this that the saline particles were taken up in the 
circulation of the tree, and thus disseminated to the fruit, and this may ac- 
count for the efficacy of the salting process in the case of seed corn, the saline 
matter being taken into the plant, and thus preventing the ravages of worms. 

L. D. LINVILL, in Practical Farmer. 



lepartmcnt of Stilting anb i\t ftcdjanic Irts. 



Can the South Become a Manufacturing Country? 



In this day of sore calamity to the people of the cotton growing States, it 
becomes every one, while he is so heroically enduring the evils which sur- 
round him, to suggest, if he can, any possible plan of relief, consistent with 
the good order of society. We may not now, in the language of Shakespear's 
mixed metaphor, attempt to "Take up arms against a sea of troubles, and 
by opposing end them." We must struggle on not the less manfully, however, 
if we would see our country prosperous and happy, and leave to our children 
an inheritance of freedom and independence. 

With most of us, agriculture is our vocation, and must continue to be, and 
how to make it yield the best returns, is or should be, our constant study ; 
but are there not other employments better suited to many of our people, 
which might prove helpful friends to agriculture, powerful patrons to our 
staple product, bountiful benefactors to our people, and magnetic influences, 
to the worthy immigrant, to cast his lot among us? It has been said that no 
nation can attain to any considerable eminence, whose prosperity depends 



210 Can Tlie South Become A Manufadtiring Country f 

upon any one employment; it would seem, therefore, to be the part of wis- 
dom, to divei'sify our industrial pursuits, and whilst the sturdy husbandman 
continues to gather from his broad acres the silken fleece of our great South- 
ern staple, the swiftly moving spindle should twist it into thread, and the 
restles little shuttle construct it into those thousand beautiful fabrics which 
so wonderfully enhance its value. 

The water-power of our streams, now for the most part running to waste, 
is literally incalculable; the advantages of our mild and salubrious climate, 
unsurpassed; the labor suited to the work, and seeking employment, abund- 
ant; the compensation to the capitalist especially tempting ; and the general 
good to the country, sufficient to satisfy the benevolent aspirations of the 
purest patriot or philanthropist. Are there any reasons why the South should 
not manufacture, or at least spin her own cotton? If so, what are the}', and 
how may they be met? The first that will probably be urged is the want of 
capital. This is much less formidable than at first sight would appear. The 
site and adjacent land for all requisite uses would, in many places, be given 
gratuitously; building material of the best quality would, in most cases, be 
found on the spot ; and contractors may be found ready to take a portion of 
the expense of construction in the stock of the company. As to the cash re- 
quired, let it be demonstrated that the annual, or semi-annual dividends, will 
exceed the prevailing rate of interest, and the cash portion of your capital 
wmII be readily forthcoming. But says a cautious philosopher, the condition 
of the South, both financially and socially, is too unsettled ; your officials are 
too corrupt; your Legislature too ignorant; your taxes too high. Every 
word true, but these evils do not bear any heavier on manufactures than 
upon any other property in the South, indeed our Solons have, on more than 
one occasion, exhibited a wish to encourage such enterprises by exempting 
them from taxation for a certain period. The official and social evils will eff'ect 
their own cure in time, and the organization of such companies as should be 
formed for the purposes proposed, would prove to be powerful auxiliaries in 
accomplishing so desirable an end. 

What would be some of the obvious beneficial results from the introduc- 
tion more generally of cotton manufacturing establishments through the 
Southern States? A home market for our products, employment for many 
of our destitue poor, who would constitute a large portion of the operatives. 
Under the sheltering roof of the school house, and the church, would gather 
the children of ignorance and vice; habits of industry and economy would 
take the place of idleness and wastefulness ; there would be more of sobriety 
and intelligence, social culture, comfort and happiness. Villages would spring 
up, and with them a demand for other mechanical employments, arts and arti- 
sans; bringing more wealth, a larger population, less taxation, wiser legisla- 
tion, and less official roguery and corruption. If these views are well founded, 
and they arc at least honestly entertained, how strongly they appeal to ever}' 
feelinix of our better nature, while at the same time, thev address themselves 
to our stern judgment, and practical consideration. KUSTICUS. 



THE RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] 



CHARLESTON, S. C, JANUARY, 1872. 



[No. IV. 



^'Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science." 



D. H. JACQUES, EoiTor. 



LOOKING FORWARD. 

Looking back over the past year encourages 
us to look forward with hopefulness to the sea- 
son upon which we are now entering. The 
year just closed, it is true, was marked bysome 
disasters to the crops in various parts of the 
country — drought in the earlier part of Sum- 
mer, heavy and continuous rains later in the 
season, and, on the coast, prostrating storms ; 
but the Autumn was exceedingly favorable for 
maturing and harvesting late crops, and when 
we sum up the results of the year's operations, 
taking the country as a whole into the ac- 
count, we lind at least a tolerably satisfactory 
total. 

Every year brings its quota of failures 
to individuals and to particular regions of 
country. Here we have drought ; there too 
abundant rains. Eust ruins the wheat and 
the oats ; caterpillars attack the cotton. These 
things are to be expected. They are among 
the risks of the busine.ss, and every business 
has its risks. We must guard against them as 
well as we can, and especially we must diver- 
sify our crops, so that the failure of any one 
will not prove utterly ruinous. Cotton may 
fail, and wheat and corn be good, or the re- 
verse; so, not having our eggs all in one bas- 
ket, we may save some of them. 

The cau.«e for hopefulness does not lie iu 
any expectation of better seasons, or an im- 
provement in climate. We are entirely con- 
tent to take these as they are. We are hope- 
ful because we find improvement in the views 
and in the practical methods of the more in- 
telligent of our planters and farmers. They 
are appreciating more fully and more gener- 
ally the changed conditions under which they 
are working, and, profiting by experience, 
are, like sensible men, adapting their modes 



of culture and the character of their crops 
to these changed conditions. They have 
already begun to feel the benefits of this agri- 
cultural "reconstruction." 

1. The " all cotton " system of jilanting 
has very generally lost favor. More atten- 
tion is being given to making the necessary 
provision crops for home consumption. 

2. The credit system in planting is being 
abandoned, (from necessity in many cases, 
perhaps,) and is not likely ever to be resumed 
to the same extent as formerly ; for the good 
results of a more independent and sensible 
way will be too apparent. 

3. Some dearly bought, but valuable les- 
sons, in the management of our labor, have 
been learned, and we begin to see what can 
and what cannot be done with it ; and the 
scarcity of such labor as can be relied upon 
has led to various plans for saving labor and 
working and living economically. 

4. In those parts of the country where the 
small grains and the grasses succeed, (and 
some of them will be found to succeed every- 
where,) more attention is being paid to grow- 
ing them. 

5. As one of the results of the foregoing 
changes, there is increased attention bestow- 
ed upon stock, and a desire manifested to pro- 
cure improved breeds and to learn the best 
mode of treating them. 

These are a few of the signs of the times 
which, in spite of the many terrible disad- 
vantages and drawbacks under which we 
labor, give us a hopeful out-look toward the 
future. Courage, energy, industry and per- 
severance will win success in the end, and 
bring back prosperity to our country. While 
we encourage no visionary hopes of an im- 
mediate industrial millennium, we would, 
above all, avoid and deprecate croaking. 



212 



The Rand Carolinian. 



AGRICULTURAL REPORT FOR 1870. 

We are indebted to Hon. Frederick "Watts, 
Commissioner of Agriculture, for the Annual 
Report of the Department for 1870. The 
information it contains was not quite so old, 
when received, as it has generally been, and 
we hope this improvement will be bettered 
hereafter till we get this valuable and im- 
portant document within a reasonable time 
after its date. 

Like the Report for 18G9, this is an ex- 
ceedingly interesting and useful volume, and 
well worth the money it costs the country. 
We wish that every copy printed could fall 
into the hands of persons who would make 
good use of the highly valuable information 
it contains; but the present mode of distri- 
bution is not calculated, we fear, to accom- 
plish this desirable result. The copies allotted 
to the Commissioner are, we believe, judi- 
ciously distributed ; but the larger part of 
the edition, put into the hands of congress- 
men, if distributed at all, too often goes into 
the hands of their political friends and parti- 
sans, who are not always farmers, and are 
often, perhaps, the last persons in the world 
to make any good use of the work. Can not 
some better mode of distribution be devised ? 

"VVe shall have occasion to call further at- 
tention to the volume before us, and to enrich 
our pages with some valuable extracts from it. 



McGHEE'S HYBRID COTTON. 

Last spring we received from a subscriber 
at Morrison's Mills, near Gainesville, Fla., a 
few seeds of a new hybrid cotton, which we 
planted. It grew finely at first, but later in 
the season took the rust, which blasted our 
prospect for a crop. Two or three stalks, 
which partially escaped, produced a good 
show of boUp, and the fibre is long, fine, 
silky and beautiful. It is represented as sell- 
ing for one-fifth more than sea island cotton, 
which it resembles, and to produce more to 
the acre than the most prolific upland cotton. 

Hybridizing sea island and upland cotton 
is no new thing in this country. It has 
been tried many times within the last quar- 
ter of a century, but never, we believe, with 
any pennnnent advantage. The hybrid has 
always, as far as wo can learn, rapidly dete- 
riorated. Whether this has resulted from 



bad culture and neglect in the selection of 
seed, or from natural causes beyond our con- 
trol, we do not know. 

Prof. Williams Rutherford, of Athens, Ga., 
is now engaged in a series of experiments 
calculated to thoroughly test this matter, and 
definitely settle the question whether the two 
species of cotton can be hybridized with any 
practical good results. 

RARE SEEDS. 

W^e are often requested to procure for sub- 
scribers and others seeds of new or little 
known plants peculiar to Southern climates. 
We have seldom been able to comply with 
such requests, no seedsman having the seeds 
for sale. This year we have, with some 
trouble and expense, procured a few kinds 
which are in demand, and shall get others if 
opportunity shall offer. We should be glad 
to make a gratuitous distribution of these, 
but as we cannot, in this case, afford to do so, 
we will put them up in packages at twenty- 
five cents each, and send them pre-paid by 
mail to those who may order them, till our 
small supply shall be exhausted. 

The following are the kinds now on hand : 
Japan Peas ; Juto; Doura Corn ; Dixie To- 
mato (a small quantity;) Running Mangoes 
[Sechium edulis,) and Tanyah roots. 

We shall continue to distribute other seeds 
gratuitously, as they may be sent us, or as 
we can procure them for that purpose. 

WEATHER AND CROP REPORTS. 

We are pleased to observe that Com. 
Maury's proposition for an international 
system of Weather and Crop Reports is at- 
tracting general attention. The benefit of 
the movement he is desirous of inaugurating 
(set forth in his letter published in our la.st 
number) would be world-wide and incal- 
culable. The Crop Reports of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the AVeather Bul- 
letins of the Signal Service are examples, on 
a small scale, of what Com. Maury would 
have done on a large scale, by the joint action 
of all civilized nations. The benefit of our 
imperfect and fragmentary systems of obser- 
vation and report are obvious and great. 
How much greater, then, would be that of 
the grand system which sliould cmhraco the 
world ? 



Editorial Department. 



213 



UNITED STATES SIGNAL SERVICE. 

"VVe have received from the War Depart- 
ment an interesting pamphlet on " The Prac- 
tical use of Meteorological Reports and 
"Weather Maps," issued from the ofBco of the 
Chief Signal Officer of the United States. 
The Department makes the following an- 
nouncement : 

" It is the object of this publication to put 
it in the power of the largest number to make 
use of, and to profit by, the labors of this 
Office ; to enable them to test, and to avail 
them.selves of some of the laws and generali- 
zations by which the meteorologists are 
guided ; and to afford the means by which at 
once to supplement, judge of, and aid the 
work of the Department." 

Our friend, P. J. Berckmans, of Fruitland 
Nurseries, near Augusta, Ga., has laid us 
under obligations for a box of fine ornamental 
plants. Their beauty and bloom will be a 
perpetual reminder of his friendly generosity; 
and not we alone, but every beholder will 
thank him in his heart for adding to the sum 
of that beauty which is a "joy forever." 

"We are indebted to the Department of 
Agriculture for very acceptable packages of 
vegetable seeds— coming, this time, in good 
season— for which the Commissioner will 
please accept our thanks. 

FARM AND GARDEN NOTES. 

Irish Potatoes for the South. 
Mr. B. Hamilton, of Dalton, Ga., who ob- 
tained a special premium for Irish potatoes 
at the Atlanta Fair, last fall, claims to have 
a Southern seedling which will endure our 
hot summers and will not rot if left in the 
ground during the season, to be dug when 
wanted. He adds, in his report, that an Irish 
potato, to keep here through the Summer, 
must be a native variety. "We have no doubt 
but that we may, by planting seeds, get new 
varieties better adapted to our climate than 
those originated at the North, but the Early 
Rose keeps finely here, as we and others de- 
monstrated the past season. 

The Hebe Pear. 
In the first number of Vol. I of The Ru- 
ral Carolinij^n, we gave an illustrated des- 
cription of this noble fruit. Some have sup- 
posed that the size of the fruit is exaggerated 



in our engraving. On the contrary, we saw, 
at the Columbia Fair, specimens much larger 
than it is represented in our engraving. The 
Hebe is propegated by Mr. William Summer, 
of Pomaria, S. C. We are surprised to find 
that this fine Southern variety is so little 
known. It should be tested in various local- 
ities to determine its adaption to general cul- 
tivation. The specimens exhibited at Colum- 
bia, we understood, were grown in East Ten- 
nessee. 

Bambusa Gracilis, 




The ornamental grasses are very effective 
in suitable situations, in borders and beds, 
where there is sufficient room for the large 
growing species. One of the best is the Pam- 
pas Grass and scarcely inferior to it, and 
growing to from ten to fifteen feet in height, 
is the Bamhisa gracilis, here represented. It 
is little known in this country but is a favor- 
ite in Europe. 

Plumbago Capensis. 

This is one of the most desirable flowering 
shrubs for the Southern garden. It bears its 
delicate blue flowers in clustei's and is natur- 
ally an evergreen, and a perpetual bloomer ; 
but in our latitude its foliage and tender 
shoots are sometimes killed by the frost. It 
soon puts out again, however, on the approach 
of warmer weather and gives us a constant 
show of flowers from February to November, 
the severest heats and drought of Summer 
seeming only to enhance its beauty. It is 



214 



The Rural Carolinian. 



somewhat inclined to climb nnd may be train- 
ed on a trellis, but is most ctt'cctive when 
kept pruned and treated as a low shrub. 
Clover and Grass on Rice Lands. 

Some late experiments seem to indicate 
that clover, and probably also the cultivated 
grasses, can be grown with entire success and 
great profit on our river rice lands. If further 
trials shall demonstrate this, we shall have 
an answer to the often repeated question, 
"What shall we do with our rice lands?" 
With free negro labor, the cultivation of rice 
is, in a majority of cases, impracticable. Clover 
and the grasses, requiring little labor, seem 
to be just the crops best adapted to the con- 
dition of things existing in the old rice dis- 
tricts. 

The Great Abyssinian Banana. 

This species of banana (Musa ensetie) is 
said to be the most liardy, as well as the most 
magnificent of its family. It grows freely in 
the open air, during the Summer months as 
far North as Philadelphia, and onh' requires 
to be wintered in a cool house. Its immense 
leaves attain a length of from 8 to 10 feet, and 
are of a beautiful dark green, the mid rib be- 
ing bright crimson, forming an admirable and 
striking contrast. It attains altogether an 
average height of from 12 to 15 feet. 
Do Oats Exhaust the Land? 

Many farmers labor under the impression 
that the oat crop is an exhaustive one. If it 
be meant that it is more so than wheat or 
corn or even equally so, we believe the notion 
to be a most erronious one. We are inclined 
to place oats among the renovators of the 
soil. If sowed pretty thickly, the stubblo 
left long and turned under early, the land is 
improved rather than exhausted by the crop ; 
but clover, where it will grow, is a still better 
renovator. 

Forcing Radishes. 

In the publications of the Acclimatization 
Society of Palermo, a plan for hastening the 
growth of radishes is thus described : The 
seeds must be first soaked for twenty-four 
hours and then placed in bags and exposed 
to the sun for the same length of time, when 
they will have commenced to sprout. They 
are then to beset in a box filled with well-ma- 
nured earth, and moistened, from time to time, 



with lukewarm water. In five or six days, it is 
said, the radishes will attain the size of a small 
onion. 

Carno Guano. 

A fertilizer under this name has appeared 
in market and is attracting attention. It is 
prepared from the residuum of the flesh used 
in the getting up of Liebeg's extract of meat. 
Analysis shows that it contains nine parts in 
one hundred of water, forty-one of organic 
matter, nineteen of lime, magnesia, oxide of 
iron, etc., ten of phosphoric acid, from one- 
half to one part of potash, and the rest of in- 
soluble matter, such as sand, clay, etc. 
Budleya Lindleyana. 

Among the choicest Summer blooming 
shrubs for our climate is Wie Budleya Lindley- 
ana, a graceful evergreen of drooping habit, 
whose handsome spikes of purple flowers are 
continuously renewed from February to No- 
vember — the plant withstanding our hot sum- 
mers perfectly. If we were to be limited to 
a half a dozen flowering shrubs, this should 
be one of them. 



INDUSTRIAL ITEMS. 

Several important uses have been found for 
blast and furnace slags, such as the manu- 
facture of chemical salts, cements, pavements, 
and the like, from what has always been a 
waste material. Now we hear of the proposi- 
tion to cast the cinder from the furnaces into 
slabs, garden rollers, posts, pillars, and so 
forth. In certain metallurgical operations 
these articles can be made to resemble por- 
phyry. In some parts of Germany the slag 
is cast in moulds, and is at first used by the 
workmen for cooking and heating purposes, 
and afterwards for building houses and walls. 
The prospect is fair of furnace slags becom- 
ing valuable for many purposes. 

The Massachusetts Plouyhman gives 

the following as a recipe for a paint that has 
an excellent etlect on wood: "As the result 
of a five years' experience, a paint is recom- 
mended, which at the same time possesses 
the advantages of being impervious to water. 
It is composed of fifty pans of tar, five hun- 
dred parts of fine white sand, four parts of 
linseed oil, one part of the red oxide of cop- 
per in its native state, and, finally, one ])art 
of sulphuric acid. In order to manufacture 



Editorial Bepnrfinent. 



215 



the paint from this muUiplicity of materials, i and needing merely the lightest touches of 
the tar, sand and oil, are Hrst heated in an \ fancy to give them all the charms of the 
iron kettle; the oxide and acid are then j most skilfully contrived fiction; and Mr. 
added with a great deal of caution. The j Simms has here taken few liberties with the 
mass is very carefully mixed and applied veritable records of tlie 



while hot. When thoroughly dry, this paint 
is as hard as stone." 

"We have the assurance, (Prof. Stelle 

says,) from a correspondent who writes under 
date of " New York, Sept. 16th, 1871," that 
he will have a " Hand Kice HuUer " in readi- 
ness for the small rice planters by another 
season, and from the tenor of the letter be- 
fore us, we feel confident that the author will 
come to the relief of hundreds of this class 
of planters by the time the next crop of rice 
is ready to harvest. 

On the fourth of October, 1871, the 

citizens of Augusta voted upon the proposi- 
tion to enlarge the Augusta canal, a project 
designed to prepare the way for the erection 
of new factories, involving an expenditure of 
at least $400,000 by the city. The scheme 
was sanctioned by a large majority. As an 
immediate beneficial result of the completion 
of this enterprise, the Augusta Factory Com- 
pany contemplate the erection of a new mill 
of 10,000 spindles, and the addition of 5,000 
spindles to one of their present mills. 

The Blanchard Churn is said by dairy- 
men to be one of the best, if not the best of 
all, among the new inventions for making 
butter quickly and well, and it is very gen- 
erally conceded that, for simplicity, effect- 
iveness, durability, cheapness and beauty, it 
is unsurpassed. 

LITERARY NOTES. 

Messrs. "Walker. Evans and Cogswell, 
Charleston, have issued, in fine style, "The 
Lily and the T^tem, or the Huguenots in 
Florida," by William Gilmore Simms. We 
are glad to see this too little known but 
charming work so handsomely got up here, in 
the city of the lamented author's birth, and 
so long his chosen home. We know our 
pleasure will be shared by the thousands of 
admirers of our gifted novelist and historian 
throughout the country. "The Lily and 
the Totem " is a historical romance of ab- 
sorbing interest, dealing with authentic nar- 
ratives in themselves essentially romantic, 



adventurous old 
French colonists of the South. The voyages 
and adventures of Ribault, Laudonnier and 
others, have merely received at his hands 
more fullness of detail and an additional pio^ 
turesqueness. In startling tragedies and ex- 
citing incidents they were already sufficiently 
rich. The publishers should bo encouraged 
to bring out, in the same style, a series em- 
bracing Mr. Simms' complete works. 

Jas. H. Hummell, New Orleans, has 

sent us a copy of ''Every Horse Owner's 
Cyclopa3dia," by J. H. Walsh, F. E. C. S., 
a well printed, handsomely bound and ele- 
gantly illustrated volume of nearly GOO pages. 
It comes to hand just as we are about going 
to press, and we can give it but a hasty no- 
tice at this time. It seems to be a thoroughly 
practical work, written in a clear, concise 
and simple style, and to contain nearly 
everything that a horse-owner needs to know 
— telling him exactly how to raise and 
manage the horse when in health, and how 
to cure him when sick ; how to train him to 
the various gaits, how to prepare him for the 
chase or for any hard work ; what kind of 
stables to build, and how to build and keep 
them ; how to take care of the saddlery and 
harness — in fact, omitting nothing that can 
be of any possible use to him. (Jas. H. Hum- 
mel, New Orleans ; price, $4 50.) 

The Plantation Publishing Company, 

Atlanta, Ga., has issued, in pamphlet form, 
the Lectures of George Ville, delivered at the 
Experimental Farm at Tincennes, in 18G7, 
under the title of " Chemical Manures;" the 
translation (admirably done) being made by- 
Miss E. L. Howard. Whether Prof. Yille's 
methods can be applied in full to our soils, 
and under the widely different conditions 
here existing, or not, no thoughtful farmer 
can read this admirable work without profit; 
and we should be glad to see it in the hands 
of all our readers. 

From the press of Messrs. Wood & 

Holbrook, publishers of the Herald of HeaUh, 
we have a valuable little manual entitled 
" Parturition without Pain." If this were a 



216 



The Rural Carolinian. 



mere catchpenny piece of quackery, like too 
many of the books which deal with similar 
subjects, it would get no mention here ; but it 
is the work of an educated physician, is 
adapted to domestic practice, and deals in a 
chaste and practical way with a subject of the 
gravest importance. Were the directions it 
gives generally known and heeded, an untold 
amount of suffering would be saved to those 
illy able to bear it. We commend it to those 
for whom it is intended. (Wood & Holbrook, 
15 Laight street, New York; %\.) 

The Atlantic Monthly for the present 

year resumes the "Autocrat" series in "The 
Poet at the Breakfast Table," by Dr. Holmes, 
a literary event of the first interest ; and 
these papers will be more charming than 
any thing he has yet done in his most char- 
acteristic vein. The discovery of a complete 
romance by Hawthorne is a matter of cer- 
tainly not less importance, and the story, 
\V;hich will appear in a serial of the Atlantic, 
is all the more fascinating because, not 
having received his final touches, it shows 
some of the processes of his subtle invention, 
and, as it were, takes the reader into his con- 
fidence, 

On the 1st of January Mr. Benson J. 

Lossing commenced the publication of his 
monthly ^^ American Hislorical Record and 
Repertory of Notes and Queries," illustrated, 
which he proposes to make a compendious 
and reliable depository of hiatorical facts of 
every kind concerning the civil, military, 
political, religious, literary, artistic, scientific 
and antiquarian affairs of our country. 

Mrs. Therese Yelverton, otherwise 

Viscountess Avon more, whose divorce case 
created so much sensation some years ago, has 
written a novel, entitled " Zanita, a Tale 
of the Yosemite." Mrs. Yelverton has re- 
cently been living in California, and the 
book will contain the writer's observations 
on California life and manners. 

Joaquin Miller has written a Christmas 

poem, which will take an abiding place in 
our literature. It appeared in the Christmas 
Locket. 

Baron Gerolt, Prussian Minister to 

the United States for the last twenty years, 
has a book on America in the press at Leip- 
sig. 



Dr. Zapp, of Berlin, has written four 

lectures to prove that woman is the comple- 
ment of man, and that home is her sphere, 
illustrating his thesis chiefly by middle-age 
examples. 

Victor Hugo, who, notwithstanding 

rumors to the contrary, is not impaired in 
mind, is writing a new work, entitled " L' An- 
n6e Terrible," in which the misfortunes of 
France will be described. 



MERE MENTION. 

A cotton factory, with a capacity of 15,000 
spindles, is just now being completed at 
Nasbville, Tennessee. 

General Kobert Patterson owns twelve 

steam cotton and woolen mills, which run 
69,000 spindles and employs two thousand 
people. 

The raising of apples for market at 

the North is said to be a losing business, a 
fall crop always bringing down the price 
below the cost of production. 

Henry A, Moss, of McMinn County, 

Tennessee, has raised between five and six 
thousand pounds of merchantable tobacco, 
last season, on five acres of ground. 

Every year many of our farmers, 

through pure negligence, lot enough property 
and machinery go to waste to pay all their 
tuxes and buy a new cow. 

By raising cotton the Florida planters 

got $45 for an acre's yield ; by raising sugar 
cane they get $393, with no more work or 
responsibility. 

Thousands of farmers in France and 

Germany are divided one from another only 
by a narrow path ; in this country the cost of 
fences is estimated at $300,000,000. 

There are two ways of going through 

this world : One is to make the best of it, 
the other to make the worst of it ; and those 
who take the latter course work hard for 
very poor pay. 

An exchange says the wine yield of 

California is so abundant this season as to put 
the people to their wits' ends to procure casks 
enough to hold all of it. 

The average consumption of wine in 

California is ten gallons to every citizen. 
The average yearly consumption of coffee in 
the State IG 3-5 pounds. The average in the 
Union at large is only 7 pounds. 



Editorial Department. 



217 



"Jute is quoted in the New York 

prices current at seven and a half cents per 
pound, currency ; jute buts at four and a 
half cents, currency. These quotations refer 
to the innported article. We observe no 
quotations of the American product. 

James J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, 

Massachusetts, now raises over one hundred 
varieties of vegetable seed, and is constantly 
producing new varieties. His business ex- 
tends over all parts of the country, orders 
being received and promptly filled from 
more than fifty thousand customers annually. 

A correspondent of the Willamette 

Famner feeds his stock a tablespoonful of 
sulphur to each animal, with their salt, once 
in two weeks. When he has done so no ver- 
min has troubled them, and his cows have 
not been aflected with garget, nor his sheep 
with grub in the head. He has practiced 
this twenty years. 

EXCHANGES. 

The Phrenological Journal, for January, is 
in advance of ail the monthlies, and full, as 
usual, of entertaining matter— phrenological, 
physiological and miscellaneous — with num- 
erous capital illustrations. An excellent begin- 
ning for the new year. (New York, Samuel 
11. Wells, 389 Broadway ; $3 a year.) 

The Eclectic Magazine, for December, 

has an uncommonly attractive table of con- 
tents. The articles on " ^rial Voyages," 
"American Books," and "the New German 
Keformation," are particularly excellent, each 
in its way. (New York, E. K. Polton, 108 
Fulton street; $5 a year.) 

The Herald of Health, for December, 

contains a remarkable paper on " How Best to 
Promote the Cause of Temperance,'' which is 
rich in new thought and written in elegant 
style. The programme for 1872 is an attract- 
ive one, and will be carried out in good faith. 
The Herald is a good publication for those 
who value health and physical development, 
(«s who does not?) (New York, Wood & 
Holbrook, 15 Laight street ; $1 25 a year.) 

The American Exchange and Review, 

for December, has a sound and thoughtful 
paper on "Cooperation," which should be 
widely read in these days when so many wild 
and impracticable schemes are being pro- 
posed, and so much excitement exists in 
No. 4, Vol. 3. 16 



regard to the relations of labor and capital. 
(Philadelphia, Review Publishing Company, 
corner of Walnut and Fourth streets ; $3 a 
year.) 

PAMPHLETS AND CATALOGUES. 

"Annual Report of the Commissioner of 
Agriculture, for 1871." This is the prelimi- 
nary report of the Commissioner to Congress, 
and will form a part of the next annual vol- 
ume. It contains many interesting facts and 
valuable suggestions, and shows a good deal 
of wise forethought in the new head of the 
department. 

Address of Com. M. F. Maury, before 

the Fair of the Agricultural and Mechanical 
Society of Memphis, Tenn. This discourse 
develops the plan fosr international weather 
and crop reports elsewhere noticed. 

"Columbia, S. C, the Future Manu- 
facturing and Commercial Centre of the 
South," etc., sets forth in glowing terms, but 
truthfully we believe, the advantages of our 
beautiful State capital— certainly one of the 
handsomest towns in the world. 

Joseph Vestal's "Spring Catalogue of 

Plants, Vines, Roses, Flowering Shrubs, 
Small Fruits and Vegetables." Cambridge 
City, Ind., 1871. 

W. H. Rathbono's "Catalogue of 

New and Choice Vegetable Seeds," Uncass- 
ville, Conn., 1871. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY, 
Washington, D. C, Dec. 22, 1871. 
To facilitate business with Subordinate 
Granges and members of our Order, the Na- 
tional Grange desires to receive the names 
and P. 0. address, circulars and price lists, 
of all manufacturers of agricultural machines 
and implements ; nurserymen ; dealers in 
seeds, and all others whose business brings 
them in direct contact with the farmers, East 
and West, North and South. The same will 
be recorded for future reference. Address, 
O. H. Kklley, 
Sec. Nat. Orange, Washington, D. C. 

Col. D. Wyatt Aiken, Cokesbury, S. C, 
has been appointed a Deputy at Large of the 
National Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, for 
the Southern States, and will organize Sub- 
ordinate Granges wherever desired. 



218 



The Rural Carolinian. 



DEPARTMENT OF CORRESPONDENCE AND INQUIRY. 



THE SPANISH COCKLE BURR. 

Editor of The Rui-al Carolinian ; 

Enclosed is a specimen of leaf, flower, seed 
and fibre of a plant known here by the name 
of "Spanish Cockle Burr." It flourishes 
finely in tliis section and requires nothing but 
a start to establish itself. 

There being a good deal said and written 
about the introduction of jute into the South, 
I thought that attention might be directed 
to this plant. If this is not jute, jute must 
be a remarkable plant, if it can excel this in 
the luxuriance of its growth, in the facility 
with which land may be 8et M'ith it, in the 
little labor necessary for its development and 
in the abundance and quality of the fibre 
of its bark. 

If the South wishes to raise fibre, she need 
not send far for jute seed. This plant has 
been growing about the writer's horse-lot, 
niaintfting its ground against all other weeds, 
for the last five or six years. It grows from 
four to ten feet in height according to cir- 
cumstances, fertility, &c. A single plant 
branches much like the cotton plant, but 
sends out many long slender shoots. When 
the plants stand thickly, they run up to the 
height mentioned without branches, and 
maintaining their size well to the top. 

Like the cotton plant, this continues to 
grow, blooming and maturing its seed till 
niped by a frost. Stock will eat it, but do 
not appear to be fond of it. It is not recom- 
mended as a feed for stock, but as a fibre pro- 
ducer, it is excellent. The bark is thick and 
very rich, in a long, strong and moderately 
fine fibre. 

I cannot give the probable cost of prepar- 
ing the fibre for market, as I have no knowl- 
edge of such subjects. In a small way, this 
fibre is readily obtained, the whole length of 
the stalk. To do this, it is only necessary to 
rot it in water some two or three weeks, and 
the bark can be readily stripped off, when with 
a little beating the outer bark and cellular 
tissue fajl out leaving the fibre the length of 
the stalk. 

It is thought that this plant would do well 
throughout the cotton region, suited to any 
soil adapted to cotton, and would not need 
the encouragement of Cuffee's hoe to make it 
grow, but of course, it could aspire to nothing 
higher than being a useful subject of King 
Cotton. 

F, M. McMekkin. 

Orange Spring, Florida, November, 1871. 

The plant described by our correspondent 
is evidently, a species of Xanihitim, but 
neither the description nor the leaf and seeds 
sent, seem to correspond with those of either 



A", strtcmarium or A. spinosmn, the only 
species with which we are acquainted. The 
fibre is stronger, finer, and more glossy than 
that of the jute plant. We would advise Mr. 
McMeekinto make further experiments with 
it, 

IMPROVED BARX YARD FOWLS. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

The State Society offers each year a premi- 
um for be.<t trio of barn fowls. The examining 
committee in this department at the last Fair 
decided that of all the exhibitors for this pre- 
mium, none were breeding for a purpose. A 
trio of the finest among the exhibitors collec- 
tion were brought to compete for the premi- 
um without regard to any qualities, but size 
and appearance. This is not what is desired. 
To determine and arrive at the best crosses, 
and produce a fowl that will answer under 
most circumstances the wants of our house- 
wives, is what is needed. 

This year I have mnde three experiments 
or trials. I first crossed the game on white 
brahmas, then game on dark brahmas and 
bred the game pure. Of the first, I have a 
very fine fowl, large in limb and body, show- 
ing more of tiie game than the brahma ; in- 
clined to rove and requiring an extensive 
range. Of the second cross, I have, par excel- 
lence, the fowl ; not quarrelsome, but of suf- 
ficient courage to defend itself; fine in flesh, 
larger in limb and body than the preceding 
cross ; requiring a close and small range, ad- 
mirable for a town or city lot, and excellent 
in flesh and flavor. 

The pure game will not answer for a limit- 
ed range, and they are smaller than the cross- 
es on the brahmas, though superior in flesh 
and other qualities. 

Living in the city as I do, I cannot run 
over eighteen hens, and my plan is to keep 
two cocks, one of the second cross game on 
dark brahmas and one of full light brahams. 

If any of your readers can suggest a better 
arrangement, I should like to hear from him 
through the columns of "The Rural," for 
this subject is not of individual interest alone, 
but the information will begratefully received 
by many of your readers, and there will be a 
better show of barn-yard fowls at our next 
Fair. Yours, Lbe. 

Columbia, S. C, Deceynber ISth, 1871. 



INQUIRIES AND ANSWERS. 

"Subscriber," Gadsden, S. C, asks the 
following questions : 

1st, Does the chemical term "acid " neces- 
sarily mean ^^sour,''' or is it only the name of 



Department of Coirespondence and Inquiry. 



219 



a substance which, combined with a base, pro- 
duces a " salt :-'" 

2d. Do sour weeds (sorrels) indicate acidity 
in the land ? Our old fields, even the most 
sandv, abound in them. 

3d' If so, what is the nctloJi of gypsum 
on such lauds ? Its application has proved 
liighly beneficial. If the lime in gypsum 
corrects the acidity in the land, what be- 
comes of the sulphuric acid? 

4tb. What would be the effect upon the 
ammonia in cotton seed if composted with 
lime? 

5th. The same when composted with gyp- 
sum ? 

1st. As acids are not necessarily sour to the 
taste, nor even "acid" in their reaction on 
vegetable coloring matters, their most impor- 
tant characteristic is the property of forming, 
in conjunction with a base, a salt. 

2d. We are unable to state whether sour 
weeds indicate acidity in soils. Sorrels are 
often found in damp, humous soils, where 
one might expect, as the result of incomplete 
combustion (decomposition) of the organic 
matter, an acid " ground water." 

3d. Land-plaster, (gypsum, the hydrated 
sulphate of lime,) prevents the rapid decom- 
position of organic matter. Furthermore, 
according to experiments of Pincus, gypsum 
appears to undergo a decomposition in the 
soil, and by reason of the substitution of 
magnesia and potash in place of the lime, to 
promote the distribution of the two former, 
highly important ingredients of plant-food, 
in a form easy of assimilation throughout 
the soil. 

4th. The effect of composting cotton seed 
witt burnt lime would be to cause its rapid 
decomposition, and, ultimately, the forma- 
tion of ammoniacal salts from its nitrogenous 
ingredients. The ammoniacal products would 
be apt to escape, unless dry earth, or, better, 
gypsum were scattered over the heap. 

5th. On composting with gypsum, (of 
course finely ground,) the decomposition 
would be slower, and the ammoniacal gases 
would be retained. The addition of stable 
manure, acid phosphate, fish manure or Pe- 
ruvian Guano, to the heap would be found 
advantageous, since they would accelerate 
the decomposition of the organic matter. 
Land-plaster should be mixed into the heap, 
and liberally scattered over it, to prevent the 
loss of ammoniacal gases. S. 



W. B. Waldo, Florida. We have 

already published articles ou the cultivation 
of the pea-nut, [goaher.) See numbers of 
TuK Rural Carolinian for May and July, 
1870. 

C. C. J. The '• rather poor soil " you 

mention, wifh a little manure, will probably 
produce a good crop of Navy beans On very 
rich soil they run too much to vine. Yard 
scrapings, chip manure and ashes would make 
an excellent compost for the beans. Twenty 
bushels to the acre would be a good yield. 
The rows may be from two and a half to 
three feet apart, the hills one foot apart in 
the row. and from three to five plants in a 
hill. Cultivate like snap beans. They must 
be pulled as soon as ripe, for exposure to 
rains will discolor and damage them. 

Mc. 1. Try your dahlia in a differ- 
ent and very rich soil ; but the dahlia does 
not succeed so well here as further north, and 
may, generally, give place, with advantage, 
to the hollyhock, the zinnia, and the gladio- 
lus. 2. Apple seeds may be planted here 
either in the fall or in winter, but fall plant- 
ing is best. The soil should be rich, mellow, 
moist, (but not wet,) and partially shaded. 

If the oak, and other hard wood saw- 
dust mentioned by S. J. H. is sufficiently 
rotted, it will make good manure for Irish 
potatoes or sweet potatoes, and will be parti- 
cularly beneficial to stiff clayey land. It 
would, we think, pay to haul it the distance 
mentioned. 

J. w. T., Abbeville. The plant sent is 

Baccharls halhnifolia, Lin., sometimes called 
sea myrtle. It has been used with advan- 
tage as a palliative and demulcent in coughs 
and consumption. A strong decoction of the 
root may be drunk several times a day. 

B. D. K., Mississippi, The address of 

Dr. R. Fowler, General Deputy of the Na- 
tional Grange, P. of H., for Miss., is Dale- 
ville, Lauderdale Co. We can send you a 
small package of Doura corn, as will be seen 
by a notice elsewhere. We know no one who 
has had it for sale by the bushel, or in any 
large quantity. 

J. M. A. wishes to know where he can 

obtain a few seed of the " Running Mango," 
also, a handful of "Doura Corn." Sec no- 
tice on page 212. 



220 



The Rural Carolinian. 



LITERARY AND HOME DEPARTMENT. 



THY WELCOME. 

Neath evening's level-glancing beams, 
Broad Wando's tide of silver gleams, 
And breezes, late from groves of pine, 
Bear me the wild-wood's odors fine, 
As here (while Sunset's pencils bright, 
The West encrimson with their light) 
I sit and fondly think of thee 
Whom north winds waft toward home and me. 

The orange, all these Autumn days. 
Has drank the sunshine's golden rays, 
A.nd now, for thee grown ripe and sweet. 
Peeps through its leaves thy face to greet ; 
And cool pomegranates, tawny-brown, 
Which weigh their slender branches down, 
And glow with rosy blushes, wait 
Thy rosier presence by the gate. 

Lantanas gem the borders wide, 
And Cannas, in their lofty pride, 
Lift up their scarlet spikelets high, 
And with the splendid Salvias vie, 
To make the bright adornment meet 
For her who comes, so fair and sweet ; 
And Autumn, tribute fit to bring. 
Becomes, for thee, a second Spring. 

Come then, beloved of birds and flowers. 
The South-Land is their home and ours. 
The balmy breeze shall ociors rare, 
From fragrant olives to thee boar, 
And violet's bloom and mock bird's lay 
Shall welcome back my Child of May. 
God speed the bark with precious freight. 
While, with the flowers, for thee I wait. 
Charleston, November, 1S71. 

THE DISGUISE OF WOMEN. 

In the island of Cos, as Sir John Maunde- 
ville tells us, there still lived, in his time — 
tliat is to say, during the fourteenth century 
— the daughter of that eminent physician, 
Hippocrates, M. D., who had then been dead, 
if history lieth not, noarly two thousand 
years. The goddess Diana, for some reason 
unknown to Sir John Maundeville, had 
changed her by magic art into the form and 
figure of a loathly dragon, a hundred fathoms 
in length. She inhabits — for one may sup- 
pose that she is still there — an old castle in 
the island, whence she comes out two or three 



times every year, but does no harm to any- 
body. And she is doomed to remain in that 
form until some knight be found bold enough 
to kiss her on the mouth, disguisfd and hid- 
eous as she is. This once done, she shall turn 
again into a woman. Not long before Sir 
John visited the island, a knight of Rhodes 
undertook the adventure. Mounting his 
charger, he rode boldly into the castle where 
she lay ; but when the dragon lifted her 
head, the knight's courage left him, and he 
turned to escape. Whereupon the dragon 
tossed him, horse and all, into the sea. This 
accident brought the adventure into disre- 
pute. But there was another — a young man 
who knew not of the dragon. He, wander- 
ing about the island, came upon the castle, 
and entering it discovered her on one of those 
rare days, when she was permitted — in the 
strictest privacy — to resume her own shape, 
in order to comb her hair. She told the 
youth, who was not yet a knight, that if he 
would go away and get knighted, and then 
come back and have the courage to kiss a 
harmless dragon on the mouth, she and all 
her wealth would be his. He went, was made 
a knight, and returned to the adventure. But, 
alas 1 when the dragon came out — so loathly 
and misshapen — his courage failed him too; 
and he fled in haste. She, when she saw that 
he turned not again, began to cry as a thing 
that hath much sorrow ; and then she return- 
ed to her cave. Here she sits still, waiting 
for the knight to come who shall dare to kiss 
her on the mouth. 

Sir John, of course, never expected that 
any one would believe this story, which we 
are to take as the work of an old bachelor, a 
misogynist, and as a very subtle allegory. It 
treats, under the veil of a local fable, of the 
disguise of women. Woman, he tells us, is 
doomed by the goddess Fashion ever to appear 
in some shape other than her natural one. 
She appears — occasionally, that is, when she 
goes into society — always in this disguise, 
and never doing any harm to people. In her 
own castle — that is, at home — she puts on her 
natural shape ; but to the outer world she 
can never appear as she really is, until a 
knight has been found bold enough to kiss 
her on the rnouth. Then the woman's form 
appears ; the disguise drops oti", she stands 
before her deliverer, and reveals the precious 
secrets of her soul. Then the flowers of love 
and sympathy grow up and bloom in the 
sunshine of love, and the real self, starved 
and imprisoned hitherto, springs into the 
light of a freer and brighter air. 

Modern damsels do not, it is true, nssunio 
the disguise of a loathly dragon. That is 



LUerary arid Home Department. 



221 



because Fashion is kinder than she was wont 
to be. But under other shapes they hide 
themselves just as well from the knights of 
these days. Every young lady belongs to 
one of a few types, under the disguise of 
which she goes out to dinner and into society. 
She is, perhaps, the young lady, disguised as 
a butterfly, who always talks of balls, and 
operas, and concerts, leading one to believe — 
which is quite absurd — that all her thoughts 
are that way directed. Or she is, in the 
semblance of a dove, the religious young 
lady ; she has given up her mind to early 
services, vestments, and confession, or to the 
spiritual welfare of Quashee and Sambo. The 
idea that any one is going to believe that is 
more absurd than the other. Or, perhaps, 
got up as an owl, she is the young lady who 
goes in for study, and displays more knowl- 
edge ths^n the admirable Crichton. Now she 
cannot possibl}' like it, or hope to persuade 
me that she would not much rather appear in 
her real shape. Or, sometimes, one has the 
luck to take into dinner the young lady, dis- 
guised as a magpie, who loves to talk on the 
very contines of those mysterious regions 
where young ladyhood is not supposed to pen- 
etrate. Then, under the influence of fear, 
an.xiety, and confusion, you find the dinner 
slip away with a rapidity quite startling. 

They are all alike in one respect. When- 
ever there is a new book of any importance, 
they are all quite sure to have read it. Darwin, 
for instance. I have not read that author, 
and do not intend to, because I care nothing 
about ancestral honors. But I always pre- 
tend to an acquaintance with the book among 
my disguised young ladies ; and, curiously 
enough, I have never yet been found, out! 

All this is the disguise of society. Why 
should girls be afraid of showing themselves 
to the world as they show themselves to their 
brothers? They may, if they like, spoil the 
curve of a lovely head by piling up a heap of 
false hair ; or they may ruin a figure like that 
of the Venus of Milo by tight lacing — the 
dear little idiots ; or they may inflict torture 
on themselves worse than any endured by an 
Indian Yogi, by wearing heels three inches 
high, and so being unable to stand upright. 
All this may do, if they please. I am not a 
married man, and I have no right to interfere. 
But what I have a right to complain of is, 
that I can never get the damsels of society to 
show themselves as they are — to be natural — 
unless I go through that preliminary per- 
formance which the young lady of Cos want- 
ed so badly. And then how do I know how 
she will turn out, and what she will be like? 
I am afraid. I am a lineal descendant of the 
knight who ran away, and I confess that I 
am afraid. Is there no other way ? Perhaps 
this is the reason why, as Mr. Weller, senior, 
informed the world, more widows are mar- 
ried than single women. 



THE HILLS. 

When memory breathes of childhood's homo, 
And youth's pulse stirs with joyous thrills, 

Homesick, I long again to roam 
As free as then upon the hills. 

How oft, with childish eagerness, 

I climbed to gaze, where blue and dim, 

The distant hills, with mute caress, 
Seemed meeting the horizon's rim. 

And, with that hopefulness of youth, 
Which contact with the world soon chills, 

Built castles, which I thought, in truth, 
To seek and find beyond the hills. 

At last, beyond the hills to dwell, 

I went ; and though with tearful eyes, 

I looked a lingering fond farewell, 
The future wore a fairer guise. 

But in the life that future brought, 
I found few joys and much of pain : 

The idols proved but clay I'd sought; 
Nor were my castles on the plain. 

I learned, with an awakening rude, 
Life had stern lessons to impart ; 

And, midst the busy multitude, 
Toiled, weary oft and sad of heart. 

And when life seems of little worth. 
Worn with its tumult, care and ills, 

I v/ould look out and down on earth, 
And breathe the pure air of the hills. 

But though may never meet my gaze 

The old familiar hills of yore, 
I'll scan, when death dispells the haze, 

The hills that grace the other shore. 

For here, along life's valley road, 

We bear what cross our Father wills ; 

And for the lifting of our load 
Look upward to the unseen hills. 

There, with earth's lessons learned aright, 
We e'en may find aflliction's rod 

A staff will prove, in heaven's light. 
With which to mount the hills of God. 

Bertha II. Ellsworth. 
Elgin, III. 



222 



The Rural Carolinian. 



NOT NEW BUT GOOD. 

You have often, Mr. Editor, desired the 
ladies to contribute to the Home Department 
of The Kural Carolinian. I have nothing 
new at present to offer, but here are a few 
" tried recipes " from various sources, which 
I can recommend as worthy of a place in 
your columns, and of being experimented 
with by your housekeeping readers : 
Rice with Fruit. 

Parboil rice in water, then add milk, sugar, 
a little lemon peel, or extract, and nutmeg, if 
liked, a little butter, and the yolks of three 
eggs beaten up; cook until done ; then place 
a layer of stewed fruit, of any kind, on a 
dish"; then a layer of rice over it; next, 
another layer of fruit, and then a layer of 
rice, and so on. It may be served hot or 
cold. 

Salad Dressing. 

For a family of six, boil three eggs for ten 
minutes ; throw them into cold water for a 
minute, peel off the shells, cut and mash them 
with two tablespoonfuls of mustard, prepared 
as for meats, a dash of pepper and a little 
salt. Cut the lettuce fine, pour over it vine- 
gar, and sprinkle sugar to taste, then mix 
with it the prepared egg. 

This dish is as appetizing as it is nutritious 
and pleasant to the taste. 

One Egg Cake. 

This makes a very good cake, and not ex- 
pensive : One egsf, one cup of sugar, one and 
a half cups of flour, six tablespoonsful of 
melted butter. If you use baking powder, 
take a heaping teaspocmful ; if not, take one 
half tcaspoonful of soda, and one of cream 
tarter. Add flavoring. 

Plantatio7i Johnny Cake. 

To one pint of corn meal add half a cup of 
sugar, three eggs, a tablespoon ful of butter, a 
tablespoonful of baking powder, and enough 
milk to make a stifl' batter. Grease your 
pan well, and pour the batter into it. Bake 
thoroughly. 

Bread Padding. 

Take two eggs, two tablespoonsful of sugar, 
one pint of milk, one pint of light bread 
soaked in milk or water until soft, beat the 
ingredients thoroughly, and bake sufficiently 
to turn the milk and egsjs to custard. 
Scalloped Oj/sters. 

Scald the oysters in their own liquor ; take 
them out with a fork, lay in a deep dish, 
sprinkling cracker crumbs, pepper and salt, 
and small pieces of butter ; mix a little but- 
ter and flour together, and stir into the li- 
quor ; then fill up the dish with it and brown 
in the oven. 

This last is one of the best recipes for cook- 
ing oysters, and makes a delicious dish. 

Mrs. M. M. 



HOUSEHOLD NOTES. 
A bottle of arnica should be considered in- 
dispensable in every house. For bruises, 
cuts and burns, if applied immediately, it is 
almost magical in its efl'ects.. We find it also 
recommended for ear-ache, to be used as fol- 
lows : As soon as any soreness is felt in the 
ear — which feeling almost always precedes 
the regular " ache " — let three or four drops 
of tincture of arnica be poured in, and then 
the orifice filled with a little cotton to exclude 
the air ; and in a short time the uneasiness is 
forgotten. If the arnica is net resorted to 
until there is actual pain, the cure may not be 
so speedy, but it is just as certain. If one. ap- 
plication of the arnica does not effect a cure, 
it will be necessary to repeat it, it may be, 
several times. 

A correspondent of the Herald of 

Health gives the following directions for 
cooking cracked wheat: " For a pint of the 
cracked grain, have two quarts of water boil- 
ing in a smooth iron pot, over a quick fire ; 
stir in the wheat slowly ; boil fast, and stir 
constantly for the first half hour of cooking, 
or until it begins to thicken and 'popup;' 
then lift from the quick fire, and place the 
pot where the wheal will cook slowly for an 
hour longer. Keep it covered closely, stir 
now and then, and be careful not to let it 
burn at the bottom. White wheat cooks the 
easiest. When ready to dish out, have your 
molds moistened with cold water, cover 
lightly, and set in a cool place. A handful 
of raisins added with the wheat is nice. Eat 
warm or cold, with milk and sugar." This 
is a most wholesome and nutritious as well as 
a very palatable article of diet, which we ad- 
vise our readers to try at once. 

Everybody knows the homely plant 

called ''cat tail" [Typha augustifoUo) which 
grows in ditches and marshy places from 
Canada to Florida. The long sword shaped 
leaves are used in bottoming chairs and in 
cooperage. The large cylindrical spike which 
surmounts the tall flower stem and gives the 
plant its common name, is found to possess a 
wonderful efficacy in the cure of burns. To 
prepare them for use, pick ofi" the downy sub- 
stance mix with enough lard to form a salve 
and apply it twice inlhe twenty-four hours. 
The relief is said to be immediate, whether 
the burn be new or old. 

A writer in the Maine Farmer gives 

the following recipe for preserving eggs : 
" To a pail of water, I take quick lime about 
half the size of my fist. When perfectly 
cold, lay in the eggs carefully. In this way 
eggs can be kept almost any length of time' 
desired. This has been proved for many 
years in nij' own family, and when taken out 
my wife considers them as fresh as when first 
put in. The 4iine water should not be too 
strong, as it will be likely to efl'ect the shells." 



Publishers^ Department. 



223 



Good chemicftl authority says the per- 
manganate of potassa, in the proportion of 
one ounce to fifty gallons of rain water, will 
destroy animal germs and all organic matter, 
without injury to the water in any way, as 
the whole mass settles into a harmless sedi- 
ment. 

USEFUL KECIPES. 

Cure fok a Burn. — Take essence of pep- 
permint and whiskey, in proportions of one 
part peppermint and three of spirits, and 
apply with cloths, and it gives perfect relief 
instantly. Peppermint and sweet oil is equal- 
ly as good, put on with cotton. This should 
always be at hand, whenever there is danger 
of such accidents. 

New Rope. — New rope made as limber 
and soft at once as after a year's use by simply 
boiling it for two hours in water. Then hang 



it in a warm room and let it dry out thor- 
oughly. It retains its stifl'ness until dry, 
when it becomes perfectly pliable. 

To Cuke Sore Thkoat. — Take the whites 
of two eggs, and beat them with two spoons- 
ful of white sugar; grate on a little nutmeg, 
and then add a pint of lukewarm water. Stir 
well and drink often, llepeat the prescrip- 
tion if necessary, and it will cure the most 
obstinate case of hoarseness in a short time. 

Kkmedy for Catarrh. — Take half a tea- 
cup of blood warm water and dissolve suffi- 
cient salt in it so that it can be plainly tasted. 
Then pour in the palm of the hand and snuft' 
into the nostrils. Two applications a day will 
soon produce good results. 

To Keep Milk. — The Southern Farmer 
says that a teaspoonful of fine salt or of horse 
radish in a pan of milk will keep it sweet for 
several days. 



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224 



The Rural Carolinian. 
FARM AND GARDEN CALENDAR FOR JANUARY. 



It should be understood that the following directions are given with special reference to the latitude of 
Charleston, and persons residing any considerable distance North or South of this place must make 
the necessary allowances for difference in the seasons— about five days for each degree of latitude. 



AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS. 

Breaking up the land for corn is now one 
of the principal operations on the farm. Let 
it be deeply and thoroughly done, but do not 
turn over the soil too deeply. A subsoil 
plough, or bull-tongue, should follow the 
turning plough, where subsoiling is thought 
desirable. Avoid ploughing when the land 
is too wet, especially if the soil be clayey. 

See articles on ploughing and subsoiling ifi 
back numbers, and especially on corn cul- 
ture, pp. 138, 478 and 521, Vol. I. 

Manure cannot be too liberally used, 

provided it be judiciously applied. Buy 
commercial fertilizers if you can, but do not 
neglect to make all the manure you can at 
home. The work of preparing it should con- 
tinue. 

Stock must continue to receive the best 

attention, if you wish effective work from 
your horses, mules and oxen, and profitable 
returns from the rest. 

Make close calculations, and do not 

try to accomplish too much, lest you fail to 
accomplish anything rightly. Above all, 
make your arrangements for good provision 
crops of all kinds. After this, do what you 
can in cotton. All the teachings of the last 
few years point to diversified industry as the 
policy and hope of the South. It is well that 
we grow cotton. We can grow it with profit, 
if we manage in a sensible way ; and the 
world wants and must have it ; but if we 
grow nothing else, we shall, as we have done 
in the pa.«t, enrich others while impoverish- 
ing ourselves. We must put ourselves in a 
condition to make our own prices for our 
crop. 

GARDEN WORK. 

You may now, from the first to the twen- 
tieth of this month, put in your peas for the 
principal crop. Those jilanted previously 
must be hoed, choosing for the operation a 
fine warm day, when the ground is not too 
wet. Try with a portion of your crop the 



plan of planting in circles, from one and a 
half to two feet in diameter, a bushy stick 
to be set in the centre for the support of the 
vines. 

Irish potatoes may be planted any 

time during the month, but in this latitude 
they are liable to come up too soon, and get 
cut off by frost, if planted the first part of the 
month. See article in number for December, 
1869. The Early Rose has proved the best 
variety yet tested' here. Chip manure, half 
rotted straw, hay and leaves, with ashes and 
stable or cow manure, scattered pretty liber- 
ally in the trenches will give the plants a 
strong and healthy growth. 

Beets may be planted here in the Low 

Country, (Charleston and southward.) Select 
ground, if possible, that is sufficiently rich 
from previous manuring, spade it very 
deeply, pulverize it well, and plant as directed 
elsewhere, (p. 192.) 

Cabbages of some early, quick growing 

kind, (we prefer little Pixie,) may be sown 
this month. Later kinds will not have time 
to head before the worms will become too de- 
structive. You may now transplant from 
the earlier sowings. 

Onions for the main crop may bo now 

put in. Have the ground very rich and finely 
pulverized. Cultivate those planted in pre- 
vious months, but work them very shallow, 
and avoid earthing them up. The bulb 
should form mostly above ground. 

Turnips, cabbages and kohl-rabi may 

be sown during the month, if the weather be 
not too severe. 

Lettuce, radishes and spinach must be 

sown for a succession. A little loose hay may 
be thrown over the plants in cold weather. 

Of carrots and parsnips you may sow 

a few for an early crop. Prepare the ground 
as for beets. Parsley may be sown any time 
during the month. The seed geraiinates very 
slowly. The Dwarf Curled is the best. 

Hot-beds should be got ready toward 

the last of this month for forwarding toma- 
toes, cucumbers, etc. 

See article on " Garden Seeds — How to 

Plant Them," in Horticultural Department. 

■ Fruit trees and grape-vines, if not 

already planted, must now be put out at 
once, in order that the roots maj' have time 
to get established in their new location before 
the growing season commences. 




The Noblesse Peach. 



THE 



RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] FEBRUARY, 1872. [No. V. 



Farming as Adapted to Middle South Carolina. 



No vocation in life presents greater variance between theory and practice 
than the science of farming. Most plausible theories may be mapped out for 
the intelligent farmer, but their beauty only lasts until defaced by the rugged 
rules of methodical practice. Such a result is the simple consequence of the 
primeval curse, which required man to earn his bread by the sweat of his 
brow. Were it otherwise, Middle South Carolina would be a modern Eden, 
and her farmers would simply have to plant and to sow, that they might 
gather and reap, to fill their coffers, and enjoy all the happiness allotted to 
man. 

We have a climate at once salubrious, and enviable to all foreigners who 
come amongst us ; our soil is sufficiently fertile to produce a competency 
with very little labor; the health of this country is unsurpassed in the world ; 
our property holders are intelligent and industrious; and our labor, though 
inefficient and scarce, is possibly as effective as that of any other sparsely 
settled country. Then what is simpler than theory, "plough deep while 
sluggards sleep, and you will have corn to sell and keep ?" 

But, alas! for Middle South Carolina, obstacles almost insurmountable and 
of every phase are presented to thwart the earnest struggles of the indus- 
trious and energetic planter. Her lands are rolling and easily'- washed ; her 
summers are usually hot and dry ; her laborers are a new fledged race, born 
suddenly from slavery to freedom, and corrupted by vicious adventurers from 
other climes; her owners are an intelligent, sensitive population, as suddenly 
reduced from affluence to poverty ; and while her social status may be one of 
comparative peace and quiet, her political condition is that of a privileged 
nonentity. 

With these surroundings, the question — "What farming is best adapted 
to Middle South Carolina," is not one of easy solution ; though this paper 
will attempt to suggest a satisfactory answer, comprehended under the head- 
ings — Mixed Husbandry ; Kotation of Crops ; Horizontal Culture ; Manuring; 
and Purchased Labor. 

No. 5, Vol. 3. 17 



226 



Farm'mg as Adapted to Middle South Carolina. 



Mixed Husbandry 
is that comprehensive agricultural system, which enables the farmer to feed 
and clothe his family at home, raise his own stock, and throw annually upon 
the market, as a net income, the products of a certain proportion of his farm. 
For many long years Middle South Carolina, the eastern front of the great 
cotton belt, relied solely upon cotton as the most lucrative crop and the one 
best adapted to her soil and climate. When labor was property, this system 
was, perhaps, in a measure justifiable, but even then it rapidly tended to the 
impoverishment of the soil and consequent depreciation of real estate. Clean 
culture annually for many years, under a burning sun upon light undulating 
lands, has sterilized thousands of our most fertile acres. Necessity demands 
a change ; and one, too, depending less for the recuperation of our farms 
upon the culture of summer crops, and imposing a greater reliance upon the 
cereals, the grasses and live stock. Constant labor and unremitted attention 
from one end of the year to the other, is the price of a good cotton crop. 
This exigency of itself demands a change, for no labor short of that of the 
slave, can be i-emuneratively and constantly employed for so long a time in 
the culture of a single crop. 

Patent and familiar facts are easily adduced to prove the advantages of 
varied culture. For instance, a prime hand will cultivate eight acres in cot- 
ton and four in corn more easily than he can ten acres in cotton ; and the 
same labor will cultivate six acres in cotton, six in corn, and four in small 
grain. Equally evident are the advantages of mixed husbandry where 
methodical habits are applied to diversified labor. Systematized attention to 
each of the various crops cultivated will generally result in the adoption of a 

notation of Crops, 
which is the best surety against the multiplied disasters to which Southern 
farms are heir, and the most eflfectual means of resuscitating our exhausted 
soils. To suggest a system of rotation specially adapted to the entire Middle 
Country of South Cai'oUna, would simply be constructing a theory to be 
demolished in a single season by practice. Every farmer should be the best 
judge of the minutiae of rotation upon his own farm. But certain general 
principles may be promulged, which are everywhere applicable, to wit: red 
lands are more suitable for wheat than oats, and gray lands the reverse ; land 
too wet for cotton often produces abundant corn crops. Keeping in view these 
fundamental ideas, I propose the following rotation as are generally feasible 
and profitable, premising that the word cotton in the rotation signifies any 
cultivated or summer crop, as cotton, corn, sorghum, peas or potatoes; the 
word grain implies wheat, r^^e, oats or barley, and clover means any grass. 
It is a live-field and a five-year system of rotation : 



1st year 
2d year 
3d year 
4th year 
6th year 



Cotton. 

Grain. 

Rost, 

Clover. 

Clover. 



Grain. 
Kt'st. 
Clover. 
Clover. 
Cotton . 



Clover. 
Clover. 
Clover. 
Cotton. 
Grain. 



Stubble. 

Cotton. 

Grain. 

Rest. 

Clover. 



Stubble. 

Stubble. 

Cotton. 

Grain. 

Rest. 



Farming as Adapted to Middle South Carolina. 227 

The advantages of such a rotation are these : Cotton is a crop of clean cul- 
ture, and leaves the land in beautiful condition for any succeeding crop. 
With less labor than by any other possible means a small grain crop may be 
sown upon cotton land. Upon this grain, clover may be sown in October 
and sufficiently covered by being trampled upon by the cotton pickers. If a 
stand of clover is not thus secuied it may be again sown in Fol)ruary upon 
the grain juid harrowed in with a light two-hor.se harrow without injury to 
the grain. To protect the young clover, and at the same time rest the land, 
no hoof should be allowed to enter the field for a twelvemonth. The fourth 
and fifth years will each, with ordinary seasons, furnish two crops of clover 
hay. The second crop, however, of the fifth year should be turned under in 
the winter as a manuring for the succeeding cotton crop, and with the small 
grain that succeeds the cotton crop will come a full stand of clover without 
sowing. 

It cannot be expected that a farm of any magnitude can be subjected to 
the prescribed requirements of this rotation ; but it must be a rare exception 
where some of its advantages cannot be adopted. 

In this rotation, oats and barley should succeed cotton ; wheat follow corn ; 
and rye after sorghum. Clover will grow on any fertile laud, but does better 
on thin, red land than on gray or sandy land. Orchard grass does well on 
any fresh land, but may be choked out by crab grass if sown in the spring. 
Herd grass or Red Top will grow finely on any of our wet bottoms. I have 
never cultivated it, but find it luxuriating spontaneously in almost every wet 
branch bottom with which I am acquainted. 

Horizontalization 

is a necessary adjunct' to successful farming in Middle South Carolina, and 
yet so seldom are its principles applied, that it is an exceptiion, rather than a 
rule, of farming. Perfect horizontalization everywhere, if not impractica- 
ble, is not advisable ; but it may be so closely approximated as to prove 
greatly advantageous. The first step is to survey well the general contour 
of the field to be horizontalized. If there should be in the field any obstacle 
to a hill-side ditch, such as a large I'ock, a cluster of trees, a barren, galled 
spot, or any similar obstruction, place the first ditch just below this. There 
may be points at which it is desirable to empty flowing water. At these 
points place the level and run backward, following the level to the source of 
the ditch, wherever that may be. On moderately undulating land, hill-side 
ditches may be one hundred yards apart. On hilly land, they may not be 
over twenty-five yards apart. 

If possible, all hill-side ditches should empty down the creek. Two inches 
in twelve feet is sufiicient fall for a ditch not over two hundred yards long. 
Add a half inch for the third hundred and another half for the remainder of 
the ditch. The first guide furrow being laid off, the second should be fifteen 
inches above it at the source, and two feet at the mouth of the ditch. The 
intermediate land being ploughed out closely and deeply, the loose earth should 



228 Farming as Adapted to Middle South Carolina. 

be drawn to the lower side, and the ditch again ploughed out, the hands mean- 
time walking on the newly-made bank to make it firm and solid. This oper- 
ation is performed a second time, and the ditch is usually completed. 

Should a gull}' be encountered, several feet below where the ditch is to 
cross it, fill up with stones, brush or logs, making the ditch bank of nothing 
but dirt, and take this dirt from the side of the gully next the lower end of 
the ditch ; by this means water flowing down the gully will be turned into 
the ditch before it strikes the bank, thus preventing a break or overflow. 

The ditches being finished, horizontal guide rows must be laid off", during 
which operation the level should never be forced, but correctly followed 
wherever it leads. I usually begin at the mouth of a ditch and lay off a 
level row or furrow; then begin at the source of the ditch next below and 
lay off another, running in an opposite direction. If these two furrows di- 
verge materially, an intermediate point is selected and another guide furrow 
laid off between them. A half dozen furrows above and below each guide 
row and parallel to it are then laid off to designate the beds for the cultivated 
crop; the level is again applied, and, if needed, another guide furrow is laid 
off. Thus the woi*k is continued until the entire field is horizontalized. During 
the cultivation of the crop the ploughman should never turn his team at the 
ditch, but plough directly across. If possible, a plant of the cultivated crop 
should be grown on the ditch bank at each crossing of the rows. This will 
prevent the growth of weeds and the washing away of the soil, as the dit^h 
bank, if left firmly trampled and not cultivated will, during a summer's rain, 
shed water enough to fill up and overflow a horizontal bed or water furrow 
below it. 

Xo system of horizontalization can be a perfect security against washing, 
for at certain stages of the crop the land is ploughed and hoed so irregularly, 
even with level culture, that a sudden heavy rain will necessarily wash it, 
more or less. I have seen more rain fall in thirty minutes than the driest 
earth could possibly absorb in an hour. And often the thoroughly-satu- 
rated earth will, by its own gravity upon a steep hill-side, create a land-slide 
if some vent is not given to the superincumbent water. Hence, to hold the 
soil where nature placed it may be the aim, but it is an end impossible to at- 
tain under all circumstances. 

to the farmer, is anything, — animal, vegetable or mineral — capable of decora- 
position^ Nothing that decays should be regarded valueless, but carefully 
preserved, and by proper manipulation, converted into food for plants. The 
two great sources of supply are the excrement from animals and green crops. 



* As I have submitted to the committee an "Essay upon the most economical method of 
saving, manufacturing and applying manures," only general ideas are given on this subject 
in this esafiy. 



Farming as Adapted to Widdle South Carolina. 229 

All animals should be housed in Avinter and supplied with comfortable bed- 
ding of litter or straw. From April till December cattle and sheep should bo 
hurdled every night and their droppings ploughed under weekly. Hogs, when 
penned for butchering, make a large bulk of valuable manure if they are 
liberally supplied with leaves or straw. Work animals, of course, are housed 
ever}' night in the year. 

My habit is never to haul out manure from the hog-pens or the stable until 
it is to be applied to the soil, which is in winter and spring for cotton, and 
summer and fall for turnips and soiling lots of barley. Leached ashes are 
carefully preserved and 8pr9ad broadcast over clay or close soils. Phos- 
phates are bought rather than manipulated at home, and are invariably 
applied in connection with domestic manures. Peas drilled in eighteen-inch 
beds, ploughed and hoed once and turned under when the earliest peas arc 
fully matured, (both peas and vines,) will materially benefit any land, be it 
never so poor. A clover lay turned under when the fall crop is in full bloom 
is a complete renovator. The above practice enables one to make as much 
valuable manure as he can handle, and avoids the necessity of composts or 
trampled barn-yai'd manures, which, after being leached by the rains and 
dried by the sun, are seldom worth the trouble of hauling. It is poor 
economy to haul any domestic manure further than half a mile. 

To adopt practically the suggestions of this paper, the plantation must be 
under the control of a single mind, whose authority should never be ques- 
tioned, and who alone should be interested in the crop; consequently he 
must employ 

Purchased Labor, 

and not be subjected to the nefarious practice of making an agricultural 
copartnership between the employer and emploj^ees. ^o question was ever 
presented to the Southern planter so difficult of solution, and yet solved in so 
great a variety of ways, as this question of labor. Labor with us is abun- 
dant, and 3^et, from its inefficienc}^, comparatively scarce. Negro labor is 
more akin to brute force than intelligent efforts, and becomes worthless when 
made self-reliant ; hence the failure of any system of contracts predicated 
solely upon that selfishness which stimulates the laborer to work because he 
is to receive a portion of the proceeds of his own labor. Properly directed, 
however, by careful and intelligent employei'S, negro labor is best adapted to 
Southern plantations as at present conducted. This direction and control, 
however, are lost when the ignorant laborer estimates his labor as so much 
capital invested in the farm. When the negro becomes a copartner in the 
plantation the employer sacrifices intelligence to ignorance, judgment to 
vanity, and self-respect to race and color. If, on the contrary, his time and 
muscle are purchased, his labor directed with prudence, and himself treated 
with that kindness and humanity his position deserves, the present genera- 
tion of employers will never find a more efficient lalorer and one with fewer 
wants and more free from care. D. WYxVTT AIKEX. 



230 Rice and the Origin of Rice Culture in the South. 

Rice and the Origin of Rice Culture in the South. 

In the 3'ear 1694, a vessel from the Island of Madagascar pat into the port 
of Charleston, S. C, in distress. The cook on board had a small quantity of 
rough rice, which "was procured from him by Landgrave Thomas Smith, 
Governor of the Colony, who had traveled in the East and knew from obser- 
vation the great value of this edible vegetable. The Landgrave planted the 
seed in his garden, near White Point, at present within a populous part of 
the City of Charleston. The product was distributed among the neighboring 
planters, who, in turn, extended it toothers in the interor, until in time it was 
planted quite largely on uplands and lowlands; and rice became eventually 
the chief staple production of that State. Although good returns had been 
made from its culture, on uplands, it was early ascertained that low, wet or 
damp ground was better adapted to its vigorous growth. The next step was 
the discovery of the superior advantages of the tide-water lands, with their 
facilities for irrigation — combining rich soil with the usual fertilizing in- 
fluence of water, which, also, materially aided the tillage by retarding, sup- 
pressing, or destroying the grasses. The Carolina Eice, thus managed, often 
attained an average of sixty bushels per acre, a single grain sometimes 
throwing out from sixty to seventy tillers or branches, each branch having a 
head of from ten to three hundred and eighty grains, and costing compara- 
tively little to be grown after the first outluy'for embankments, trunks, 
dykes, etc. It was cheaper than that from the East, and, by selection and 
consequent improvement of the seed, became so much superior in quality that 
it was celebrated and controlled the AVestern markets to the extent of its pro- 
duction. And the effect probably was to discourage its general cultivation, 
and restrict it, in a great measure, to the seaboard of Carolina and Georgia. 

The existing derangement of labor, and the recent loss of capital in these 
favored localities, causing the diminished supply and greatly enhanced price 
of an article of as much popularity, and almost as universal use among cer- 
tain classes as sugar, has suggested enquiry whether rice cannot be success- 
fully grown beyond the narrow limits of the tide-water swamps. And no 
doubt very many will be surprised to hear that a decided affirmative may be 
given in reply. 

Rice may be produced wherever the cereals flourish, between the parallels 
of 70 degrees from the equator. And the higher the latitude the better is 
the quality, although less in quantity. It is a mistake to suppose that it is 
exclusively an aquatic plant, and must necessarily be flooded with water. 
While a moist soil is highly beneficial, and periodical irrigation and a warm 
sun, as they do nearly all kinds of vegetables, render it more prolific, these 
are not indispensable. It grows equallj' in Siberia and China — as well, with 
larger, courser grain, if not so abundantly, near the snow line on the Ilyma- 
laya Mountains, as amid the waters and marshes of the Torrid Zone. It was 
found growing wild near the Northern Lakes in this country, and afforded 
aliment to the aborigines. It was acclimated in Germany, and made a fair 



Rice and the Origin of Rice Culture in the South. 231 

yield on the banks of the Tluiraes, in En<j;land. In our own up-country it 
has returned fifty bushels to the acre, and the largest grained and whitest 
rice ever seen by the writer was produced near the mountains of Carolina. 
The census of 1840 (the only one conveniently at hand) shows tliat in 1839 
it was raised in eleven States, varjnng in quantity from 65 pounds in Mis- 
souri, to 66,897,244 pounds in South Carolina. 

In fact, rice will grow wherever wheat will; and, by bestowing attention 
and care, with more profit than either rye or barley. It delights, however, 
in moist ground, and low places, as the margins of creeks or branches, or 
drained ponds should be selected for planting. The culture with us, in the 
middle and upper belts, does not require any peculiar skill. On the coast are 
laid off trenches five or six inches deep, from thirteen to fifteen inches apart, 
and from two to two and a half bushels of seed are drilled to the acre. It is 
worked then (or was) altogether with the hoe, which is slow and tedious. 
The system should be varied here. Furrows should be made, with the 
shovel-plough or bull-tongue, twenty inches or two feet apart, to permit the use 
of the sweep or plough, and one bushel of grain will plant the acre ; for in 
early days only one peck per acre was required on rich land, where it tillered 
numerousl3^ Kecently, the writer gathered twenty-five bushels of paddy — 
the name of rough rice, borrowed from the East — from less than an acre of 
an old pond-field, without manure, with drills two and a half feet apart — 
having sowed at the rate ofone bushel of seed per acre, and worked it twice 
■with the hoe and twice with the sweep. As with every other crop, the grass 
must be kept down, which, at the first hoeing, should be carefully picked out 
with the fingers, if not to be reached with the hoe. If the ground is dry 
enough, cover the seed after planting with a board, as is often done with cot- 
ton — if too wet for this, use the plough or the hoe. Plant in April, or, even 
early in May would answer. When ripe — known by the yellow stock and 
leaves, but to be tested by rubbing a head with the fingers — cut with a sickle 
or reap-hook, lay it in handfuls across the stubble to cure until the next day ; 
then, after the dew disappears, tie in sheaves, as one does wheat, and secure 
it in the barn, or in stacks, until prepared to thresh it. The threshing may 
be done in the old style, with flails, or, as the grain sheds very easily, a wheat 
thresher might better serve the purpose. To obtain the most matured, and, 
therefore, the best seed, for the next year's planting, thresh a portion of each 
of as many sheaves as may be desired, on a piece of board, or over a barrel, 
holding the butt of the sheaf between the hands. The ripest fall first, and 
the remainder will be reserved for the ordinary process. If land, to any 
reasonable extent, be planted in rice, no doubt, cleaning mills will be erected, 
or machinery for the purpose will be attached to the mills in common use. 
Until this is done, the old time pestle, of seasoned pine, hardened in the cin- 
ders, and the mortar burned out of the section of a pine log, although slow, 
will be entirely effective — afi'ording the consolation, that more good rice will 
be saved, and less loss incurred from rice flour, than are usual in a pounding 
mill. 

Beech IsUnid, South Carolina. 



232 Sea Island Cotton Planting. 

Sea Island Cotton Planting. 

It is a matter of just surprise that this branch of agriculture, once so pro- 
fitable, should, in the course of a iew years, have become utterly ruinous to 
the mass of its practitioners. Many views have been advanced in explana- 
tion of this anomalous state of things, the most important of which is, that 
it is the result of the change from slave to hired labor. Now this view 
implies three things : 1st. An insufficiency of labor. 2d. Inefficiency of 
labor. 3d. Such an increase in the cost of labor as to render it unprofitable. 

With regard to the insufficiency of labor, very few instances have occurred 
where a planter has been unable to get as much labor as his resources could 
command, and these isolated cases were themselves the result of merely sec- 
tional troubles. That the negro will not work properly when he can avoid 
it, is unquestionable, but that he will work well if watched over, is equally 
true. On the third point it may be said that labor is fully as cheap, if not 
cheaper, now than it was before the war ; at present you employ two 
negroes, one male and one female, and pay for their services only ; previous 
to the war they would have cost you shoes, clothes, food and medical attend- 
ance for themselves and family, (all plantations contained a larger number of 
children than workers,) besides seven per cent, interest on the capital repre- 
sented by the family. Again, not the least important item to be considered, 
is the annual loss that every planter sustained i'rom the hand of death. 

This extraordinary revolution in cotton planting, if we may so call it, can 
be the result of but three general causes, acting either singly or in combina- 
tion with each other, namely : Change in the nature of the soil ; change in 
the nature of the climate; change in the method of cultivation. There are, 
indeed, many specific causes, such as caterpillar, second-growth, rust, &c., but 
all these are themselves the effects of one or more of the general causes given 
above. 

That there has been no change in the nature of our soil, sufficient to pro- 
duce such a result, is evident from the fact that the fields everywhere are 
clothed with the same species of spontaneous vegetation that they presented 
to the eye twenty years ago. In fields that have had one year's rest we still 
find the creeping brier and the fennel, the poke-weed and the cockle-bur. 
These plants which, as is well known, are peculiar to cotton-producing soils, 
would unquestionably have ceased to exist had any such change as the one 
under consideration taken place. For instance, it is well known that as land 
becomes impoverished by long and exhausting cultivation, these plants give 
place to others of a difierent nature. 

That in the six years filling up the interval between the present date and 
the 1st of January, 18G6, we have had as much hot and cold, wet and dry 
weather as in any six consecutive years before the war, few will attempt to 
deny. In fact the last three seasons have been very propitious for cotton 
growing. Maniiestly, then, the cause does not exist in the climate, and as we 
have seen that our soil remains unchanged in nature, we are brought by 



8ea Island Cotton Planting. 233 

necessity to the question of cultivation. That very important changes have 
taken place in the method of cultivation must be plain to every observant 
man who is acquainted with the system of cultivation practiced on the sea 
coast prior to the war. At that time the planters bei^an in January and 
Februar}' to break up their lands with the plough or hoe, generally with the 
latter. Where the hoe was used the surface was subjected to that process 
locally known as " listing," that is, shaving the surface of the old bed and bury- 
ing the vegetable matter remaining thereon in the intervening alleys ; where 
the plough was employed the land underwent the common turning process. 

About the middle of March manures were spread out and the second, or 
" bedding," stage was entered upon. This was in some cases begun with the 
plough, by tearing down the remainder of the old bed, and ended with the 
hoe, by hauling up the earth into a bed of regular size and shape; in all cases, 
however, whether one or both of these implements were used, a large bed 
was invariably made and a clear alley left on each side. The planting of the 
seed was completed by the 20th of April or thereabouts, and indeed, there 
were many planters who usually had most of their cotton up by that date. 
The result of this perfect system of preparation was, when the cotton came 
up there were no ridges between the beds to be broken out, and the young 
plant finding the fields entirely free from grass, was checked in its growth by 
nothing but bad seasons ; and also, b}'' the time the roots of the cotton pene- 
trated into the base of the bed, they found the vegetable matter, which had 
been turned in there in the winter, a decomposed mass that afforded them 
abundant and invigorating sustenance. And further, no planter thought for 
a moment of planting a piece of land without first thoroughly draining it; and 
great care was always taken to keep the ditches open while the crop was 
growing. The cultivation was continued according to the judgment of the 
planter; the details varying in difterent localities. Thus, receiving every 
assistance that nature and art could give, the plant was forced to early 
maturity and usually escaped the evils by which it has been latterly assailed. 
Since the war, on the other hand, planters have allowed their lands to remain 
untouched until the arrival of the planting season, when, in order to facilitate 
work, which should have been begun two months earlier, and to save money 
they have confined themselves to the use of the plough only. The method 
of preparation most in vogue is to run one furrow in the centre of the alley, 
and afterwards to turn down the sides of the beds on this farrow. A ridge 
is thus left between the new beds higher than the beds themselves ; for the 
planter has no time to cut these ridges out now, " this can be done while the 
crop is growing, the most important thing at this moment is to get the seed 
into the ground." But in what sort of condition is the ground to receive the 
seed ? Manifestly, a very unfit one. The new bed is composed of large sods, 
weighing from one to ten pounds apiece, so firmly matted together by grass 
roots as frequently to render the planting of the seed a tedious and difficult 
task. These grass roots, had they been exposed to the frosts of winter and 
buried deep enough in spring, would now have been dead and ready to yield 



234 Rice Culture on the Pine Lands of the South. 

sustenance to the plant at a most important stage, but as tbey have been 
allowed to remain upon the surface, the genial influence of the sun has 
infused new life into their cellular tissues, and each day adds to their power 
to starve the plant and choke its development. The ridge is next broken 
out, but the plant is now one or two inches high, and, as the ridge is tough, 
the plough necessarily jumps continually from side to side, throwing earth in 
varying quantities upon the adjacent plants. Sometimes the greater portion 
of the crop is thus covered up. The earth is of course removed, but not 
before the plant has been considerably injured ; for even if it escapes injury 
from the pressure of the earth, it is, in nine cases out of ten, bruised by the 
hand that frees it. Draining too, has been very much neglected, and crops, 
as a general thing, have been planted about a fortnight later than was usual 
before the war. 

The plant then, under the new method of cultivation, has to contend 
with difficulties from the start. The seed is planted in badl}^ prepared soil — 
so hard and soddy that the plant takes a long time to break through to the 
surface — which causes bad stands; and as soon as the plant is well up, it is 
injured in a greater or less degree by the bad work which this method neces- 
sitates. While the grasses, which should have been killed by the winter's 
cold, are much more vigorous than the plant itself, and steal the greater 
portion of the manure that has been put upon the land. Under these circum- 
stances the plant is very much backened in its growth, and becomes vigorous 
only when it should be done growing — taking second growth it casts its fruit 
and invites the ravages of the caterpillar. And have we not here the secret 
of the Sea Island planter's misfortunes? 

SPECTATOR. 



Rice Culture on the Pine Lands of the South. 



Mr. Henry Si. Paul, of Alabama, publishes ia the Mobile Weekly Eegister 
an interesting account of his experience in raising upland rice. Some slight 
experiments of our own are fully confirmatory of Mr. St. Paul's conclusions. 
The rice referred to in the following extracts was sold in the Mobile market, 
and commanded the highest price. Now what was done in Alabama — and 
the same has been done in Georgia and Florida, to our certain' knowledge — 
can be done in South Carolina, and we desire to direct to the matter the 
special attention of our farmers. We can not better do this than by reprint- 
ing here the essential parts of the article referred to. Mr. St. Paul says : 

Having, j-ears ago, raised rice on the oak ridges of Lafourche, La., 1 had 
become convinced that the general prejudice in favor of swamp and ovei-- 
flowed lands was unfounded, and that any high, light sandy loam, on fair 
level ground, thoroughly drained and properly manured, would produce rice 
of average quality and quantity, nowise interior to that of Louisiana. To 
illustrate this theory, I selected and cleared on the line of the New Orleans, 
Mobile and Chattanooga Railroad, twenty-two miles West of Mobile, and four 



Rice Culture on the Pine Lands of the South. 235 

miles distant from the Gulf shore, a perfectly level field of light sand}'- loam, 
free from gravel, and with a gray clay foundation underlying the surface at 
a depth of from eight to fifteen inches. The land being very sour, 1 first 
limed it as thoroughly as could be done with the limited means of transpor- 
tation then at my command, and having to contend against a raw soil, still 
full of roots and clots, I was compelled to plant in drills nearly four feet 
apart, whereas, had the land been sufficiently friable, fifteen to eighteen 
inches distance would have been amply sufficient. Uncertain as to the pros- 
pects of rain, and in order to " catch" the gulf showers, (on which I placed 
my main reliance,) 1 made our several ]>lantings at nearly equal intervals 
from April 1st to June 10th, and although the di'ought continued until the 
middle of July, all my seed matured successively, and the last crop was 
gathered as late as the latter part of October. 

As a further confirmation of my previous remarks on the nature of the 
soils, I must state that wherever in my field there happened to be one of 
those low marshy places, designated generally "savannahs," they proved, as 
anticipated, entirely worthless. The reason is obvious; unlike the swamp 
lands of Louisiana, which (independent of fluvial irrigation, as is the case in 
the parishes below the mouth of the Plaquemines,) are, so to say, mere floating 
prairies over an inexhaustible sheet of water, the "savannahs" of our piney 
woods are only fluvial reservoirs or funnels, resting generally on a thick, 
impervious bottom, where the accumulated and stagnant waters becoming 
heated under solar heat, actually "take up" the surface soil, and in the pro- 
cess of evaporation finally carry off" the vivifying salts and gases of that soil, 
leaving only behind an inert, cold, clammy substance, not improperly called 
ash bank, which no amount of cultivation nor fertilizers can again ever start 
into productiveness. Hence, in the selection of a rice field in our piney 
lands, care should be taken to avoid all places where water remains stagnant 
until dried up by the sun, and none but level table lands, easily trenched and 
drained, should be selected. 

Now, as to the profits of the culture, I will state, that although having to 
contend against a new, green, raw sod, just cleared and imperfectly broken, 
and, as a consequence, to run my drills more'than twice as far apart as re- 
quired, I realized on my land at the rate of over four barrels of clean rice per 
acre, worth about $20 per barrel, being more than $80, and in addition to 
which I gathered not less than one ton of rice straw, equal to the best North- 
ern hay to feed, and worth to me where grown at least $25. Had the land 
been sown in drills, at the required distance, the yield would have been 
doubled, as I will in a moment prove by the experiments of another farmer. 

Now, as a guide to find out the proportion of clean > to rough rice, I will 
state that the last lot which my kind friend, Mr. G. M. Parker, shipped for 
cleaning to Mr. James Woods, of New Orleans, weighed in the bulk 2,759 
pounds, and that this lot yielded six barrels of first class rice, weighing, to- 
gether, 1,380 pounds, and that there still remains on hand about 100 pounds 
second quality rice, making, therefore, over 50 per cent., or half and half of 
the original weight of the rough grain. 

Having tried both the native seed, grown in small patches in my neighbor- 
hood, and the best quality of South Carolina seed, I gave a decided preference 
to the latter, which I will use exclusively this year, although making proper 
trial of the Louisiana, Honduras and Yucatan varieties. Owing to the fact 
that no rice mill exists in South Alabama, recourse must now be had to our 
neighbors of New Orleans, where, at the cost of seven-eights of a cent per 
pound, and barrels at the rate of sixty cents, my rice was returned to Mobile 
market at a cost (exclusive of freight) not exceeding $2 70, netting, therefore, 



236 Social Unity of Farmers — Patrons of Husbandry. 

617 30 for each barrel of two hundred and thirty pounds. And this, my own 
experiment, however flattering, is more than confirmed by the result obtained 
by a neighbor of mine, Mr. Cassibry, a much respected and intelligent native 
of Louisiana, for several years a pioneer settler at Grand Bay. 

Mr. Cassibry selected, in conformity with the rules previously stated, a 
high, level and well drained lot of less than three-quarters of an acre in area: 
the land had been cleared two years previous, but never cultivated or cow- 
penned; yet, as it was rich, mellow soil, it allowed sowing in drills about six- 
teen inches apart; planted early in April, it greatly suffered at first, but, 
under the influences of the July showers, it soon grew so tall that no more 
ploughing or hoeing was required, and by the middle of October Mr. Cassibry 
had "whipped out" by hand over twenty barrels of rough rice, or at the rate 
of nearly thirty barrels to the acre, equal, under the proportion established 
by experience, to at least fifteen barrels of clean, merchantable rice, worth, 
clear of all charges, about 817 per barrel, or S254 to the acre. 

In addition to the large yield, Mr. Cassibry estimates having gathered over 
four tons of rice straw, worth, as long forage, at least §100 more. Does any 
sugar and cotton compare with these figures? Even in the palmy days of 
Louisiana, and when rice growing was not regarded as " genteel," compared 
with sugar raising, the small rice growers always went free from debt, while 
the lordly neighbor was almost invariably the ultimate prey of his creditors; 
and yet in those daj's the cleaning process was of the rudest, most primitive 
pattern, and Creole Eice never brought over three cents a pound. 

Laboring, as I first did, under many disadvantages, I nevertheless look upon 
the results attained as highly gratif^'ing, and now that the New Orleans, Mo- 
bile and Chattanooga Railroad has opened a free access to those hitherto 
hardly explored lands, I feel that I have demonstrated the abilit}^ of the great 
piney woods belt of the Gulf to produce in abundance a staple, whose sterling 
value can never be affected by over production, while, like all cereals, it re- 
ceives a new impulse from the extra demands of contending armies in any 
quarter almost of the civilized world. As to the nature and quantity of fer- 
tilizers it is proper to state, that as rice, like wheat and other cereals contain- 
ing gluten, requires a fair proportion of potash, lime and ammonia, and having 
tried and compared all those offered in the markets, I find that the compost 
known as "Langdon Fertilizer" stands unsurpassed, and that at the rate of 
not over three hundred pounds to an acre, it will secure the favorable results 
1 have just mentioned. 



Social Unity of Farmers — Patrons of Husbandry. 

A correspondent of the Ohio Farmer, writing from Washington, thus sets 
forth some of the benefits to the farmer and his family to be derived through 
the social intercourse, free interchange of thought, and practical help and 
security afforded by the Order of Patrons of Husbandr}' : 

Too constant confinement at home and the farm, and the absence of com- 
mingling with our fellow-beings in social intercourse, is liable to dwarf the 
mind and contract th*; spii'it of enterprise ; while frequent and systematic 
association with our kind will expand the intellect, elevate its aims and give 
wholesome breadth to ambition; inciting emulation and friendly competition 
by widening the range of thought and investigation in all the spheres of our 
operations. 

With minds as groat and purpose as honorable as any, all that farmers now 
need to raise themselves to a commanding position of power and influence, 



Social Unity of Farmers — Patrons of Husbandry. 237 

inferior to none superior to jilI, is harmonious organization and concert of 
action ; and by it tlicy may spoedil}- rise to a degree of knowledge and 
efficiency commensurate with the importance of their calling. 

Intelligence should be the basis of all association, as it should be the chief 
motive of all enterprises ; only by it can the demand to possess and subdue 
the world and enjoy it be complied. By intelligent thought, actively devel- 
oped in works, are the elements of nature understood and subdued, and 
applied for use and profit. 

Such an association, such an order has been established and is in operation 
in many of the States of the Union, from which the farmers and producers 
belonging to it are already signally realizing the benefits of it, not enjoyed 
by those not members. This order is based on wide, firm, scientific princi- 
ples. It is stj-led the Patrons of Husbandry. 

A number (»f intelligent, philanthropic, thinking gentlemen of this country 
and Europe, producers of thorough experience, assembled in this city several 
years ago, after long and careful deliberation devised the plan and prepared 
the ritual' and constitution of this Order to meet the wants of all classes of 
farmers and horticulturists, and furnish them with the greatly needed facili- 
ties for protection against the schemes and operations of sharpers and specu- 
lators. The devoted body of men spent many anxious and thoughtful daj'S 
in the noble labor of love and science. 

The forms of the Order consist in a National Grange, established in Wash- 
ington, the national capital, with provisions for State Granges in all of the 
States, and Subordinate Granges in counties and towns wherever the pro- 
ducers may choose to organize them. Its society consists in membership of 
all who are engaged or interested in the prosperity and elevation of agricul- 
ture, as farming, gardening, horticulture and stock raising, etc., and compris- 
ing parents of both sexes with their children, — thus embracing the entire 
famil}^ as all its members are alike interested in its welfare and highest cul- 
ture and happiness — requiring the fraternal pledge of all to truth, to honor 
and fidelity to each other and the Order, with secret or confidential means of 
recognition and admission into the granges or lodges. Such are the form and 
construction of the Order. The motives and details of its business are to 
collect information, impart instruction, enlarge the social intercourse and 
secure the protection and efficient cooperation for the common good. Parti- 
san politics are disclaimed by the Order, and partisan discussions excluded 
from the granges — members being free to vote for such candidates and parties 
as they may choose, and believe will best promote the highest welfare of the 
country and its producers. 

The highest and most beautiful effects to be produced by this systematic 
association among farmers would be social and intellectual improvement and 
enjoyment for both sexes. 

To a large extent the men who make the laws control the liberty and 
prosperity of the people ; hence it is of the highest importance that the pro- 
ducing classes should look well to it who are elected to make their laws. In 
association there is power as in knowledge ; in familiar and frequent discus- 
sions they are enabled not only to determine who is suitable and what is 
wanted, but also to better qualify themselves and secure wise selections. 
Discussion and comparing views will elicit truth and correct error better 
than eloquent lectures and studied essays, by prompting inquiry and reply, 
bringing out the united experience and ideas of the many to bo criticised and 
tested by the inspection and observation of all. And this is the regular 
practical result of proceedings in the granges of the Patrons. And it is 
a rapidly growing Order, its numbers continually increasing in different 



238 Making Hard Pan — A New Invention Wanted. 

States, and it must speedily become a controlling power of the land, elevating 
the producers and controlling the markets for the benefit alike of producers 
and consumers, so that instead of being victims and a subordinate cImks, 
farmers will be first in dignity and power, as they already are most essential 
and important. 

But to effect this they must have a livelier regard for the useful library 
than for the costly parlor; they must be more willing to make liberal exj)en- 
ditures for books and papers than for tawdry and fashion. Let every one to 
whom the query is applicable answer to himself, IIovv many are there who 
expend hundreds of dollars to ornament the parlor, while hardly ten dollars 
are expended for practical and scientific books to enlighten and aid your- 
selves and families in prosecuting your business? 

The influence exerted in these granges of Patrons is calculated to improve 
its members, very happily, in this direction, and such is the design and will 
be the practical results of association with the Order on the honest, industri- 
ous producers of the country, whenever they unite with the Order. 

Then, as is just and appropriate, will the feeders of the nation bear rule 
over the land with the plough and not the sword ; then will all the people, 
in peace and plenty, honor husbandry, and with joy and gladness bless all its 
patrons ; when wisdom will rule the heads and direct the hands, as charity 
will warm the hearts and control the will of men and women. 



Making Hard Pan — A New Invention Wanted. 

However much our implements for stirring the soil may differ in con- 
struction and operation, they nearly all unite in producing one result — the 
formation of a hard stratum of earth immediately below that which they 
make mellow. In other words, the continued use of our farm utensils result 
in the production of hard pan. A familiar example of this is shown in the 
use of the plough. We attach four horses or oxen to this wedge-shaped imple- 
ment, the oldest in the art of husbandry, and proceed to draw it through the 
earth. The portion of the soil above it is loosened and left in good condition 
for the circulation of air and water through it, and is so pulverized that the 
tender rootlets can pass downward, and the fragile blade can ascend towards 
the warm sunlight almost without impediment. 

All this is very well. But how is it with the soil which is below the mel- 
low furrows ; is that improved by the passage of the plough? Far otherwise. 
This wedge, which raises the soil about it and makes it mellow, compresses 
the earth beneath it, and with the aid of the feet that are tramping in its 
track, reduces it to the condition of a hard pan. Year by j'ear this opera- 
tion is continued, and while the upper soil is becoming like an ash heap the 
earth below is changing till it comes to resemble a road bed. Much the 
same results are produced by the use of the cultivator and the harrow. In 
brief, the result of our working of the soil is to produce a stratum of hard 
•earth, gradually becoming more impermeable to moisture and the gases. 

Nor is this all. The compressed layer of earth arrests the fine particles of 
soil and mineral matter that are carried downward through the porous soil 
above, and thus adds to its ability to prevent circulation. The effect of all 
this is to establish a line of demarkation betweeti the soil that is of service to 
the plant and that which is not. This hard pan, which is growing harder 
every j^ear that the ground is ploughed to the same depth, has the effect to 
make seasons of drought and seasons of excessive moisture more severe than 
they otherwise would be. When the ground is flooded with water this pan 



Why our Crops are not Better. " 239 

prevents its passage to feed the springs that gush from the hill sides; when 
this surface soil is dry this pan prevents the upward passage of water hy 
means of capillar}' attraction, and obstructs ihe rising of moist vapors. 
Nearly everyone has noticed, after a heavy rain, that pools of water will lie 
in greater abundance, at greater depth, and will longer remain on grounds 
long cultivated by the plough, than on the unbroken surface of the prairie, or 
on the soil in our forests. 

The query then suggests itself, cannot our inventors give us a better plough — 
one that will mellow the earth above without converting that below it to the 
condition of hard pan? The present position of our cultivated crops is too 
much like the situation of plants raised, as they are in some portions of the 
far East, on'the roofs of buildings. We want no barrier in the form of baked 
clay, as in the tiles of a roof, or of compressed clay, as in many of our fields, 
to prevent the roots of plants seeking moisture or nutriment at whatever 
depth they may be found. Who will give us a better plough? — Prairie 
Farmer. 



Why our Crops are not Better. 



A very sensible writer in the JSTashville Union and American suggests the 
following as leading causes why our crops are not better and the farmer more 
prosperous: 

First, because chief in the list, is our slackness. "He becometh poor that 
dealeth with a slack hand," says Solomon. A good school can be obtained 
only by a thorough teacher at its head, who stimulates the children to 
thoroughness in all they do. Eeflection and observation will convince all 
that every valuable acquisition is the product of no slack hand. I am fully 
persuaded that our soil will and ought to be made to produce at least thrice 
its present average yield. The way to make it is to take but half the quan- 
tity, and begin by thoroughl}- preparing, enriching and generally breaking 
and subsoiling the fall before the seed are to be sown. If impossible to ma- 
nure, a sensible farmer will learn the nature of his soil and plant that which 
will best thrive thereon. 

A second cause of poor crops is, I think, late planting. The Northern 
farmer regards it as a great mishap if his corn and wheat are not sown within 
a week after the frost is fairly out of the ground. The Southern farmer 
should regard it likewise, not because of a short season, but because of drought. 
I cannot question that the corn crop of this whole section of country was 
reduced fully one-third by inattention last spring to this important item. 

Again. Our farming implements are generally behind the age. Our 
ploughs go in the furrow rusty, dull, and misshapen. They are often drawn 
lazily along by an animal which ought never to be accepted as si gift by a 
sensible farmer. It were the height of folly for a mechanic to economize on 
the first cost of his tools by picking up at half price a rusty saw hei-e, a dull 
jackplane there, and a broken chisel yonder; and equally so for a farmer to 
put up with poor tools or poor stock. Better have two good strong horses 
than four poor weak ones. 

The last cause which cuts down our harvest that I will here mention is 
poor seed. If it pay — and it surely does — to invest thousands in animals for 
breeding purposes, will it not pay as well to get good seed. Buy at home, if 
possible, abroad if necessary. tricky advertisers and dealers are, of course, 
constantly before the people trying to get large prices for worthless seed, and 



240 Economical Farming. 

we should use, therefore, the more care to get a genuine article. It will never 
do to fall behind in this important item. 

My remarks, then, might be summed up thus: Deal in the best only, pre- 
pare and cultivate the soil thoroughly, and we will be apt next Thanksgiving 
Day to thank the Lord for about twice our usual harvests. 



Economical Farming. 



There are certain general principles governing agricultural, operations, 
that must be observed, in order to prevent disastrous results. A soil may be 
so remarkably fertile as to produce good crops for a succession of years with- 
out any application of fertilizers, but, sooner or later, the fertilitj' yields to 
the excessive drain of the crops, and an exhausted soil is the result. A ro- 
tation of crops sometimes lengthens the period of fertility for a time, but, in 
the end, the soil is only the more thoroughly exhausted, for the reason that 
all crops take from the soil a certain amount of diiferent salts and manurial 
elements, which are very unlike, in proportion and quantity, in the different 
kinds of crop, so that a series of rotations onl}^ affords a more favorable op- 
portunity of extracting from the soil all of the elements of plant life. 

Now, wherever any course of agricultural cultivation has been pursued, in 
which the above result has been obtained, it is wholly from the injudicious 
practice of the farmers, for it is always conceded that any course of culture 
that leaves the soil in a poorer condition than when the seed is placed therein 
is injudicious, and, at the same time, is actually reducing the real value of the 
land. It follows, then, that whatever crop is put into the soil, a previous 
preparation by manuring should be made, so that whenever the same is har- 
vested the soil is actually in abetter condition than at first; in this way the 
fertilility of the farm is being improved, instead of injui-ed or destroj'ed. But 
now suppose that a soil is so reduced as to be almost destitute of any fer- 
tility, it can be improved, although the process may be slow at first. There 
is probably no surer method than that by the application of animal ma- 
nure. 

It may be objected that, upon so poor a farm, stock cannot be kept, and 
hence no manure can be made, which is indeed partially true ; but, bj^ a pro- 
per husbanding of the refuse about the house and yard, the night-soil, slops, 
<fec., thrown upon chip-dirt or loam, a sufficient amount of valuable fertilizer 
will be accumulated to reasonably enrich an acre or two to the degree of ob- 
taining therefrom reasonable crops; then, if this be of corn, the same can be 
fed to the swine, and several loads of valuable manure made thereby ; the 
Btalks or stover fed to the cows, and so more manure made, which, with that 
made by the swine and composted from the house and yard, will make a con- 
siderable quantity for the second year, and so on, increasing the products of 
the soil which will admit of an increase of stock, and so an increase of ma- 
nure. 



The Opium Popy and its Culture. 



241 



One fact is certain— that economy is to be practiced in all departments, in 
order to obtain maximum results; and bo, if the ewine are allowed to roam 
at lariTO, the manure pile will be greatly diminished ; and so, too, of the 
eows— if they roam at will the manure is partially lost. This cannot be 
avoided during the grazing season, unless soiling is protected, which then 
admits of constant yarding ; but still, without this, very much can be saved 
by yarding cattle at night, and then, upon the first approach of cold 
weather, s^o that they are properly stabled, as thereby the health and thrift 
of tlie stock is retained. In fact, there are very many channels through 
which if unc/uarded, the profits of the farmer will glide and be lost. 

Columbia, "conn., December, 1871. WILLIAM H. YEOMANS. 



The Opium Poppy and its Culture. 

Though for many reasons, I cannot labor very efficiently for.the promotion 
of the great material interests of the South, I am yet willing to contribute 
my litile in the hope that the example may do some good. I have thought 
that a short paper on the subject stated above might induce others, more 
favorably situated than myself, to make a similar experiment, on a more ex- 
tended scale. 

Id my researches on the subject, I have found that as far back as sixty 
years ago, the Poppy was cultivated very successfully in the neighboring 
State of Georgia, bv Dr. Milton Antony, of Petersburg. From a space of 
ground six yards by ten, he procured more than half a pound of Opium, 
which "after a lapse of twenty years was found to contain both Morphia and 
Narcotine in a perfectly satisfactory state." 

I knew Dr. A. personally, and vouch for his truthfulness. To the great 
loss of his profession and amid the regrets of thousands of his fellow-citizens, 
he fell a victim to his humaniiy, in Augusta, during the prevalence of a yel- 
low fever, which prevailed in that city about thirty-five years ago. 

In 1809, Dr. Wilkins, of Baltimore, had most satisfactory results from a 
few Poppies in his garden, and Mr. Cordes, of South Carolina, at least forty 
years ago, had a portion of Opium prepared by himself subjected to analysis, 
and it was pronounced of the best quality. Mills, in his Statistics, a book, as 
the reader knows, written " long time ago," says that Opium was extracted 
from the Poppy in South Carolina. Dr. Porcher, in his very valuable work, 
" Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests," has a very interesting article 
on the Poppy, and gives many examples of successful experiments within the 
limits of this State. Nor is he without experience himself In the month of 
June, 1S62, he collected in a few days more than an ounce of Opium from 
specimens of the Red Poppy found growing in a garden near Stateburg. 

I have read very recently of a most profitable crop grown in Tennessee, a 
crop far exceeding in money value that of our usual staples. 
No. 5, Vol. 3. 18 



242 The Opium Popy and its Culture. 

After the showing which I have made, 1 am reluctant to allude to my 
trifling experiment, but here it is: I planted in my garden two double I'ows 
of Poppy seed eighteen feet long. There was an alley of eighteen inches 
width between these rows, and the little furrows designed for the double rows 
were twelve inches apart. About eight to ten inches space was left between 
the plants. I know not what the yield was precisely, but I gathered a 
reasonblo quantity, and the Opium, I know from experiment, was as good as 
any in the drug stores of Columbia. Mrs. Finley, residing in Richland, near 
Littleton Depot, on the Greenville Railroad, gathered from some Poppies in 
her garden a considerable quantity of Opium, specimens of which she exhib- 
ited at the last Agricultural Pair. For this she was awarded a premium. 
My kind lady friend will excuse mo for adding that she is in more respects 
than this "a shining light" to our sex as well as her own, and that she is 
fairly entitled to this public notice for her persevering efforts in behalf of 
the great cause of her State and the South. 

A few words in respect to the best seed for planting. Those which I 
planted were procui'ed from the Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
and are labelled "Opium Poppy, standard variety, imported from Smyrna, 
Turkey." The flower is purplish in color, and the seed, specimens of which 
I have, are black. A few flowers were white, and in this case the seed is 
light colored. 

It is proper to remark that the Poppy may be profitably cultivated as an 
oil-bearing plant. It is asserted by high authority that an acre of land may 
be made to yield ten bushels of seed, and that one bushel of seed will give 
twenty-four pounds of good oil. This oil is very agreeable — excellent for 
table use, and for other purposes. It is scarcely necessary to say that all 
parts of the Poppy contain a white, opaque, narcotic juice, but that it 
abounds most in the capsules, and is extracted by incisions made in them. 

Have I not said enough? Your readers will probably answer, ?oo much. 
But I must crave indulgence for a few moments longer. Let me say that 
Opium is the chief of narcotics, and upon the whole the most valuable of all 
medicinal agents. Well has it been called Magnum Dei donum. Its use dates 
far back in the history of our race. There are those who believe that it is 
the Nepenthes of Homer, and certain it is that it was well known to the 
Greeks, and that the name Opium comes from them. Dioscorides, a Greek 
physician, gives the plant a place in his Materia Medica, and he lived two 
thousand years ago. We read that the seed, after being roasted and pre- 
pared in various ways, were used by the Romans in making many kinds of 
cakes and dainties, and this is still done in some parts of the world. 

And now, Mr. Editor, let me in conclusion say a word about The Rural 
Carolinian, and the cause which it so ably advocates. This is the cause of 
agriculture in its broadest sense, and the promotion of the material interests 
of the South in all its various departments. I know no way by which you 
can give better proof of your patriotism and devotion. I read your periodi- 
cal, as it makes its monthly visits to me, with increasing interest, and I am 



Distance for Cotton. 243 

sure that you are doing much good. In the quality of its matter and its 
typographical execution it has no superior, and I wish for you a circulation 
of fifty thousand. Any one of the articles of Colonel Aiken is worth double 
the subscription price. M. LaBORDE, M. D. 

Columbia^ S. C. 



Distance for Cotton. 



Last season I planted three acres of cotton with Simpson seed, (the land 
being as nearly uniform as I could get it,) in the following manner: First 
acre, in checks three feet each way, giving (4,900) four thousand nine hun- 
dred stalks to the acre; second acre, in drills four feet apart, stalks one foot 
apart, as near as could be done, giving ten thousand stalks to the acre; third 
acre, drills four feet apart, stalks in drill one foot apart, two stalks left 
together, giving just (20,000) twenty thousand stalks. 

The cultivation and manuring of Nos. 2 and 3 were the same — ten two- 
horse wagon loads of composted cotton seed and stable manure to the acre, 
and two hundred and forty pounds to each acre of " cotton food " put down 
in the drill — three furrows in the bed were subsoiled. 

The checked acre was first broken up just as the other, but a subsoil fol- 
lowed the turn plough in every furrow, having broadcasted on this acre 
twelve two-horse wagon loads of the same manure used on Nos. 2 and 3, and 
three hundred pounds of "cotton food." 

JVo. 1. Wo. 2. No. 3. 

1st Picking 345 lbs. 355 lbs. 250 lbs. 

2d " 202 " 274 " 186 " 

3d " 265 " 275 " 182 " 

4th " 270 " 233 « 113 ', 

5th " 163 '' 119 " 52 « 

6th " 62 " 43 " 21 " 

7th " 28 " 21 » 00 " 



1,335 lbs. 1,320 lbs. 804 lbs. 

The result confirmed my previous opinion, that is, I well knew that in our 
warm, open sandy lands, the Dickson and Simpson mode of crowding cotton 
would smother No. 3, and so it did. Where accident destroyed one of the 
stalks, the remaining one would be equal to a stalk in No. 1 or 2 ; where one 
stalk would get the start and crush its weaker brother, it would do well ; 
when both tried to grow together, they would both switch up to about a foot 
high, with nothing on them, then lean apart towards the middles, and bear 
pretty well after they parted company. I doubted before this experiment as 
to the plans pursued with Nos. 1 and 2, and I doubt almost as much now, 
although my views have been very materially altered by the experiments. 
The margin of doubt is as large, but it is on the other side. 

The summer was very dry, a terrible drought raging the whole of July 
and part of early August, briefly and partially interrupted, to rage again to 



244 



Tlie Guava (PslcUum sp.) in Florida. 



the end of autumn. This was, I'elatively, to the benefit of No. 1, and to the 
injury of No. 2. No. 3 never was in the race. No. 1 was cultivated with 
sweeps running both ways. Well tilled earih and broadcasted manure gave 
moi'^ture and sustenance to wide spreading roots, while the beds and crowded 
condition in No 2 increased the effect of drought. This was very visible, 
No. 1 remaining green and flourishing, while No. 2 wilted somewhat. Each 
stalk in No. 1 doubled those in No. 2; they looked so pretty that I was con- 
firmed temporarily in m}' preconceived preference, but there wore not enough 
stalks ; moreover, an examination of the table will show that No. 2 matured 
earlier, the first three pickings being heavier on that acre, while the later 
pickings were heavier on No. 1 ; but the table does not show what is the fact, 
that much of the cotton on No 1 did not mature at all, the stalk keeping 
green, growing and blooming through the late fall, and many of the early 
bolls even not maturing. 

Is it not probable, then, that too much distance and broadcast manuring, 
especially in clay lands and wet seasons, tend to retard maturity? 

HOB KIRK. 



lepadmcnt of Sorticultuw anb Sural Mtt. 



The Guava (Psidium sp.) in Florida. 



crust. 



There is money in guavas. For many 
3'ears to come their market will increase 
with the supply. They are about to tran- 
scend the stage of amateur culture, as the 
orange family have done, and to become 
an important element in the homo indus- 
try of Florida. 

The Guava a General Favorite. 
Fresh guavas sell readily on the St. John's 
at 50 cents per dozen. The pint glass of 
jelly brings from 75 cents to $1. We all 
know the dear little boxes marked Jalea 
de Guayaba, and Cubans bow to the excel- 
lence of our domestic preserves. To fes- 
tive board and fever bed, the fresh fruit is 
welcome alike. The working man who 
lunches on it wants no other dinner. It 
fills here the place of the apple, peach and 
pear, is sliced with sugar for dessert, forms 
the nucleus of dumpling or filling of pie 
Sli'<'htly astringent, sub-acid and sweet, it refreshes, invigorates and 




The Guava {Psidlum sp.) in Florida. 245 

never satiates. The guava has, in common with a favorite fruit of the East 
Indies, the whimsical attribute of repelling the nose while attracting the 
mouth. Our stranger senses, shy at first, but piqued by curiosity, soon return 
and own its fascination. Natives and Europeans alike speak of the guava 
with a sort of enthusiasm, and cannot und words good enough to praise it. 
The false cousinship at first suggested with certain foetid gums is not observed 
in the cooked fruit, nor in its confections. Poultry show a warm apprecia- 
tion of the guava, which, having no enemies here, only asks to be saved a 
little from its friends. The mocking bird is always welcome to a prima 
donna's share of our good things, but the jay bird, already indicted in the 
songster court, of high crimes and misdemeanors against eggs and young 
ones may find his bright feathers scarce avail to save him from a charge of 
shot. 

Estimate of Yield. 
Guava bushes, layered from bearing plants, between February and April of 
one year, will begin to fruit the next year, and bear about a peck the second 
year, two pecks the third, and one bushel the fifth. Seedlings come into 
bearing a year later. Plants, of whatever origin, well grown, may spread 
over an area of twelve square feet, average a bushel per season, and some 
times yield two bushels. Three thousand six hundred and thirty such 
bushes occupy an acre. Within moderate degrees the guava is subject to the 
usual oscillations of fruit crops. The two killing frosts of 1868 and 1870 are 
unusual phenomena of climatic disorder, due, perhaps, to the same planetary 
and solar troubles which have occasioned of late so many tidal waves, earth- 
quakes, eruptions, droughts, cyclones and wars. At any rate, the guava had 
flourished unchecked, after the fatal freeze of 1835, during thirty-three 
years. How many of our crops can boast of such good luck? A little less 
hardy than the lemon, but hardier than the banana, the guava recovers as 
promptly. Plants at Buena Vista, killed down to the roots in 1870, are now 
from four to five feet high, and if they escape the morbid sympathies alluded 
to, with the perturbation of Jupiter, &c., may bear next fall a bushel each. 

Fitness for Exportation. 
Guavas, like peaches and pears, too soft for packing when quite ripe, have 
also a preliminary stage, and if plucked while yet firm, and as soon as they 
have filled out which is a sudden process of some twenty-four hours, they 
may follow up the peach in our late fall and early winter fruit markets. The 
pear guava, more fleshy and less juicy than our more common varieties, may 
prove the best for shipping. For canning, guavas fulfil every indication. They 
need neither paring nor seeding. One-eighth their bulk of syrup with as much 
water added to their own juice, which exudes at the boiling point, suflaces to 
preserve them well. Tinners and cans will be soon at a premium here. More 
elaborate conserves, jams or marmalades and jellies are rarely exported be- 
cause they command fancy prices on the spot. They'may eventually absorb 
very profitably the whole sugar crop now exported in its raw state. 



246 The Guava {Psidium sp.) in Florida. 

Climate, Site, Soil and Culture. 

The guava prefers high, dry and sandy sites open to the sun. From St. 
Augustine on the Atlantic side, and from Lake Monroe southward, on the 
Gulf side, guavas have little to fear from cold, as even heavy frosts do not 
harm them, but only decided freezes. Witness that of December 5th, 6th and 
7th, 1871. Some plants, like men, seem to thrive better as they acclimate 
themselves nearer to the poles, and away from their Eden cradles. The guava, 
like the orange family, grows well in a poor looking soil, but they repay muck 
dressings by their fruit crop. They want a place prepared for them by deep 
cultivation, and so well drained that no water can be held about their roots 
by the " hard pan " subsoil, which may consist of fine packed sands as well 
as of clay. 

In transplanting guavas, the top root should be respected, and as this be- 
comes inconvenient when long, so, as soon as the young plants have a few 
leaves, between the months of November and February, we set them where 
they are to remain. The intermediate spaces which they will ultimately 
overspread, may, in the meantime, be utilized for other plants, either annuals 
or nursery trees, or green crops to be turned under. 

Suckers, on removal, should be shortened, and cuttings shielded from hot 
sun and wind. All need watering at first, and best with warm soap-suds. 
Mrs. Hazel, near Orange Mills, has a fine bush thus raised from a cutting. 
No pruning is needed. Low branches, if not trailed for layers, bear the 
largest fruits. The fruit, which sets gradually, needs no thinning. With a 
leisurely generosity which harmonizes with the temperament of Florida, the 
guavas bloom from April to August, and ripen from September until Christ- 
mas, growing larger as the season advances from the size of a peach to that 
of a small orange. 

Differential Characters. 

The oblong guava, greenish outside, redish inside, is glutinous and yields 
the well known richly colored jelly. 

A round guava, of yellow hues, lemon outside, salmon inside, is luscious, 
fresh, and adapted for all the preparations of the kitchen or confectionary. 

A round guava yellow inside, white inside, yields nice preserves, some- 
what sourer than the former. Its thinner juice does not jelly so well. It is 
not regarded as so free a bearer. It absorbs large proportions of sugar. 

The pear-guava, firmest, has the size and shape of the pound pear. This 
is rare here. 

Concerning the order of succession, we find no uniform testimony. Perhaps, 
the round yellow ripens earliest, next the white variety, and latest the red 

guava. 

Economic Relations of the Guava with the Sugar Crop. 
The syrup of the cane, essential to the preservation of the guava, easily 
obtains, by this alliance, a four-fold value. Fresh cane syrup was offered last 
week at Pulatka for 3a cents per gallon and refused. Only 30 cents was being 
paid for it. 



Get Your Flower Seeds Ready. 247 

The lowest ratio of sugar to fruit for canning is 1-12. An acre in guavas, 
the first fair year of bearing, requires the produce of three acres of sugar 
cane to can it ; an acre of guavas in full growth and yield needs twelve acres 
in cane as its complement. 

The guava, on the other hand, limited to a much smaller area than the 
cane and its ally, the sorghum, must share this area, when cleared, with the 
orange, lemon, lime, and other fruits, with sea-island cotton, and with indis- 
pensable garden stuff. 

Commerce, in maintaining the equilibrium between fruits and sugar, will 
readily dispose of a local excess in the former by steamers and railways. 
Preserved fruits, jellies, etc., absorb half, or their whole weight, even 
of sugar, while affording a premium on skill in their fancy prices. For these, 
as well as canned fruits, the margin of profit, even on the most modest scale, 
forbids the exportation of sugar in the raw state, and affords a potent stimu- 
lus to refinement in home industries. 

Fruit gathering is always an attractive work for children ; preserving it 
gives a lucrative employment to women ; its culture, happily, interests both 
sexes, and its relations with the cane bring different farms and counties into 
cooperation. Our estimate of the ratio of sugar to guava, in canning, is 
based on the experience of Col. F. L. Dancy. Great economies, with perfec- 
tion of the product, may be obtained by the Butler Evaporator and mill 
with three crushing rollers, or by the application of the d'Heureuse air 
treatment to syrup or sugar making. 

Let us conclude with due acknowledgments to Colonel Dancy and his lady, 
at whose suggestion we have penned this article, and whose approval supports 
its positions. May their Hesperides ever shower on them golden fruits, and 
sunset splendors light their patriarchal groves. To their excellent neighbors, 
the Hazel family, also, we owe cordial aid and valuable facts. 

M. E. LAZARUS, M. D. 



Get Your Flower Seeds Ready. 



From the middle of February to the middle of March should be a busy 
time in the Southern flower garden, and the sooner one gets the necessary 
seeds the better. We cannot tell what kinds it will be best for i/om to pro- 
cure, as we do not know how you are situated in regard to location, soil, 
climate, skill, leisure for their cultivation, peculiar tastes, etc., but, as in the 
case of vegetables, we can give a list of species and varieties which are, 
under suitable conditions, desirable for the South generally. Before going 
further, however, we will drop a single cautionary hint to the inexperienced : 
Do not try to cultivate too many kinds. The seedsman's beautifully illustrated 
catalogue will tempt j''0u to disregard this advice. There are so many fine 
things described and pictorially represented that one does not know where to 
stop; but if you try everything at once you will fail entirely with many 
kinds, and succeed less satisfactorily with the others than if you had given 



248 



Get Your Flower Seeds Ready. 



to a few your exclusive attention. We purposely make our list compara- 
tively brief. Most of our readers, not professional gardeners, (and we are 
not now writing for them,) will do well to make from it, or from the seeds- 
man's catalogue, a still briefer list for trial, adding to it from year to year as 
they gain experience and desire now flowers. The kinds marked with a * 
are considered particularly desirable : 



*Abronia. — Beautiful plant, with trailing 
stems and fragrant verbena-like blossoms, 
very difficult to germinate, without a green- 
house or a hot bed. ^ foot. 

Agerahim ( Mexicanum. ) — A profuse 
bloomer. ^ to 1 foot. 

*Alysum,. — Sweet, small, white and fra- 
grant; A. Wier sb ecldi, ycWow and white. 1 
foot. 

*Aster. — Chinese, French and German, 
magnificent flowers, wonderfully improved 
of late. 1 to 2 feet. 

*Ama7-anthus. — A very desirable class of 
plants, of which the tri-colored variety 
(Joseph's co.v.t) is well known everywhere. 
A blcolor rubra, a caudaii/s, (love lies bleed- 
ing,) and a speciosus aureus are among the 
most beautiful and striking varieties. 

Balloon Vine. — A curious, rapid-growing 
climber. 5 to 10 feet. 

*Balsam. — Well known. A package of 
mixed seed gives a good variety. 2 feet. 

*Brownwalia. — A very elegant little plant, 
with a profusion of pretty blue or white 
flowers, li feet. 

*CalLiopsis, or Coreopsis, Dwarf and Tall. — 
A plant with rich-colored flowers of striking 
beauty. 1 to 2 feet. 

Canarg Bird Flower. — A beautiful climber. 
10 feet. 

Candytujf. — An old favorite ; many va- 
rieties. 1 foot. 

^'Cayma. — This is better known as Indian 
shot. No garden should be without it. Get 
roots if you can. The seeds are difficult to 
germinate. Soak them in hot water for sev- 
eral days. 3 to 10 feet. 

*Carnatio7i.— Well known and popular. 

1 foot. 

Clarkia. — Free flowering and pretty. 
Among the best varieties are C. elegans and 
C 'pulchella,f. pi., (double flowering.) 1 to 

2 feet. 

Cobcea, (C. scandens.) — A valuable climb- 
ing plant of rapid growth. Very desirable. 
20 feet. 

^Convolvulus. — An old and common climber, 
but never to be despised. C. aurei/.a s>ij)erbus 
is a fine new variety, with yellow flowers. 
10 to 20 feet. 

^Cypress Vine. — One of the best of our 
annual climbers. White, scarlet and rose. 
18 feet. 

* Chrysanlhemum. — This is an old favorite, 
and deserves to keep its place in our esteem. 
1 to 2 feet. 



Cockscoinh — This is another old favorite 
that we would not dismiss. Dwarf crimson 
and new giant crimson are very showv. 
1 to 2 feet. 

Datura, (Trumpet flower.) — Large, spread- 
ing, strong-growing plants, and very efl'eot- 
ive where there is plenty of room. D. 
Wrightii and D. hrwdis (double yellow) are 
perhaps the best kinds. 2 feet. 

*DlantJnis, (Pink.) — Fine, showy plants, 
especially the double diadem pink. 1 foot. 

Dolichos, (Hyacinth Bean.) — A rapid- 
growing climber, allied to our field pea. 20 
feet or more. 

Eschscholizia Californica. — Profuse bloom- 
ing plants of rich colors. 1 foot. 

*Globe Amaranth. — Pretty, everla.-=tiDg 
flowf-rs, fine for winter bouquets. Ij feet. 

Hibiscus. — Showy and efi"ective among 
shrubbery. C. Africaiius and C. coccineus 
are among the best varieties. 1 to 3 feet. 

*Hollyhock. — This is well known in its old 
forms, but comparatively few know how 
greatly it has been improved. A noble 
flower. 4 to 6 feet. 

IpoTuea. — We particularly recommend /. 
bo?ia nox (good night flower,) blooming ia 
the evening. 18 to 20 feet. 

Larkspur. — Well known. 2 feet. 

Lathyrus. — The well known, everlasting 
pea. 5 to 7 feet. 

^hophosphermum, {scande?is.) — A fine, freo- 
growing climber, one of the best. 10 feet. 

Malope, {31. grandifora is best.) — Fine, 
free-flowering plants. 3 feet. 

Marvel of Peru. — (Four o'clock.) 

*Maura7idya. — Indispensable for hanging 
baskets. M. Bardayana is most poj)ular. 
10 feet. 

^Nasturtium. — Very beautiful. However 
brief your list, put this on and get several 
varieties — dwarf and tall. Dwarf 1 foot; 
tall 10 feet. 

Nigella, (Love in a Mist.) — Curious and 
pretty. 1 foot. 

Pansy. — A well known favorite, somewhat 
difficult to grow in our climate. Sow in the 
fall or winter. 

Pensicmon. — Handsotne plants, with long, 
graceful, richly-colored spikes of flowers. 
2 feet. 

*Pi-(is. Sweet. — Valuable as screens or gar- 
den iKidgos ; grow G feet high ; require a 
trellis. Must be planted in the fall or winter. 

*Petu7iia. — Well known, and much ad- 
mired. 



An Orchard Ramble. 



249 



^Phlox D/-Jt?noM(iit.— Indispensable in every 
garden ; many varieties. 2 to 3 feet. 

Po;j/j I/. — Well known. 

Porialaca. — S. well known little plant, 
with brilliant flowers. \ foot. 

liodaiit he. —OnQ of the most beautiful of 
tbe everlastinc: flowers. 2 feet. 

Eicinu.s, (Castor-oil J^.-an.)— Some of the 
varieties are very ornamental, especially R. 
Africnnits, R. sanguineus and R. borboniensia. 
G"to 10 feet. 

Scabiosn, (Mourning Bride.)— Showy and 
fine for bouquets. 1 to 2 feet. 

*Stocks, (Ten Weeks.)— A universal favor- 
ite. 1 to 2 feet. 



*Salvia.—The salvias are too soldon seen 
in Southern flower gardens, to which they 
are peculiarly adapted. 2 to 3 feet. 

Sweet SiUfan.—Vroi'asQ flowering plants, 
suitable for mixed borders. 2 feet. 

*Siveet iriWirtm.— Never forsake "Sweet 
William." Seeds may bo sown in the fall, 
or in February or March. 1 foot. 

*Thunhergia. — A profuse flowering, twining 
plant. 4 feet. 

*Zin?j»rt.— A fine freo-flowering plant, pro- 
ducing flowers of many colors all the season. 
Z. elegans, mixed seed, will give a variety. 
2 feet. 



An Orchard Ramble. 




We have been taking a look over our pear orchard, and feel inclined to in- 
dulge in a little speculation on the subject of fruit trees and their diseases. 

Here is a Winter Nelis,— dead from top to bottom, the dry pears hanging 
upon it yet, while hard by stands another of the same variety and age, per- 
fectly healthy. The treatment has been the same, and there was no 
evidence of disease until the tree seemed in "articido mortis:' Here are two 
Bartletts,— soil rich— they have grown rapidly and yielded heavy crops of 



250 An Orchard Ramble. 

fruit regularly for several years. The blight has struck the limbs repeatedly, 
but by careful watching and a free use of the knife they seem to be now 
doing well. Hard by stands a Doyenne, which has been severely amputated 
for the same malady, but now seems healthy and bears fruit abundantly. In 
twenty feet of it stands a Petit Muscat, dead from top to bottom; died almost 
as suddenly as if struck by lightning. Here is a Doyenne Renault which 
has been injured by the borer, and had a hard struggle for life. Then comes 
a Van Mons Leon Le Clerc, — dead; Ananas dete, — dead; while a Brandy- 
wine, Dundas, Duchesse d' Angouleme, Bon Chretien and White Doyenne, all 
in the same row, stand sound and healthy-looking. The two dead occupying 
the extreme positions in the row and drier ground than the others. 

In the next row we have a Duchesse, Belle Lucrative, Eyewood, dead from 
top to bottom, — blight. Dearborn's Seedling, dying, and Urbaniste, which is 
at a stand-still, healthy-looking, but has never borne a pear, albeit a drawf on 
the quince of near twenty years ago. 

Another row of Doyenne, Seckel, Passe Colmar; all healthy, soil moister 
and richer, but the Seckels have never borne well for us. 

The next row begins with Zoar Beauty, which has never had any beauty 
about it — never has borne a pear worth eating ; then Seckels, upper crust 
healthy and fruitful ; Liberale, very healthy and fruitful ; the moistest spot in 
the orchard. Then we have the Dix, a very healthy, vigorous tree, but a shy 
bearer ; Julien, dead, and Peach Pear, dead, from blight. 

In the next row we find Bezi de la Motte, a healthy, vigorous grower, — the 
pear no great things. Then Beurre d' Aremberg ; this tree, we noticed, had 
a suspicious look, and upon examination found a crack-ring round each fruit 
spur, the bark dead within the circle, and the main stem stricken with blight, 
and a dead ring around it, while all above seemed well. Then comes a 
Louise bon de Jersey, not very thrifty-looking; then a Dearborn's Seedling, 
dying, and a Delice de Jodigne, which has been under the borer's operations, 
but has partially recovered. 

We read an interesting article in the Farmer and Gardener, a few days ago, 
from the pen of Mr. Eavenel, on the cause of pear blight, which led us into 
the foregoing observations. Mr. Ravenel attributes it to high manuring and 
cultivation — the root cutting interfering with the healthy action of the tree 
and producing blight. Mr. Berckmans, the distinguished Pomologist, par- 
tially indorses Mr. Kavenel's views. We had been drifting to the same con- 
clusion, but, from late observation, feel lees confident. We abandoned the 
culture of our pear orchard on account of the suckers which the root cutting 
caused to spring up; but to-day's observations are not very encouraging. 

A neighbor of ours has tried the let-alone system, and has lost nearly all 
his trees. 

After allowing our apple and peach orchard to stand several years with- 
out cultivation, we became satisfied that the trees were dying quite as fast, 
and this year resumed their cultivation, to the manifest improvement of the 
trees, so far as we can judge from present appearances. We have a peach 



Downer's Prolific 8trawherry. 



251 



orchard, however, well set in grasses, which has been cultivated very little 
for a great many years, and has suffered less from the borer than any other 
orchard ; but the hogs always have had free access to it. The foregoing random 
notes are given to attract attention to this growing evil pear blight. The 
Pomological savans lately assembled at Eichmond failed to shed any light 
upon this vexed qiiestion. AN AMATEUR 



Downer's Prolific Strawberry. 




This is a Kentucky seedling, and, though not new, is comparatively little 
known in the South. It does not succeed in ail soils and situations, but, 
under favorable conditions, is one of the most valuable varieties we have for 



252 



A Portable Fountain. — Horticulture for Women. 




home use. The fruit is too soft 
for market, where transportation 
by railway is necessary. The 
plant is hard}'- and the fruit, when 
fully ripened, of good quality'. It 
is among the earliest to ripen. 



A PORTABLE FOUNTAIN. 

For those who may have an ele- 
vated cistern, or any other source 
of supply elevated enougli to pro- 
duce the necessary pressure, the 
portable fountain represented in 
the accompanying wood cut, will 
prove an exceedingly- useful, as 
well as ornamental, apparatus. It 
can be moved about from place to 
place and be used anywhere that 
the water can be had. The foun- 
tain illustrated is four feet high, 
furnished with a ten-inch revolv- 
ing jet. The water is supplied by 
small rubber piping connected with 
the cistern, or other source of sup- 
ply. It is particularly adapted 
to use on lawns and grass plots. 
Any iron founder can easily make 
it. 



Horticulture for "Women. 



We would not encourage in woman any stepping out of her proper place 
in nature's well arranged plan ; but nature has nowhere prohibited her from 
taking healthful out-door exercise, or from making herself useful in any way 
suited to her organization. If she may cook a cabbage, or can a basket of 
peaches, is there ixnj good reason wh}^ she may not sow the seeds for the 
one and plant and prune the tree that bears the other? We believe that the 
health and happiness of a majority of American women, and the welfare of 
society, would be greatly promoted by more regular out-door exercise on the 
part of the fair sex ; and in what way can it more appropriately be taken 
than in the lighter branches of horticulture? But we did not intend here 
any defence of horticulture for women ; our purpose is simply the introduc- 



Horticulture for Women. 253 

tion of pomc remarks by a Avoman who has tried it and found health, if not 
much pecuniary profit, in the employment. Her remarks on the suliject, 
which we find in the Maine Farmer, are too long for reproduction in full, but 
we make a few extracts: 

A PLEA FOR OUT-DOOR LABOR. 

Nothing is so admirably adapted to do this as to be engaged in some light, 
out-door employment; and the pleasant occupation of gardening can bo, I 
believe, carried on by an improved method as successfully by women as men, 
and with great advantage to the former class. A woman cannot possibly 
lose any of her feminine qualities by being thus engaged, but on the con- 
trary, all the noble faculties of her being will be enlarged as her physical 
culture is more properly attended to. Thus far, education for her has been 
in mimy cases but perversion ; educated for shovv, pleasure, amusement, rather 
than for service. 

NOT FOR THEM. 

In expressing my views on this subject I do not expect to interest those of 
my own sex or the opposite, whose opinions are one-sided, and who never 
give length nor breadth to any subject; who think that any out-door employ- 
ment for women is degrading and unfeminine; that her true sphere of useful- 
ness must be confined wholly to in-door occupations; that it is not for her to 
labor where she can breathe the pure air of heaven, imparting new life, and 
bringing back the ros}^ hue to her pale cheeks; that God's glorious sunshine, 
with all its healing intluences, is not to shine on her, giving health, strength 
and vitality to all her bodily powers. Neither do I expect to interest those 
exceedingl3" feminine sisters of mine who seem to think they were created for 
mere parlor ornaments, and who waste the precious moments of their exist- 
ence in idleness, performing no labor with their hands, excepting occasionally 
to do a bit of fancy work; allowing all those God-given powers of body and 
soul to lie dormant; indulging in foolish sentiment; carried away by all the 
vanities and foolish extravagancies of a fashionable world; who never take 
any out-door exercise, unless it be to ride in a covered carriage, or walk 
closely veiled, for fear the sunlight may impart a natural color to their pale 
faces. 

THE GERMAN WOMEN OF THE WEST. 

While at St. Paul, Minnesota, my attention was first called to the subject of 
out-door labor for women as a means of gaining health ; whilst noticing the 
many pale-faced, hollow-eyed, consumptive American women that had come 
to that famous locality, hoping by so doing to regain their health, but many, 
alas, of my feeble sisters came only to die away from their homes. My at- 
tention was called to another class, to the groups of strong, healthy looking 
German women that filled the market places; and these women carried on 
the business of horticulture and floriculture, raising and marketing their own 
produce, and receiving the same pay for their labors as men. And 1 would 
here say that this is a business in which women can engage, where they can 
be fully recompensed for their labors. I could but contrast these strong, 
healthy looking women, as I watched them about their labors, to my own 
feeble condition, and to that of my poor sisters, whose pale, haggard faces 
haunt me now; but thinking that it was their education alone that had de- 
veloped in them such physical strength I resolved that if I lived to reach my 
home in the State of Maine, and my life was spared till another spring, I 
would betake myself to my father's old farm in the country, and there have 
me a patch of ground and carry on horticultural operations. 



254 The Noblesse Peach. 

THE RESULTS. 

Having my ground prepared for me, I commenced my labors early in the 
spring, and although sneered at b}" some of my sisters who told me it was 
not my place to labor out of doors. I was not daunted by|this, for life was 
nothing to me unless I could regain my health. My efforts in this direction 
were ver3' feeble at first, not being able to labor more than half an hour at a 
time; but I found by persevering that my strength was gradually increasing. 
The sun no longer gave me violent headaches, but seemed to awaken into new 
life all the powers of my body and soul ; and ere the summer was far ad- 
vanced I could labor in the open air nearlj- all the day. I no longer had the 
blues, (to which I was subject,) for my mind was cheerfully employed. I 
watched with a great deal of interest and pleasure the growth of my little 
garden, from the first little shoots that made their appearance from the 
ground until their perfection. 

A HAPPY SUMMER — MORAL REFLECTIONS. 

I can say that this has been the happiest summer of my life. I had no 
trouble in keeping the weeds from growing in my garden, and less trouble in 
keeping them from growing in my heart, for I have had more time for moral 
reflection and mental improvement, which has given me higher and better 
thoughts of my Heavenly Father, who created all things, both the useful and 
beautiful for our enjoyment, and who meant every life for a life of service, 
and that everj^ one should be willing to work out their own salvation. 

THE SUCCESS OF MY PLAN. 

My labors, also, in this direction have paid me well in a pecuniary point of 
view, although the past season has been an unfavorable one for the farmers 
in Maine. My crops suffered considerably from the drought and grass- 
hoppers, but 1 was not discouraged, for more than all this, which is worth 
everything to me, I have better health than I have had for ten years. I shall 
resume my labors again in the spring, if nothing happens, and I do hope that 
some of my suffering sisters will take my advice and follow my example. 

It is high time, when taking into consideration the almost frightful degen- 
eracy of our American women, that all the nonsense about woman's sphere, 
all this foolish sentiment should cease, and that they who are and who are to 
be the mothers of this country, should have every avenue opened to them 
whereby they can develop their physical and mental organization to their 
utmost capacity, one in complete harmony with the other. 



The Noblesse Peach. 



The Noblesse is one of those old varieties which have not yet been surpass- 
ed by any of recent origin. It is of the richest and highest flavor, and being 
entirely white at the stone is quite desirable for canning. It is a handsome fruit 
of a pale greenish white, marbled and spotted with two shades of dull red in the 
sun. The flesh is juicy and melting and separates freely from the stone. It 
ripens in August, in our climate. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower 
with us. The variety originated in France. [See frontispiece.] 



Purple Cane Raspberries. — Ashes and Iron for Flowers. 255 

Purple Cane Raspberries. 




The purple cane raspberries are classed by botanists as varieties of the 
Black Cap, (Rubus Occidentalism) and they generally succeed wherever the 
latter can be grown. The old Purple Cane, here represented, grows finely 
and bears well with us. It has long been one of the standard varieties for 
home use, and in some sections it has been quite extensively grown for 
market. 

The plant is very hardy, a rampant grower, producing few suckers, being 
mainly propagated from the tips of the young canes. The fruit is rather 
small and brittle, but of good quality, and is produced in great abundance. 



Ashes and Iron for Flowers. 



Dame Nature cannot paint in colors of exquisite beauty, any more than a 
skilled artist, without proper materials from which she can extract the rosy 
tints of morning and the azure and purple shades of the calm twilight of a 
summer sunset. When she clothes the lily of the field in all the regal bril- 
liancy and glory of the throne of the King of Solomon, and decks the petals 
of the rose, the dahlia, and the pink in her gayest colors, coloring material 
must be mingled with the soil, when roots can appropriate it to the wonder- 
ful operation of bringing out flowers of transcendant beauty and richness of 
color. 

Jf we examine the wild flowers that lift up their heads in every shady nook, 
in localities where the soil contains a superabundance of ferruginous material 
and silica, every admirer of these twinkling day-stars will be forcibly im- 
pressed with the superior brilliancy of the petals. The reason for this is, the 
iron in the soil, or flower-bed, furnishes a liberal supply of coloring matter, 
and the silica supplies a material which is of vast importance to the produc- 
tion of that brilliancy of the petals and the dark green lustre of the leaves. 
Then, if potash be added, or the ground be dressed round about the growing 
flowers with unleached wood ashes, an increased brilliancy will appear in 
every petal and leaf. 



25 S Horticultural MisccUany. 

Any person who cultivates only a few flowers in pots, or between grassy 
lawns, or on spacious parterres, may readily satisfy himself of the exceed- 
ingly useful part the foregoing materials play in the production of beautiful 
flowers. Even white flowers, or roses that have petals nearly white, will be 
greatly improved in brilliancy by providing iron, sand, and unleachcd ashes 
for the roots of the growing plants. Ferruginous materials may be ajiplied to 
the soil where flowers are growing, or where they are to grow, by procuring 
a supply of oxide of iron, in the form of the dark colored scales that fall from 
the heated bars of iron when the metal is hammered by blacksmiths. Iron 
turnings and iron filings, which may be obtained at most machine shops, 
should be worked into the soil near the flowers, and in a few years it will be 
perceived that all the minute fragments will have been dissolved, thus furnish- 
ing the choicest material for painting the gayest colors of the flower garden. 
When there is an excess of vegetable mould in a flower bed, and a deficiency 
of silica, or sand, the flowers will never be so rich in color, nor so brilliant, as 
they would be were a liberal dressing of sand or sandy loam, worked down 
into the bed, where the growing roots could reach it. If wood ashes can be 
obtained readily, let a dressing be spread over the surface of the ground, half 
an inch deep, and be raked in. A dressing of quicklime will be found excel- 
lent for flowers of every description. It is also of eminent importance to im- 
prove the fertility of the soil where flowers are growing, in order to have 
mature, plump and ripe seeds. Let the foregoing materials be spread around 
the flowers, and raked in at any convenient period of the j-ear. When soil 
is prepared for flowers in pots, let some sand, oxide of iron, and ashes be 
mingled thoroughly with the leaf mould. — Tilton's Journal of Horticulture. 



Horticultural Miscellany 



GRAFTING THE GRAPE. 

The Alton (Illinois) Horticultural Society having a resolution under dis- 
cussion declaring it unwise to attempt grape-grafting, Mr. E. A. Eiehl said : 

I have grafted for three years, and have had such uniform success, that I 
would undertake it with as much certainty of success as 1 would in grafting 
an orchard. My method is to saw or cut ofl' the vine from four to six inches 
under ground. The stock I split with a thin-bladed knife, being careful to 
cut rather than split. I make the split as near the centre of the stock as 
possible, and am very careful to have the bark of stock and cion fit nicely at 
one point at kast. The stock will usually hold the cion firm enough without 
tying ; if not, I tie with a string, but never wax the grape. The earth in 
then firmly pressed about the cion, up to the top bud, a little sawdust put on 
the top to protect the bud and keep the earth from baking, and the thing is 
done. I prefer early spring. It is simply cleft grafting under ground. My 
cions are from four to six inches long. 

CHARCOAL FOR FLOWERS. 

The Scientific American says that a horticulturist in England purchased a 
rose bush full of promising buds — the flowers, however, were of a faded hue. 
He covered the earth in the pot about an inch thick with pulverized charcoal, 
and was surprised, some days afterward, to find the blooms of a fine lively 



Merino Sheep vs. Cotton. 257 

rose color. He repeated the experiment another senson with the same result. 
He then tried the powdered charcoal upon petunias, and found that both the 
white and violet colored flowers were equally sensitive to its action. It 
always gave great vigor to the red or violet colors of the flowers, and the 
white petunias became veined with red or violet tints ; the violets became 
covei'ed with irregular spots of a blush or almost black tint. Many persons 
who admired them thought they were choice new varieties from the seed. 
Yellow flowers appear to be insensible to the influence of charcoal. 

IRON AROUND rEACII TREES. 

At a recent meeting of the American Institute Farmers' Club, Mr. Wagner, 
who lives on Long Island, about fifty miles east of New York, exhibited some 
pruning from his orchard, to illustrate the effect of putting iron around trees. 
He took an old place with twenty trees in the orchard, full of dead limbs, and 
y-ellow leaves, and the crotches oozing thick gum. He gave the earth a top 
dressing of iron, breaking up old ploughs and staves and scattering the frag- 
ments. The effect has been marvellous. The trees have renewed their youth 
and now look strong and thrifty. The bark is tight, and the leaves all green, 
and the borer has disappeared. He thinks the slag of iron furnaces ground 
up and spread on orchards would prove a very valuable fertilizer for the fruit 
trees of all kinds. 

TO REJUVENATE OLD GRAPE VINES. 

The editor of the Practical Farmer says: "Having on our pi'cmises, planted 
by former owners, probably twenty years ago, half a dozen old grape vines, 
with lai'ge weather-beaten trunks or stems, which made annually but little 
new wood, and yielded but very few poor grapes, two seasons ago we cut off 
the branches, covering with about a foot of earth. Yigorous and healthy 
shoots sprung up in great abundance — the weak ones of which were broken 
off, and leading ones at proper distances trained to the arbor. The new 
growths are very clean, healthy and strong — sufficient entirely to cover the 
large arbor of the present season ; we look for bushels of fruit from the new 
bearing wood. We see old grape vines everywhere doing no good, and which 
could be made young and thrifty by this process. 



lairg antr S^^^^ Siepartment. 



Merino Sheep vs. Cotton. 

As letters frequently come to me from Southern planters, asking for a com- 
parison between merino sheep and cotton — representatives respectively of 
the Northern and the Southern farms — these letters I try to answer, and 
by request shall endeavor to answer one of them through the pages of the 
Southern planters' excellent journal and organ. The Rural Carolinian. 

The inquirer's plantation consists of three thousand acres. Under tho 
present administration and hc>me management of the incfiicient and demor- 
No, 5, Vol. 3. 19 



258 How Little Land will Keep a Cow. 

alized labor, the planting business is neither pi'ofitable nor pleasant ; but we 
resolve not to quit, for tliis is repulsive. We resolve to change front, and 
take up a position from which we shall be able to make a stand, and from 
which we can advance both the improvements and profits of the plantation. 

We will purchase fifty merino sheep at a cost of 825 each, §1,250, and two 
hundred and fifty Southern sheep of as fair quality as we can at a cost of 
about §3 each, §750; twelve of the merinos shall be rams, the balance of our 
sheep shall be ewes. One man can do all the work connected with these, 
and much other work besides. This flock will soon increase, and we will 
gradually curtail the cotton growing and increase the wool growing until the 
cotton stops, and with only a few hands we grow wool and grain and grass 
sufficient for home use. 

We have now remarked the small amount of land required to maintain one 
sheep, and the small amount of manual labor required. We have also 
observed that yonder splendid merino has an annual fleece of ten pounds, 
which commands forty cent^ per lb., §4 ; that yonder native produces but 
one and a half pounds, 60 cents. Her lamb yonder, a fine two year old, got- 
ten by a merino ram, has just given us a four pound fleece, 81.60. 

Our flock has now increased to the coveted number, and we will advance. 
We will cull out the worst, and fatten and sell, and thus improve our flock; 
we make another purchase of merinos, and annually cull out. We have 
found by experience that it is better to purchase merinos from a breeder 
who has a strictlj- fancy flock rather than from him who has a medium flock, 
for then we know what we are getting and what to expect. On a tract of 
three hundred acres this can be done in the same ratio. 

JOHN S. GOE. 

Brownsville, Pa., December 28, 1871. 



How Little Land ^vill Keep a Co^A^. 

On the first day of June last, writes a correspondent, I commenced cutting 
clover for one cow confined in a yard enclosed by a high, tight board fence, 
with a stable attached, in which she had been fed. She had no feed but fresh 
clover, from the Ist of June to the 15th of October, and all taken from one- 
fourth of an acre of ground. She has averaged eighteen quarts of strained 
milk per day, from which my wife has made eight pounds of butter per week, 
during the four and a half months. The cow is five years old^ and a cross of 
the Ayershire and Durham. She has given more milk, more butter and of a 
better quality, than she has ever done on pasture. On one-eighth of an acre 
I have raised one hundred and fifty bushels of sugar beets and carrots, which 
with the two tons of hay, will keep her handsomely the balance of the year. 
The labor of cutting clover for the cow is less than driving her three-fourths 
of a mile to pasture. In the dairy districts, the usual estimate is four acres 
to the cow, on the hay and pasture system ; whereas by soiling and raising 
roots five-eights of an acre is found to be sufficient. I will state further, what 



Chains vs. Stanch !o7is. 



259 



I believe from nearl}^ thirty yeai's' experience is, that there is no crop so val- 
uable for soiling as clover, no crop so many pounds of which, and of equal 
value for milk and butter, can be produced from an acre of ground. Sweet 
corn is a good crop for late feeding, where clover will not grow, but not 
profitable for winter feeding. 



Chains vs. Stanchions. 




Stanchions are exceedingly conve- 
nient, and, leaving out of view the com- 
fort of the cuttle, perhaps the most de- 
sirable contrivance we have for securing 
the animals in their stalls. The more 
comfortable we can make our domestic 
animals, however, the better they will 
thrive ; so, to say nothing of the moral 
aspects of the case, we should, for our 
own sakes, make them as comfortable as 
possible. 

The arrangement represented in the foregoing sketch does not wholly 
suit us, but we prefer it to stanchions, and give it to our readers for careful 
consideration, with the remarks of a correspondent of the Rural New Yorker, 
who introduces it. 

A is simply a round pole, two or two and a half inches in diameter, run- 
ning from the floor to a plank spiked on the under side of the upper joists, 
passing through a tsvo-inch hole at both bottom and top. 5 is a chain to be 
bought at the hardware store, or made to order, with five or six rings, with a 
link^between them on one end and a T on the other, fastening to ring <^ by a 
small swivel; c is a peg to hang it up by when the cattle are turned out. 

A manger, twelve feet in'height, and a partition to extend back between 
the cattle two feet from the manger, with partings in the manger high 
enough to prevent quai'relling between every one. The stanchion a, to be 
placed in the farther corner from the door, six inches from the manger and 
two from the partition of the single stall thus formed. 

The length of chain between the inside ring and T should only be enough 
for calves, while the whole length should be sufficient for a large ox, and 
those between for different sizes. Now for my reasons : 

Twelve or thirteen years ago my father built a new barn, with shed across 
one end and stable both in barn and shed. We had always used the old 
fashioned bows, which I suppose every one has seen. We had enough to 
equip one stable, so something had to be fixed for the other. We fixed upon 
stanchions as the handiest. 

Our cows were fed by the same hand off of the same mow, and ran to- 
gether in the same yard in the day time. Those fastened with bows came 



260 The Origin of the Ashley River Phosphates. 

out in fine order in the spring; the others "spring poor." I forgot to say 
we left the alley and manger all one in front of the stanchions, feeding on the 
floor. We noticed that when the floor was clean in front of the stanchions 
the cattle would eat about one-third or may be half of a heavy foddering be- 
fore they would have the rest pushed out of reach. We then constructed a 
manger, and then added to its height until it reached about two feet, which 
did very well. 

The next trouble was that the underlings at one end would be out of hay 
in a very short time while a great heap would accumulate at the other. We 
then parted oflf in both stables for two in a dish, wbich was some better; but 
the evil was still there. A parting between every one made a manger which 
was correct for feeding hay, etc. Still there is a groat difference between 
the condition of cattle wintered in the two stables, and for eight or nine 
years we have put the young, hardy cows (that could not be got into the 
bows) in the stanchions, and the result has been the same every time. 
Hence 1 think stanchions too confining, and my cows shall have a good, solid 
stall, three feet wide, with a good, smooth manger, tight enough to feed any- 
thing in, and the bottom on a level with the feet of the beast, or higher, and 
fastened as above. F. S. HEATH. 






The Origin of the Ashley River Phosphates and their 
Comparative Solubility. 

Everything that relates to the occurrence, origin, and qualities of this 
valuable native resource of ours, is of eminent interest to every one connected 
with our commercial and agricultural prosperity, and all will be pleased to 
learn, any new developments regarding it, whether of scientific or practical 
interest. Little has heretofore been written on the subject at the head of 
this article, probably for the reason that so little could be positively af- 
firmed. 

In October, 1868, the writer, in his "History of the Marls, and of thk 
Discovery and Development of the Native Bone Phosphates of South 
Carolina," referred their probable origin to the excrementitious deposits of 
various animals, among them birds. See pages 26 and 31. 

In May, 1869, Prof C. U. Shepard published a short article in American 
Journal of Science on the " Origin of the Phosphatic Formation," and in it as- 
cribes the formation to the "Deposition of Bird Guano, as it is now going on 
upon the Mosquito Coast of the Carribean Sea." 

Prof F. S. Holmes, in his " History and Development of the Phosphate Rocks 
of South Carolina," attributes their origin to the change of the carbonate of 
lime of the Eocene Marls into phosphate of lime, by a process of " Phosphatiza- 
tion " similar, he says, in all respects, to the process of " Silicijication " of 
shelly masses, as exhibited in the Buhrstone formation. 



The Origin of the Ashley River Phosphates. 261 

The two first of these hypotheses, though plausible, are not altogether satis- 
factory, and are no doubt only entertained for the time, in want of a more 
plausible and satisfactory one. 

This, unfortunately, the third explanation does not supply, for there are 
strong and overpowering reasons, both chemical and physical, to prove that 
"theory" not only untenable, but in direct conflict with many of the ob- 
served facts in the case. 

But now for the more recent developments. 

As early as the year 1854, Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, of the Canada Geological 
Surve}', showed that the shell of a bivalve of Genus Lingula (existing both 
fossil and living) was composed of phosphate of lime instead of carbonate of 
lime, which latter, is almost universally the case. And early in 1870 Prof. 
W. C. Kerr, State Geologist of North Carolina, discovered along the shores of 
that State immense numbers of a living shell, the Lingula pyramidata, of that 
same genus, which, on examination, proved to have a shell of phosphate of 
lime, similar, in all respects, to the composition o^ bone, and, with much plausi- 
bility, in a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, he ascribes the probable origin of our phosphatic material to this 
agency. 

The writer has not had the pleasure of examining this truly interesting 
Brachiopod, but finds in a recent number of the Journal of the Franklin 
Institute, an article " On the Composition of the Shell of the Lingula pyra- 
midata,'' by Prof C. P. Williams, now Di-rector of the Missouri School of 
Mines. 

This article is of much interest ; the shells were from the Harbor of Beau- 
fort, North Carolina, and were procured through the eflbrts of Geo. T. Lewis 
Esq., of Philadelphia, who, among all American capitalists, was the first to 
appreciate the value of our phosphates, and strenuously work in the de- 
velopment of them. 

Prof Williams gives the figures in column No. 1 as the mean result of two 
analyses of this shell, and in No. 2 will be found Von Bibras' analysis of the 
human os innominatum, which is probably about the average composition of 
pure bone. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Organic Matter 41.:-i36 40.03 

Tricalcic Phosphate 50.340 49.72 

Trimagnesic " 5.189 1.57 

Ferric Phosphate trace 

Fluoride Calcium 882 

Carbonate of Lime 2.509 8.08 

Sulphate " 153 

Chlorides trace 

Insoluble in Acids 091 Soluble Salts .60 

1(;0.491 100.00 



262 The Origin of the Ashley River Phosphates. 

This is a remarkable approximation of composition, especially so since the 
shell (No. 1) contains less carbonate o/^u/ie than true bone does. 

The fossil shells found in the "so-called" Coprolite Beds of Suffolk and 
Cambridgeshire, England, (which are undoubtedly geologically and chemi- 
cally different from ours.) seem also to be phos2)hatic rather than calcaxnous, 
and prominent among them is the same genus Lingula. 

Prof Kerr, in ascribing the origin of our phosphates to the accumulation 
of the debris of these shells, is probably much nearer the truth than any of 
us have heretofore been, and we look with much interest for still further de- 
velopments on the subject, as they tend to clear up the only obscuj-e point in 
the history of these deposits and also accounts very clearly for the '■'■ plios- 
phatic sand'' described by Prof. Shepard in The Eural Carolinian for Mayj 
1871. 

The Relative Solubility of S. C. Phosphates. 

Professor C. P. Williams has also recently published in the same journal as 
above, the result of some investigations to ascertain the relative solubilit}^ of 
different forms of phosphates. 

To do this he took such portions of the different minei-al and animal phos- 
phates, as contained the same quantity of pure Phosphate of Lime, and sub- 
jected them to the action of a saturated solution of carbonic acid for fifty 
hours, in all cases, under exactly similar conditions of temperatui'e, quantit}^ 
etc., etc., and his results are tabulated below for comparison : 

Numheo' of Parts of 
Carbonated Water Required to 
Naine of the Phosphate. Dissolve one of the Phosphates. 

1. Mineral Phosphate Apatite, from Perth, Canada 222.222 parts. 

2. The same, (levigated very fine.) 140.840 parts. 

3. Pure Paw Bone 5.698 parts. 

4. The same, Calcined (Bone Ash.) 8.029 parts. 

5. Commercial Bone Dust, mixed with acid salt cake *-1.122 parts. 

6. Goodrich S. C. Phosphates, from lands of C. M. & M. Co G.983 parts. 

7. Same, (levigated very fine) 6.544 parts. 

8. Orchilla Guano 8.009 parts. 

Two facts are prominent in the above comparative table, both of which are 

worthy the attention of our agriculturist. 

Is. That the degree of solubility is dependent on the degree of fineness. 

2d. That the Goodrich Land Phosphate is more soluble in the soil than 
that from any other sources, except the pure Raw Bone, containing all its 
gelatine and even this is but little more soluble than ours. 

It is really 15 to 20 per cent, more soluble than pure Bone Ash. 

This is a very remarkable fact, and affords a satisfactory explanation of the 
highly extolled results of which have followed the free application of the 
native Bone Phosphates. 

* Increased solubility due to free sulphuric acid in the acid salt cake. 



Cotton Caterpillars — One Word More. 263 

Where it is ground very fine, ils good effects are tangible during the first 
year, when coarser, these are most evident during the second and third 
years. 

The manufacture of our phosphates into high grade of " soluble manures " 
by the addition of enough sulphuric acid to render all the phosphate soluble in 
water is a large stride in advance — since it is then soluble in very little 
water, and a smaller quantity per acre, is far more efficacious in producing a 
fruitful harvest during the first year. 

The English agriculturists understand the value of soluble phosphoric acid, 
and compel. their manufacturers to make high grades only. Nothing less than 
^^25 per cent, soluble'^ can be sold in that market, while our own planters are 
satisfied to take whatever their factors recommend, and rarely get more than 
5 to 8 per cent, of solubility, the remainder being simply ground native Bone 
Phosphate, for the solution of one pound of which 6000 or 7000 lbs. of carbo- 
nated water are required. 

The planters of South Carolina have it in their power to compel the manu- 
facturers to give them the best manures in the icorld. This they can do by in- 
sisting that they must have at least 11 percent, of soluble phosphoric acid in 
their " Dissolved Bone" or "Acid Phosphate." This will be equal to 25 per 
cent, of bone phosphate made soluble, and from our own native material 30 
and even " 35 per cent, soluble " can be made. This latter composted with 
cotton seed and other plantation refuse, and applied freely would produce 
such crops as are now thought impossible. 

Three, four and five bales of cotton to the acre, can be and have been made — 
and still some of our best farmers seem satisfied with half a bale. 

Prepare the ground well and apply highly " soluble manures,'' a half ton or 
even a ton to the acre, and a heavy harvest will result. 

Charleston, January 13, 1872. N. A. PEATT. 



Scpitrtmcnt of ^itlural Sistorg. 

Specimens of insects, securely packed, (according to instructions given in The Kural 
Carolinian, for October, 1870,) with letters of inquiry, entomological notes, etc., should be 
addressed, (post paid,) to Mr. Charles K. Dodge, Washington, D. C. 



Cotton Caterpillars — One Word More. 

I had made up my mind to let my part of this unpleasant controversy 
drop, agreeing with the Editor of The Rural Carolinian that such articles 
should "take a practical rather than controversial turn," hut one or two par- 
agraphs in Dr. Anderson's response, which are still on the side of error, I 
cannot let go without a notice. 

He says: "By a mode of speedy production or generation, unknown to 
Mr. Glover, Mr. Grote and yourself, I have seen them so mixed as not to be 
able to identify them more with one than the other. [Look at our figures of 



264 Ow Insect Friends— III. 

the two worms in the November number and carefully read the description.] 
* * * I am forced to the conclusion that they are of the same parentage ; 
and as to either one or the other eating grass or cotton, I am sure they eat 
either as chance develops them in one or the other." (The italics are mine.) 

Now, I distinctly repeat what has been said both by Mr. Grote and myself, 
and what I have never before heard questioned by any one that pretended to 
have investigated the subject, that the grass worm and cotton caterpillar are 
two widely distinct species, which are not developed by chance ; and the Qgg of 
one will no more produce the other than a grain of corn will produce a blade 
of wheat, and as for arguing against such a thing, it is simply ridiculous. 

The book of nature is open to all who may read its pages aright, but when 
an "Observer" tramples under foot nature's laws, and begins to talk of 
''chance" and o^ mysteries which he alone has the power to unravel, it is time 
to cry out. Dr. Anderson may have learned some new lact in regard to the 
cotton worm that may prove of practical value, but he must not pave the 
way for placing it before the public by controverting known facts, and seek- 
ing to tbrow a cloud of mystery over clear and well defined truths. 

In regard to the Locusia error, Mr. Glover, with whom I am associated at 
Washington, tells me the name appeared in the first few thousand copies of 
the edition, having been placed there, as in fjict were many of the scientific 
and other names, by the (then) Chief Clerk of the Bureau, and editor of the 
report, but which were corrected by Mr. G. as soon as seen. 

CHAS. E. DODGE. 



Our Insect Friends — III. 



We now come to consider a few of the insects which destroy in both larval 
and perfect stages. Among beetles, the Cicindelidce stand preeminent as in- 
sect destroyers; they are commonly called "tiger beetles," and are truly 
tigers to the whole insect race. Their larvae live in holes excavated to the 
depth of four or five inches in the earth. Their hooked 
jaws are powerful weapons, and they use them indiscrimi- 
nately on any insects that come within reach, not even 
sparing their own species, if parposely placed in their way. 
On the back of the abdomen there are a couple of spines 
which the insects use in working up or down in the hole. 
The beetles are brilliantly colored, bronzed green, or purplish. 
Fig. 1. Bronze with and are marked with dots and lines of creamy white; they 
creamy spots. inhabit hot sunny paths or sandy places, and when approached 
take flight, alighting immediately only a few paces further on. Cicindela vul- 
garis, Say., (fig. 1,) is one of our most common species. 

The Carabidoi, or " ground beetles," are a large family of beneficial insects, 
and many of the species, like the "tiger beetles," are remarkable for their 
voracity. Calosoma scrutator, Fab., a large green and purplish insect, measu- 
ring over an inch in length,- devours large numbers of canker worms, though 




Our Insect Friends — TIL 



265 



its diet is probably not confined to any particular 
species. Calosoma calidum, Fab., (fig. 2) is a dull 
black species having the wing eases dotted with 
coppery spots. It is quite common, and, accord- 
ing to Eiley, destroys great numbers of cut 
worms, which it pursues " in their retreats under 
the ground, and seizes them whenever it comes 
in contact with them." The CarabuJcc may be 
found in numbers, especially in the spring, under 
stones, pieces of wood and debris, and are easily 
distinguished by their (generally) black color, 
and large jaws. They should never be injured 
or destroyed. 




Fiff. 2. Insect black with coppery 



dots ; lav(7, above blackish, beneath 
Many of the water beetles, (^Dytiscidce, and dirty yellowish white. 
Gyranidce,) are useful in destroying insects. They are common in still water. 
The last named may be known by the habit the various species have of whirl- 
ing round and round in circles on the surface of the water which has given 
to them the name of " whirligigs," while the first named are called •' divers." 
Figure 3 is the larva of a Dystiscus, and a terror he is to all the " small fry," 
whether of fish or insects, so he cannot be called wholly beneficial. It is of 
a dirty white color, and is provided with two very singular pectinated ap- 
pendages at the extremity of the body. 

The Necropharidce may be marked as beneficial, as they as- 
sist in removing decaying animal matter, which they bury in 
the earth. The females eventually depositing eggs in the pu- 
trid mass. A foreign naturalist tells us that four of these 
industrious little beetles that he had imprisoned in a glass 
globe of earth, buried in fifty days, four frogs, three birds, two 
fish, a mole, and two grasshoppers, besides the entrails of 
another fish and two pieces of ox lung, and he adds : " Until 
further experiment be made, it may be taken as a fact that 
one Necrophorus alone can in two days bury a body equal to 
forty times its own weight." The insects are nearly three- 
quarters of an inch long; they are black with two irregular 
transverse bands of orange-red on each wing-cover. The 
thorax is sometimes covered with short yellowish hairs ; an- 
Fifj. 3. Dirtj white, tennae or feelers, clubbed or knobbed at the end. 

The Staphylinidce feed upon decaying animal and vegetable substances, fungi, 
&c., and are, therefore, beneficial. Aleochara Anthomykv, Sprague, was found 
destroying the larva of the cabbage fly in Massachusetts during the last 
sjason. The insects are long, narrow, and have the abdomen much longer 
than the wing-covers, which are uncommonly short. 

The Telephoridce are said to be predacious, and are insects of a soft consist- 
ence, rather narrow in shape. Telephorus bilineatus, Say., was taken in Mary- 
land "in the act of feeding upon the body of a still living chyrsalis of a but- 




266 A Rare Tree— What is itf 

terfly." Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus, DeGeer, destroys the curculio. The 
perfect insects are quite abundant on roses and other flowers in the fall. 
They are mentioned in Missouri as abundant on flowers of golden rod. 

The Coccinellidce, or " lady birds," are truly the friends of the agriculturalist, 
as they destroy millions of aphidce on the various plants that are infested by 
such pests, and we cannot speak too highly of their services. Epilachna bo- 
realis, however, has the very bad habit of feeding upon the leaves of the 
squash-vine, but with this exception, the family may be called beneficial. 

We now come to those insects that destroy in the perfect state only, though 
their numbers are confined to a comparatively few species. Wasps and hor- 
nets are said to prey upon flies, destroying great numbers of them, and 
Spence tells us that " the butchers in France are very glad to have wasps at- 
tend their stalls for the sake of their services in driving away the flesh fly." 

Ants are great insect destroyers, and it is wonderful to watch their ma- 
noeuvres to accomplish what they commence. I have seen ants carry off the 
head of a locust (Cicada septendecem, Linn.) which had been ueatly severed 
from its body; and this beheading business was carried on to such an extent 
during the " locust season " in the vicinity of Washington, that it is worthy 
of note. They frequently carry off insects many times larger than them- 
selves ; and we are told by one observer that in order to secure a live cock- 
roach numbers <i these little insects held its legs, so that it could not move, 
while others mounted upon its body and killed it, when it was carried to their 
nest. 

The Asilidoi are a family of predacious flies, having long, slender bodies, 
which are covered with stiff hairs or bristles. The thorax is rather stout and 
the head small. Other flies might be enumerated as having the same 
habit, though some of them destroy bees, which, however, is not much to 
their credit as beneficial insects. In our next we will close by giving some 
account of that far more numerous and destructive class, those that destroy 
in all stages of existence. 



Errata. — January number Rural Carolinian, page 202, syrphidce, cocci- 
nellidce and crysopha should each begin with capitals; page 203, line 10, in 
Eeview of the Year, for Ehyparochromas read Ryparochromus ; same page, 
seventh line from the top of the page, for "suction " read victim. 



A Rare Tree— ^Vhat is it? 



Within a short distance of the corporate limits of the Town of Orange- 
burg stands a tree which is regarded as quite a rare specimen of the vegetable 
kingdom, it being the only tree of the kind, with the exception of a number 
propagated from it, ever seen or heard of by those acquainted with it. It is 
supposed to have stood upon the premises of the paternal grandfather of the 
writer during the iievolutionary War; if so, it can not be far from one hun- 



New Insects from the West. 267 

dred years old. It is exceedingly ancient in appearance, though still brings 
forth fruit in old age. 

I send you a few of its berries and leaves — can you give its name? The 
name by which it has been known for years is "Soap Berry Tree," the ber- 
ries of it being regarded by housekeepers as much superior to the finest soap 
for washing woolens. They are first pounded and then boiled. The hull, 
however, is the only part of the berry used for this purpose. The kernel 
contains, as will be found upon examination, a very large per centage of oily 
matter. Might not the tree, on this account, be valuable in a commercial 
point of view ? 

For the benefit of the curious, T will mention in this connection a pine tree 
growing in the Fork of the Edisto, about twelve miles from Orangeburg C. 
H.; or, perhaps, I had better say two trees, in the growth of which a very 
singular freak of nature is to be seen. Indeed, it is a little difficult to say 
whether there are two trees or only one, as there are two distinct trunks, 
with only one top. The trunks at the base are about two feet apart, each 
evidently having its own set of roots, and growing independently of the 
other until at a height of about forty feet from the ground, when they unite 
and form one top as perfect as that of any other tree to be seen in the sur- 
rounding forrest. 

St. Matthews, January, 1872. HILL-SIDE. 

[The Soap-Berry or Indian Soap Tree (Sapindus Marginatus') is rare, we 
believe, in South Carolina, but it is indigenous in Georgia and Florida, near 
the coast. There are several specimens of it, we believe, in Charleston and 
vicinit3^ We are glad to have attention called to it. Its berries may, per- 
haps, be counted among our neglected resources. — Ed. Eural Carolinian.] 



New Insects from the West. 



During the summer the assistant entomologist of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, Mr. Charles E. Dodge, in company with the New York agricultural 
editorial excursion party, made collections of insects in Kansas, Colorado, 
Wyoming and Nebraska, among which five species have been described as 
new. Arctia Williamsii, Dodge, (Fig. 4,) recently described in the Canadian 
Entomologist, occurs in the mountains. It is a very 
pretty moth, with chocolate-brown upper wings, marked 
with lines of creamy white; the hind wings rust-red 
Avith brown spots. It is dedicated to Mi*. Henry T. 
Williams, editor of the Horticulturist. Caloptemis 
Dodgei, Thos., a small, almost wingless, grasshopper, is found near the summit 
of Pike's Peak, Acridium frontalis, Thos., is quite abundant on the wild sun. 
flower in Kansas. Q^dipoda undulata, Thos., and Pezotettix megacephala, Thos., 
were collected from the cowcatcher of the locomotive, running at usual speed, 
during the trip through Nebraska. All are grasshoppers, with the exception 
of the first named. 




THE RURAL CAROLINIAN. 



Vol. III.] 



CHARLESTON, S. C, FEBRUARY, 1872. 



[No. V. 



''Progress with Prudence, Practice with Science." 



D. H. JACQUES, Editop.. 



THE CROPS OF 1871. 
With the aid of the " Monthly Report " of 
the Department of Agriculture, for Novem- 
ber and December combined, we make up a 
statement of the most important Southern 
crops f(Jr the year 1871. It will be seen that 
the exhibit, though not remarkably good, is 
by no means a discouraging one. 

COTTON. 

Frosts were delayed till November, and in 
many localities till near the close of that 
month, and the weather was generally favor- 
ble to the picking of the crop, without waste 
or the discoloring of the fibre. A fair ren- 
dering of the recent local estimates, which 
have been unusually numerous and complete, 
gives a total aggregate of 3,400,000 bales as 
the cotton yield of 1871. 

CORN. 

The estimate for 1870 was 1,094,000,000 of 
bushels, being 220,000,000 more than that of 
the small crop of 1869, while a calculation of 
the local estimates of the present gives a total 
product of 1,092,000,000. The States pro- 
ducing less than last year are Maine, Ver- 
mont, New York, Maryland, North Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, West 
Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Michigan, Cal- 
ifornia, Oregon. 

RICE. 

The returns are insufHcient to serve as a 
basis for a correct estimate. A correspond- 
ent in Georgetown County writes that the 
crop was harvested in bad condition ; three- 
fourths of it was wet upon the stubble. The 
grain is soft and does not pound well, and re- 
quires twenty to twenty-five per cent, more 
than prime rice to the tierce of 000 pounds. 
Prime rough takes 19 to 21 bushels to the 
tierce. The crop of this county, thus far, re- 



quires 23 to 27 bushels to the tierce of clean 
rice. The aggregate product for market will 
be less than in 1869-70. 

SUGAR-CANE AND SORGHUM. 

Reports of November and December do not 
sustain the promises for sugar-cane held forth 
in October. The injury from sprouting has 
been extensive in some districts. 145,000 
hogsheads are still expected with some confi- 
dence from the increase in the area planted. 

There has been an increase in the sorghum 
product of the country west of the ilississip- 
pi, but Wisconsin is the only State east of 
that river which does not report a decrease. 

TOBACCO. 

Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia and North 
Carolina, the prominent sources of supply-, 
show a decrease from the yield of last year. 

SWEET POTATOES. 

The sweet-potato crop was light in most 
localities. Late plantings very generally a 
total failure. In a few localities, however, 
fine cl-ops were obtained. A general average 
shows a considerable reduction from the crop 
of last year. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The orange crop was damaged by cold and 
storms and has probably fallen ten per cent, 
below that of 1870. 

The banana crop in Sc.uth Florida is re- 
ported as having been good. 

The crop of pecan nuts in Louisiana and 
Texas was immense, many trees breaking 
down with the weight of the fruit. A corre- 
spondent in San Antonio County, Texas, 
says, "The crop will bring over $1,000,000 to 
this immediate section. The price is $2 50 
per bushel." 

Peanuts have given more than an average 
crop, but exact data are lacking. 



Editorial Department. 



269 



A SOUTHERN FAIR IN NEW YORK. 

Dr. A. L. Plough, of Franklin, La., sug- 
gests, through The South, the holding of a 
grand Southern fair in New York next fall, 
and the editor of The So>ah favors the prop- 
osition. So do we, conditionally. 

An exhibition of Southern products in 
such quantities and of such qualities as shall 
fairly represent Southern production in all 
branches of industry could not fail to make a 



business of the plantation or farm during the 
season, we console ourselves with the thought 
that the importance of doing this, has not 
failed to suggest itself to most of them ; but 
if any have neglected to prepare themselves 
for keeping such accounts, it is not yet too 
late to make a beginning, and the "Rural 
Accountant," issued by Messrs. Walker, 
Evans & Cogswell, is an exceedingly conven- 
ient book, in which to make their record of 



good impression, and help to set the advan- i crops, labor, income, expenses, etc. If you 

make money, you should know how and on 
what crops. If you loose on any crop, you 
should have a hint in your book by which you ' 
may profit next year. Keep accounts, by all 
means, and not do business blindly and by 
hap-hazzard. 

SEEDS FOR THE SOUTH. 
We learn from the monthly report of the 
Department of Agriculture for January, 
that the Department is now receiving, prin- 
cipally for distribution to the South, in liberal 
portions, for experimental purposes, improved 
varieties of field and sugar corn, field and 
garden peas and beans, Italian rye-grass, 
Bromus Schraderi, and lucerne ; mangel- 
wurzel and sugar-beet, cabbage and onion 
seeds. It will also receive during this month 
fresh seeds of the ramie and jute plants, the 
latter of which cannot be grown successfully 
north of Tennessee. 



tages of our country in a favorable light be- 
fore the world ; but a scanty, imperfect show, 
representing only a few localities and but 
comparatively few of our productions, and 
those, perhaps, of not the best quality, would 
only do us harm. We wish, then, to see a 
grand exhibition of Southern productions 
worthy of our generous clime, fertile soil, 
and noble people, or none at all. If its suc- 
cess can be insured, as we believe it can, we 
will do our part to promote it. To insure its 
success we must have, to begin with, the right 
men at the head of the enterprise, both in 
New York and in each of the Southern 
States — men whose names will command 
respect and confidence. Give us an organi- 
zation with such men in all its offices of re- 
sponsibility and tru.st, and the press and the 
people will do the rest. 

We would suggest that a meeting of the 
Southerners residing or at present staying in 
New York be called at once to take the ini- 
tiatory steps, and feel the public pulse on the 
subject. Let us move promptly, energeti- 
cally and harmoniously, or not at all. 

BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION. 

The Agricultural Congress, at its late ses- 
sion at Selma, Ala., recommended the forma- 
tion of a Southern Bureau of Immigration, 
on abroad and comprehensive plan, and un- 
der a charter from Congress. The matter 
has been placed in the hands of such compe- 
tent and energetic men as Mr, True, of 
Georgia, and Messrs. Lawton and Peake, of 
South Carolina, and we trust that it will be 
earnestly pushed to a practical consumma- 
tion. 

KEEPING ACCOUNTS. 

If we failed in our first number for the 
New Y'ear to again urge our readers to keep 
strict accounts— debit and credit— of the entire 



Peter Henderson & Co., No. 35 Courtland 
street, New York, issue with their new Cata- 
logue a beautiful chromo, representing 
twelve species of flowers in their natural 
forms and colors, making a picture worthy to 
be taken out and framed, and worth more 
than the 25 cents they charge for the well 
filled illustrated Catalogue of which it makes 
a part. Address as above. The firm is well 
known, and does not need our recommenda- 
tion. 



We have been unable to get in our usual 
quota of literary and domestic miscellany 
this month, but will try in our next to give 
the Home Department extra space. 



Our small stock of Doura corn offered in 
our January number to be sent out in pack- 
ages for twenty-five cents, is exhausted, but 
we shall endeavor to procure more. 



270 



The Rural Carolinian. 



James Yick, the universally known seeds- 
man of Rochester, New York, has outdone 
himself this year in the way of catalogue 
producing the most elegant publication of 
the kind we have seen, illustrated with the 
finest wood cuts and chromos and printed in 
colors. We are glad to be able to add that 
we believe Mr. Vick's seeds are good for all 
that his catalogue promises, and that he will 
try to give everybody who may order them 
perfect satisfaction. 

The magnificent Catalogue of Brigs & 
•Brother, Rochester, New York, (fiowar and 
vegetable seeds, bulbs and plants,) has just 
come to hand, and in extent, completeness 
and beauty of typography and illustration is 
among the foremost, if not the foremost of 
all. Its chromos are particularly rich and 
elegant. One will be pretty sure to find any- 
thing he may want on its lists, with brief 
directions for cultivation. Purchasers of one 
dollar's worth of seeds get this Catalogue — 
a volume of 128 pages, in fact — free. A five 
dollar order entitles the sender to a large 
chromo, in addition to the catalogue. 

The " Garden Calendar " and Catalogue of 
our friend and correspondent, Henry A. 
Dreer, No. 714 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, 
is promptly at hand, and is a useful little 
hand-book for the gardener, as well as a 
trustworthy guide in the selection and pur- 
chase of seeds and plants. As usual, Mr. 
Dreer introduces some attractive novelties, 
for which> see " Dreer 's Garden Calendar," 
sent free. ^ 

The Chicago conflagration^ has brought 
upon the country a deluge of books. For 
one of these, " Chicago and the Great Con- 
flagration," by Elias Colbert and Everett 
Chamberlin, we are indebted to the pub- 
lishing house of C. F. Vent, Cincinnati and 
New York. It is a work of 528 panes with 
engravings and graphic descriptions of the 
fire, as well as a historical sketch of Chicago, 
and other matters. 

FARM AND GARDEN NOTES. 

That Brmiching Corn. 
Judson's Branching Corn is getting dis- 
cussed in a lively manner in some of the 
Northern agricultural papers. A writer in 



the Prairie Farmer in giving his experience 
with it, says : 

Thinking to enrich myself, and "surprise 
the natives," I sent to an Eastern seed store 
and procured a " genuine original " fifty cent 
package, bearing all of Judson's prints and 
imprints thereon. I planted in the best of 
soil, gave it extra care and waited patiently 
the time when I could surprise the said 
natives by producing stalks of corn with from 
five to seven ears on them. The surprise 
came, not to them, however, but to me, for I 
was unable to find a stalk with over two ears 
of corn on it, and I don't believe I could sell 
the whole crop for fifty cents. 

We have tried the Branching Pop Corn, 
and though it did not fully justify the prom- 
ises of its propagator, found it (under heavy 
manuring and high culture) very productive. 
The Running 3IanffO or Chocho. 

Like many other useful but not generally 
cultivated plants, this has received numerous 
common names, being known in one part of 
the country as the vegetable pear, in another 
as the mirliton, and in the third as the cho- 
cho, — the last being its West Indian name. 
Here it is generally called the running mango 
or simply the mango, and great confusion has 
resulted from its mention under other appel- 
lations. Its botanical name is Sechium edule. 
For a common name it would be best, we 
think, to adopt its original West Indian des- 
ignation, chocho. In the West Indies it is 
not only esteemed as an article of human 
food but has a great reputation for fattening 
animals. The root is large and fleshy, and is 
also edible, resembling, when cooked, the 
common yam. 

Clod Crushers. 




There are various patented contrivances for 
crushing clods, — often a very important oper- 
ation on the farm, — and some of them are 
very efiective, but the ingenious farmer often 
constructs one for himself on his own plan, 
which answers admirably for the time and 



Editorial Department. 



271 



place. The foregoing cut represents one of 
these home-made implements, as used by a 
New York farmer, and said to do its work 
well. The plank for the bottom of the 
crusher should be one and a half or two 
inches thick, beveled and lapped, as shown 
in the drawing. 

Value of the Sunflower Plant. 
Attention is called by the editor of the 
Journal of Applied Science to the great value 
of the sunflower plant in various economical 
applications. According to this article the 
sunflower can be cultivated very readily, an 
acre of land sustaining 25,000 plants at 
twelve inches distant from each other. The 
flowers are very attractive to bees and furnish 
a great amount of honey. The average pro- 
duction of seeds may be estimated at fifty 
bushels to the acre, yielding fifty gallons of 
oil. This is said to be equal to olive oil for 
table use, and is well adapted to burning in 
lamps, soap-making and painting. The refuse 
of the above quantity of seed will produce 
1,500 pounds of oil-cake, and the stalks may 
be either burnt to furnish potash, or when 
treated like flax, may be made to yield a fibre 
as soft as silk, and in large quantity. 
Beslow's Compound. 
Take seven barrels of dry muck or rich 
soil, two barrels of bone dust, two of good, 
strong ashes, two of Plaster of Paris, or gyp- 
sum, and one hundred pounds of salt; mix 
these well together. Then dissolve one hun- 
dred pounds of sulphate of ammonia, one 
hundred pounds nitrate soda, and one hun- 
dred pounds of Glauber salts in one hundred 
gallons of water. With this sprinkle thor- 
oughly the dry mixture ; mix the whole well 
together ; then heap into a compact mass and 
protect carefully from sun and rain until 
called for ; then apply it in the manner of 
guano. The muck must be perfectly dry 
when the above solution is applied, that it 
may retain and absorb all the liquid. The 
foregoing quantities will make two tons and 
will cost about fifty dollars. 

Mutton is the Best Meat. 
A great many tillers of the soil drag out 
miserable days, simply because they will per- 
sist in eating salt pork, hams and shoulders 
in spring and summer, when a dish of good 
mutton would give them new life and 



strength. We mean to repeat a thousand 
times, or at least till what we say has some 
ett'ect upon our countrymen, that a pound of 
lean, tender, juicy mutton can be produced 
for half the cost of the same quantity of fat 
pork ; that it is infinitely healthier food, es- 
pecially in the summer season, and that those 
who eat it become more muscular, and can do 
more work with greater ease to themselves, 
than those who eat fat pork. We know 
nothing more delicious (except the fresh arti- 
cle) than smoked mutton hams. 



INDUSTPvIAL ITEMS. 

A new mill or machine for manufacturing 
flour from grain without mill-stones has 
lately been put into operation in Edinburgh, 
and is considered by competent authorities 
as one of the most important inventions of 
the present day. This mill reduces the grain 
to flour by percussion, while it is unsup- 
ported, and falling freely or being projected 
through the air. The wheat in passing 
through the machine is struck by a series of 
bars moving at an immense speed in opposite 
directions ; it is thus instantaneously reduced 
to a state ready for bolting, no injurious heat 
being caused, and the flour produced is of 
much superior quality to that obtained by or- 
dinary grinding, while the cost of its pro- 
duction is considerably less. The machine in 
operation in Edinburgh realizes, it is said, all 
the advantages claimed for it. 

A new process for preserving the solid 

parts of vegetables without impairing their 
flavor has been patented. The treatment 
pursued in the case of potatoes will serve as 
an illustration of the method. After being 
thoroughly washed they are boilod until done 
and their skins removed. The potato is then 
divided into fine vermicular particles by me- 
chanical means, and while in this state the 
water is driven off" by exposure to heat. The 
material is left iu a condition much resem- 
bling rice, and in this shape it may be ground 
to flour, if desired. The extract of potatoes 
prepared in this way can be used for making 
soups and other dishes ; and by adding boil- 
ing water, a dish, in every way resembling 
mashed potatoes, cooked directly from pota- 
toes in the ordinary manner, is obtained, but, 
it is said, of superior flavor and quality. 



272 



The Rural Carolinian. 



Tw© more have been added to the list 

of newly-invented steam ploughs. The first 
is by R. C. Parvin, of Philadelphia, and is 
on the traction principle, the engine being 
intended to move over the ground, dragging 
the ploughs after it. Mr. Parvin thinks he 
has overcome the difficulties of traction com- 
pletely, and states that he has run a machine 
of this construction during two months, 
though only at intervals, and doing small 
amounts of work while perfecting the ma- 
chinery. He believes that a ten-horse engine 
which will weigh about three tons will an- 
swer ordinary purposes best. This can be 
manufactured probably at a cost of $2,000, 
and will answer a variety of purposes besides 
that of drawing a plough. He has run a 
gang of four ploughs to the depth of four- 
teen inches, in a stitf clay. 

The second invention is that of Mr. Pres- 
cott, of La Franche Parish, Louisiana. This 
isalso on the traction plan, we believe, but we 
have seen no complete description of it. 

It is estimated that 700,000 to 800,000 

gallons of red and white wine were made in 
Anaheim, Los Angelos County, California, 
last season, and of a better quality than the 
product of any preceding year. The amount 
is 250,000 gallons in excess of the yield of 
any previous season. It is claimed that, 
owing to the fine weather and the extra con- 
dition of the grapes, this wine is already so 
thoroughly fermented that it will be in a 
marketable condition in sixty days. Pre- 
parations are being made for the immediate 
setting out of 300 to 400 additional acres of 
vines. From 300 to 400 boxes of Malaga 
grape raisins have been made this year, as 
an experiment, and are said to be of unusual 
size and flavor, and superior to any in the 
market. 

A novel substitute for gutta percha 

has just been utilized. It is a marine plant 
washed up on the shore in the vicinity of the 
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, and has 
come into considerable use as a substitute for 
gutta percha and similar substances, in the 
manufacture of fancy articles, such as canes, 
picture frames, inlaid work, &c. It is of a 
dark color, and when fresh it is thick and 
fleshy ; but when it is dried it becomes com- 
pact, and its surface looks like a beautifully 



grained deer's horn. After it becomes dry 
and hard it can be rendered soft again by 
steeping in water, and in this condition may 
be stretched and formed into various shapes. 
It can. also be reduced when dry to powder, 
then made plastic by soaking in water, and 
in this condition may be stuck into almost 
any shape in a die press — coming out of the 
mould like articles formed of gutta percha. 

Mr. J. C. H. Claussen, of this city, 

has patented a process for coloring, or rather 
whitening, seeds for planting, the object 
being to enable the sower to distinguish 
them as they are scattered on the soil, or in 
the drill, and thus sow them more evenly. It 
is further claimed that the coating favors the 
germination of the seeds and promotes the 
growth of the plant. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

Since "Essence of Beef," '-Extract of 
Meat" and other similar preparations are 
becoming common and being largely used by 
all classes, and especially by invalids, the fol- 
lowing observations by Kemmerich in 
Deutsche Klinik are timely and important : 
" The use of the meat extract favors secretion 
of the gastric juice. Under its moderate use 
the pulse is quickened and becomes stronger, 
and that is at least a temporary increase 
in the temperature. Too large quantities are 
injurious, especially to young and weakly 
persons, and for adults the average amounts 
should be only about five grammes in the 
day, and should never exceed fifteen. When 
given along with suitable food -to persons re- 
covering from exhausting diseases the in- 
crease of weight is more rapid, and the period 
of convalescence materially shortened. As 
a stimulant it resembles alcohol and coffee, 
but has the advantage over them by aiding in 
building up the structures of the body." 

According to Cosmos, the medical au- 
thorities of Paris ordain phenic (carbolic) 
acid for the disinfecting of the bodies of 
patients who have died of small-pox. For 
this purpose they take twelve grammes of 
crystallized phenic acid to one liter of water. 
Hitherto chloride of calcium has been em- 
ployed, but never with satisfactory results, 
whereas phenic acid has been found to be 
entirely cfiective, and its application is unat- 
tended with inconveniences of any sort. 



Editorial Department. 



273 



In India, according to the Boston Jour- 
nal of Chenustry, both upholsterers and sad- 
dlers were badly troubled with moths in their 
work, especially in the rainy season; and the 
upholsterers in that country follow a series of 
simple rules by which they entirely avoid the 
ravages of these pests. They never put on a 
burlap or cotton covering without first steep- 
ing it in a solution of sulphate of copper, 
made by dissolving about one ounce in one 
gallon of boiling water, and then quickly 
drying the material in the sun or by a hot 
stove, ^"'or over-coverings, especially if of 
wool, a solution of corrosive sublimate dis- 
solved in patent colorless alcohol is frequently 
used with good efiect. The boiling solution 
of sulphate of copper is often applied to a 
floor previous to laying a mat or carpet, and 
invariably under heavy articles of furniture. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

ASHLEY GRANGE NO. 1. 

Regular meetings of Ashley Grange are 

held at the Freundschafts-bund Hall, corner 

of Meeting and George streets, on the fourth 

Friday in each month, at 7 o'clock P. M., 

and extra meetings at the call of the proper 

officers. 

A. B. Rose, M. 

Wm. Ufferhardt, Sec. 

A national picnic. 

The "Harvest Feast" is one of the pleas- 
ant festivals of the Order of the Patrons of 
Husbandry. Each Grange has its little so- 
cial picnics as means of recreation and en- 
joyment, after the more serious work of the 
association is over, and they form by no 
means an unimportant feature of the beauti- 
ful ritual of the Order ; since the social 
faculties are thus given their due place in the 
grand system of culture we have adopted, 
and both the intellect and the heart are 
warmed and invigorated. 

Can we not extend this wholesome influ- 
ence, in its social aspects, and at the same 
time promote the good of the Order and of 
the agriculturists of the whole country in 
many other ways, by holding, annually, a 
national Harvest Feast at convenient points, 
East, West, North and South ? What do 
you say. Patrons, to an annual National 
Picnic ? 

No. 5, Vol. 3. 



To test the feeling on this point, wo sug- 
gest that sometime during the coming au- 
tumn, the Order of Patrons of Husbandry 
celebrate a grand national Harvest Feast at 
some point on or near " Mason and Dixon's 
Line " — in Virginia, for instance — to be par- 
ticipated in by members of the Order from all 
parts of the country. This is the general 
idea. The details can be arranged by a com- 
mittee appointed by the National Grange, or 
otherwise, as may be deemed best. Let the 
Press and the Granges speak I 

In 1870 thirty-eight new Granges were 

organized ; in 1871 one hundred and ihirty- 
one were organized. Iowa takes the lead, at 
present, having now ninety-two. 

The State Grange of Mississippi will 

be organized during the first week in the 
present month. 



MERE MENTION. 
The leaves of bear grass, [Yucca fillamen- 
tosa,) are used with advantage to tie grape 
vines, being strong and pliant. 

The Egyptian cotton, seed of which 

was distributed last year by the Department 
' of Agriculture, has proved worthless for our 
climate. Chinese cotton the same. 

It is said that there are two fig trees 

standing in a garden on, the banks of the 
Tuolumne river, near the town of La Grange, 
which measure seven and one-half feet in cir- 
cumference, and are about forty feet high. 

The Brazilian sweet potato is spoken 

of as one of the latest novelties in Kentucky. 
It is enormously productive and of good 
quality. 

Emerson says : "In the great house- 
hold of nature the farmer stands at the door 
of the bread room, and weighs to each his 
loaf." 



EXCHANGES. 

One of the most valuable on the list of lit- 
erary publications is the Eclectic Magazine — 
the truest representative we have of the best 
aspects of foreign thought and literature. It 
is worth a dozen of the trashy monthlies for 
which so many are throwing away their three 
or four dollars a year. The essay on " Byron 
and Tennyson," in the January number, is 
attracting universal attention. (E. R. Pelton, 
108 Fulton street, New York ; $5 a year.) 

20 



274 



The Rural Carolinian. 



Oliver Optic's Magazine is pronounced 

by good authority — "our young folks" them- 
selves — the best juvenile magazine now pub. 
lished. We are not disposed to dispute this 
estimate of its value and position. It is cer. 
tainly a handsome work in typography and 
illustration, and it contains more matter, and 
in greater variety, displays more genuine 
editorial work than any of its rivals in the 
field, and its great popularity and ever in- 
creasing circulation are proofs that this is the 
verdict of the public. (Lee & Shepard, 149 
Washington street, Boston ; $2 50 a year.) 

The Little Corporal for January makes 

his salute in a handsome new uniform, having 
laid aside his military dress, and donned the 
garb of peace. We are pleased to note this 
new departure, and deem it timely and proper. 
This number contains the first chapter of the 
prize story, which opens out in a very inter- 
esting manner. The illustrations are fine, 
and not excelled by any other similar periodi- 
cal in the land. Give the Corporal a trial. 
(John E. Millar, Chicago, 111.; $1.50 a 
year.) 

The American Farmer\s Advocate is 

the name of a proposed new monthly paper, 
to be issued at Jackson, Tenn., as the " organ 



of the Agricultural Congress." (Advocate 
Publishing Conipanj', Jackson, Tenn. ; $1 a 
year.) 

We take pleasure in greeting the first 

number of The Rural Abibatnian, ablj- edited 
by our good friends Hon. C. C. Langdon and 
Prof. J. Parish Stelle, whose names are a 
sufficient guarantee that the new "Rural" 
will be worthy of its name, and worthy of 
the patronage of Southern farmers and of all 
good Alabamians particularly. It makes an 
excellent beginning in its first number. (C. 
C. Langdon «& Co., Mobile, Ala. ; $2 a year.) 

PAMPHLETS AND CATALOGUES. 

" Bulletin of the National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers," for October, 1871. 
Edited by John L. Hayes. Boston, 1871. 

Miller's Almanac for 1872; Charles- 
ton, Walker, Evans & Cogswell. Everybody 
knows Miller's Almanac, and no family, we 
presume, will attempt to get through the 
year without it. 

" Illustrated Catalogue of Seeds, Bulbs 

and Plants;" C. L. Allen & Co., 76 Fulton 
street, New York. One of the handsomest, 
most complete, and best arranged catalogues 
we have seen this season, containing nearly 
150 pages, with numerous fine illustrations. 



DEPARTMENT OF CORRESPONDENCE AND INQUIRY. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 

I tried the past summer the Casaba (Musk) 
Melon and found it not only as good as any 
that 1 ever cultivated, if not a little better, 
but it proved very productive. 

The Okra seed from Mississippi proved to 
be very dwarf, rather early and productive, 
and the pods were of good size, white, tipped 
with pink, and must prove desirable in small 
gardens where room is valuable, and saleable 
from its handsome appearance, although the 
pods are a little prickly, which is objectiona- 
ble where white persons have to handle 
them. 

The Black Pekin Guinea Squash or Egg 
Plant, upon a second year's trial, proves 
earlier, more vigorous and productive than 
the Improved New York Purple Egg Plant. 
While the latter is so thorny both in leaf and 
fruit as to be exceedingly unpleasant to han- 
dle, the Black Pekin, which is quite as good 
in every respect, is perfectly free from all 
thorns, and I have found less liable to degen- 
erate when grown here. 



The Raphanus caudatus proved an addition 
to salad, and would prove one to pickles, but 
my wife says that the pods will float in the 
vinegar and spoil the pickles. It grows as 
well, if not better, in summer than in winter 
and spring, and only the youyig pods are hot. 

What is the use of tiie Indian Bayou 
Squash ? When young the seeds very soon 
become hard, and when ripe they have no 
taste, and are very watery. 

When I was in Charleston last March I 
think I saw in a number of the Rural Cau- 
OLiNiAN an article on the " Cultivation of 
the Pear, on the Pear-root in Sandy Soil,"